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Korea under Japanese rule

Japanese Korea was the period when Korea was under Japanese rule, between 1910 and 1945. Joseon Korea came under the Japanese sphere of influence in the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876 and a complex coalition of the Meiji government and business officials began a process of Korea's political and economic integration into Japan; the Korean Empire became a protectorate of Japan in 1905 in the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905 and the country was indirectly ruled by the Japanese through the Resident-General of Korea. Japan formally annexed the Korean Empire in 1910 in the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910, without the consent of Gojong, the regent of the Korean Emperor Sunjong; the Japanese Empire had established the Korean Peninsula as a colony of Japan administered by the General Government based in Keijō which governed Korea with near-absolute power. Japanese rule prioritized Korea's Japanization, accelerating industrialization started by the Gwangmu Reform, building public works, fighting the Korean independence movement.

Japanese rule over Korea ended on 15 August 1945 upon the Surrender of Japan in World War II and the armed forces of the United States and the Soviet Union occupied the territory. The Division of Korea separated the Korean Peninsula under two governments and economic systems with the northern Soviet Civil Administration and the southern United States Army Military Government in Korea. In 1965, the Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and South Korea declared the unequal treaties between Japan and Korea 1905 and 1910, were "already null and void" at the time of their promulgation. Japanese rule remains controversial in modern-day North Korea and South Korea and its negative repercussions continue to affect these countries, including the industrialization plan to benefit Japan, the exploitation of Korean people, the marginalization of Korean history and culture, the environmental exploitation of the Korean Peninsula, the status of Japanese collaborators known as Chinilpa. In South Korea, the period is described as the "Japanese forced occupation".

Other terms, although considered obsolete, include "Japanese Imperial Period", "The dark Japanese Imperial Period", "period of the Japanese imperial colonial administration", "Wae administration". In Japan, the term "Chōsen of the Japanese-Governed Period" has been used. Three years on 27 February 1876, the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876 known in Japan as the Japanese–Korea Treaty of Amity was signed, it was designed to open up Korea to Japanese trade, the rights granted to Japan under the treaty were similar to those granted Western powers in Japan following the visit of Commodore Perry in 1854. However, the treaty ended Korea's status as a protectorate of China, forced open three Korean ports to Japanese trade, granted extraterritorial rights to Japanese citizens, was an unequal treaty signed under duress of the Ganghwa Island incident of 1875; as a result of the treaty, Japanese merchants came to Busan, which became the center for foreign trade and commerce. Japanese officials published Korea's first newspaper, Chōsen shinpō, in 1881.

Chinese language articles were aimed at Korea's educated elite, which advocated for constitutional government, freedom of speech, strong rule of law and legal rights, Korean-led industrialization. Few of these goals came to pass. Japanese language articles focused on news regarding business "the stagnant Pusan trade" in rice and other farmed goods, which fluctuated wildly due to weather conditions and the whims of the tax-levying elite class, it ceased publication sometime after May 1882. The Daewongun, who remained opposed to any concessions to Japan or the West, helped organize the Mutiny of 1882, an anti-Japanese outbreak against Queen Min and her allies. Motivated by resentment of the preferential treatment given to newly trained troops, the Daewongun's forces, or "old military", killed Japanese training cadre, attacked the Japanese legation. Japanese diplomats, policemen and some Min clan members were killed during the incident; the Daewongun was restored to power, only to be forcibly taken to China by Chinese troops dispatched to Seoul to prevent further disorder.

In August 1882, the Treaty of Jemulpo indemnified the families of the Japanese victims, paid reparations to the Japanese government in the amount of 500,000 yen, allowed a company of Japanese guards to be stationed at the Japanese legation in Seoul. The struggle between the Heungseon Daewongun's followers and those of Queen Min was further complicated by competition from a Korean independence faction known as the Progressive Party, as well as the Conservative faction. While the former sought Japan's support, the latter sought China's support. On December 4, 1884, the Progressive Party, assisted by the Japanese, attempted a coup and established a pro-Japanese government under the reigning king, dedicated to the independence of Korea from Chinese suzerainty. However, this proved short-lived, as conservative Korean officials requested the help of Chinese forces stationed in Korea; the coup was put down by Chinese troops, a Korean mob killed both Japanese officers and Japanese residents in retaliation.

Some leaders of the Progressive Party, including Kim Ok-gyun, fled to Japan, while othe

Svortland

Svortland or Bremnes is the administrative centre of Bømlo municipality in Hordaland county, Norway. The village is located in the north-central part of the island of Bømlo, about 6 kilometres west of the village of Rubbestadneset; the village surrounds the lake Storavatnet. The Norwegian County Road 542 runs through the village; the 2.36-square-kilometre village has a population of 2,485. The village a population density of 1,053 inhabitants per square kilometre and is the largest urban area in Bømlo municipality. In addition to municipal services, Svortland is the location of Bremnes Church, an elementary school, a medical centre, a community centre, many stores and businesses; the village was named Bremnes after the local church. There was a local farm in Bremnes called Sortland, used to refer to the area. In the 1990s, the municipal council named the urban area Svortland

Burr H. Nicholls

Burr H. Nicholls was an American painter who studied art with Carolus-Duran in Paris and first exhibited his work in London at Dudley Gallery. Most of his works were based upon scenes from the seven years that he lived in Europe. Nicholls was married three times, but it was his marriage to his second wife, Rhoda Holmes Nicholls, that caused a media sensation across the United States. In 1897 both Burr and Rhoda Nicholls submitted paintings to the Paris Salon; this triggered a period of marital discontent followed by separation. Their divorce was reported in many American newspapers. Journalists warned women of the peril of pursuing vocations that put them in competition with their husbands. Burr H. Nicholls was born in New York to Luman Nicholls and Ann Halliday Nicholls. Painters in his family included his nephew Henry, son of his brother Mark. Henry made copies of several of Burr's paintings including a Brittany farm scene and The Red Staircase, his first of three marriages was to Alice McDonald or Alethea P. McConnell in 1871.

Nicholls met the English artist Rhoda Holmes during a trip to Venice. They married in 1884 at Lyminster Church in Sussex, honeymooned in Venice and sailed for the United States in the spring of 1884; the couple exhibited their works in some of the same shows, like the Chicago Interstate Industrial Expositions. In 1893 the Nicholls lived in a "cosey" home and both had studios on the top floor. By 1896, Nicholls lived with his wife in a West 50th Street mansion in New York City with their daughter and son, Rhoda Olive and Arundel Holmes Nicholls; the couple's marriage became contentious when in 1897 one of Rhoda Holmes Nicholls works was accepted with honorable mention by the Paris Salon, but Burr's work was denied. The couple separated the following year, their divorce was finalized by September 18, 1906 and "newspapers warned women about the dangers of success and its potential influence on marital and domestic bliss."His final marriage was to Josephine Lewis of Buffalo, New York. Her brother was Dr. Park Lewis, a "well-known physician".

Nicholls studied art in Buffalo, New York with Lars Sellstedt and with Carolus-Duran at the Paris Beaux Arts. He studied and worked in England, Paris and Brittany for seven years which provided inspiration for his paintings for years. Most of Nicholl's paintings were made of European subjects and settings, like A Street Scene in France and A Quiet Corner, exhibited at the Pan-American Exposition of 1901 held in Buffalo, New York, his first exhibition was in 1879 at London's Dudley Gallery. Nicholls exhibited at "every important exhibition in America" and the Paris Salon, his work was favorably received at the 1891 Society for the Promotion of Art exhibition at Eden Musée. The Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, now the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, had acquired works by Nicholls by 1882, he and his third wife were members of the Buffalo Historical Society. Nicholls died in 1915 in Lockport, New York. Albright–Knox Art Gallery: Hunting up a Quotation and A Group of Fowls Peabody Institute: The Vegetable Garden Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts: Effect of SunlightAndrew Carnegie and Parisian M. Johannot were collectors of his works.

Media related to Burr H. Nicholls at Wikimedia Commons Burr H. Nicholls, Smithsonian Institution, Collections Search Center