Korean War

The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950. At the end of World War II, the Soviet Union and the United States liberated Korea from imperial Japanese colonial control on 15 August 1945. After the war had ended, Korea was divided at the 38th parallel into two zones of occupation, the Soviets administered the northern half and the Americans administered the southern half. With the border set at the 38th parallel in 1948, two sovereign states were established as a result of geopolitical tensions of the Cold War. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced into South Korea on 25 June 1950.

The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation of the United Nations Command and the dispatch of forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel. After the first two months of war, South Korean Army and the US forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat; as a result, the ROKA and US troops retreated to a small area behind a defensive line known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many KPA troops in South Korea; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces invaded North Korea in October 1950 and moved towards the Yalu River—the border with China—but on 19 October 1950, Chinese forces of the People's Volunteer Army crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces back below the 38th Parallel by late December.

In these and subsequent battles, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th Parallel. The war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive U. S. bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies; the fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the DMZ and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War; the Korean War was among the most destructive conflicts of the modern era, with 3 million war fatalities and a larger proportional civilian death toll than World War II or the Vietnam War.

It incurred the destruction of all of Korea's major cities, thousands of massacres by both sides, the torture and starvation of prisoners of war by the North Korean command. North Korea became among the most heavily-bombed countries in history. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on 25 June. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the US, the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations, it has been sometimes referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, relative to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it.

Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 i

William Crisp

The Revd William Crisp was a missionary priest of the Anglican Church in the Diocese of Bloemfontein, South Africa, who served there from the mid-1860s. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel described him as “the first and greatest apostle of the native races” in the central part of South Africa, who, it added, “had sympathy with the native point of view”. Crisp was born at Southwold, England, in 1842, he died in Cape Town in 1910. Having been ordained deacon in 1862, William Crisp went out to South Africa to work in the newly established Diocese of Bloemfontein, it was there that he was ordained priest in 1866. Crisp was stationed at Thaba'Nchu, working alongside the Revd George Mitchell, in 1871-76. Crisp was responsible for the Thaba'Nchu mission’s printing press, on which Mitchell’s and his own translations of portions of the Book of Common Prayer and hymns were printed. Crisp had prepared a Catechism and other works in Setswana. In 1871 Crisp had written to the newly arrived Bishop Webb that he and Mitchell were able to converse with the people and preach in the local Serolong dialect of Setswana.

By 1883 Crisp had been appointed by Webb as a canon of the cathedral in Bloemfontein, treasurer of the Diocese. Crisp went to Cape Town about 1900; as secretary of the diocese and treasurer of the Diocese of Cape Town and provincial board of trustees he served the Church of the Province of South Africa, until illness forced him to resign. Crisp died in 1910. Crisp had expanded the liturgical translations produced by George Mitchell. In 1885, on the printing press at Thaba'Nchu, he published his translation of the New Testament in the Serolong dialect of Setswana, Testamente e Ncha. Other works included his Notes towards a Secoana grammar, an enlarged second edition of, published by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge in 1886. A revised Setswana Book of Common Prayer, with Psalms, was published by Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge in 1887 – to be still further revised by the Revd Charles Clulee and Bishop Henry Bousfield, in 1911. In addition to his translation work, Crisp published a book, Some Account of the Diocese of Bloemfontein in the Province of South Africa from 1863 to 1894, published by James Parker in Oxford

Lancia Borgo San Paolo Plant

The Lancia Borgo San Paolo Plant was the first manufacturing plant of Italian automobile company Lancia. The plant manufactured Lancia's first vehicle models, housed the company's central offices for more than five decades; the Borgo San Paolo Plant was first built in Turin, Italy, on what is now known as Via Lancia, in 1911. The early plant was divided as separate machine tool shop and engine departments, was unable to achieve competitively high levels of production. Between 1932 and 1934, the plant added new subdivisions, including the 66,000 square-meter Via Monginevro. However, the plant was bombarded during World War II. Lancia was acquired by Fiat in 1969, leading to the progressive dismantling of the Borgo San Paolo Plant. Marco Centenari, La favolosa Lancia. La storia, le macchine, le vittorie, Editoriale Domus, Milano 1976 Alga D. Foschi, La parabola storica della Lancia attraverso la lettura dei bilanci in Le carte scoperte. Documenti raccolti e ordinati per un archivio storico della Lancia, FrancoAngeli, Milano 1990 Franco Amatori, Per una storia economica della Lancia in Le carte scoperte.

Documenti raccolti e ordinati per un archivio storico della Lancia, FrancoAngeli, Milano 1990 Antonello Barocci, La fabbrica di Borgo San Paolo dalle origini al 1939 in Le carte scoperte. Documenti raccolti e ordinati per un archivio storico della Lancia, FrancoAngeli, Milano 1990 Giuseppe Berta, Cinquant’anni di relazioni industriali alla Lancia in Storia della Lancia. Impresa tecnologia e mercati, 1906-1909, Milano 1992