United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the five branches of the United States Armed Forces, one of the seven American uniformed services. Formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U. S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947, it is the youngest branch of the U. S. Armed Forces, the fourth in order of precedence; the USAF is the largest and most technologically advanced air force in the world. The Air Force articulates its core missions as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control; the U. S. Air Force is a military service branch organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the Air Force, through the Department of the Air Force, is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation.
The highest-ranking military officer in the Air Force is the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, who exercises supervision over Air Force units and serves as one of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Air Force components are assigned, as directed by the Secretary of Defense, to the combatant commands, neither the Secretary of the Air Force nor the Chief of Staff of the Air Force have operational command authority over them. Along with conducting independent air and space operations, the U. S. Air Force provides air support for land and naval forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field; as of 2017, the service operates more than 5,369 military aircraft, 406 ICBMs and 170 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget and is the second largest service branch, with 318,415 active duty airmen, 140,169 civilian personnel, 69,200 reserve airmen, 105,700 Air National Guard airmen. According to the National Security Act of 1947, which created the USAF: In general, the United States Air Force shall include aviation forces both combat and service not otherwise assigned.
It shall be organized and equipped for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The Air Force shall be responsible for the preparation of the air forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war except as otherwise assigned and, in accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of the peacetime components of the Air Force to meet the needs of war. §8062 of Title 10 US Code defines the purpose of the USAF as: to preserve the peace and security, provide for the defense, of the United States, the Territories and possessions, any areas occupied by the United States. The stated mission of the USAF today is to "fly and win...in air and cyberspace". "The United States Air Force will be a trusted and reliable joint partner with our sister services known for integrity in all of our activities, including supporting the joint mission first and foremost. We will provide compelling air and cyber capabilities for use by the combatant commanders. We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the American people, while providing precise and reliable Global Vigilance and Power for the nation".
The five core missions of the Air Force have not changed since the Air Force became independent in 1947, but they have evolved, are now articulated as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control. The purpose of all of these core missions is to provide, what the Air Force states as, global vigilance, global reach, global power. Air superiority is "that degree of dominance in the air battle of one force over another which permits the conduct of operations by the former and its related land, sea and special operations forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force". Offensive Counterair is defined as "offensive operations to destroy, disrupt, or neutralize enemy aircraft, launch platforms, their supporting structures and systems both before and after launch, but as close to their source as possible". OCA is the preferred method of countering air and missile threats since it attempts to defeat the enemy closer to its source and enjoys the initiative.
OCA comprises attack operations, sweep and suppression/destruction of enemy air defense. Defensive Counter air is defined as "all the defensive measures designed to detect, identify and destroy or negate enemy forces attempting to penetrate or attack through friendly airspace". A major goal of DCA operations, in concert with OCA operations, is to provide an area from which forces can operate, secure from air and missile threats; the DCA mission comprises both passive defense measures. Active defense is "the employment of limited offensive action and counterattacks to deny a contested area or position to the enemy", it includes both ballistic missile defense and air-breathing threat defense, encompasses point defense, area defense, high-value airborne asset defense. Passive defense is "measures taken to reduce the probability of and to minimize the effects of damage caused by hostile action without the intention of taking the initiative", it includes warning.
Korean War Memorial, Canberra
The Australian National Korean War Memorial is on Anzac Parade, the principal ceremonial and memorial avenue in Canberra, the national capital city of Australia. The Korean War began on 25 June 1950. 17,000 Australians fought under the command of the United Nations until the armistice in 1953. This memorial honours those who died and served; the design of the memorial characterises the period of the Korean War. The use of white and grey tones, granite and gravel, recall the harsh climate and terrain that were lasting impressions for those who fought there. On both sides of the memorial are figures representing Australian soldiers and airmen who served in Korea. Battlefield boulders are set in fields of stainless steel poles. A central walk-way leads to a semi-enclosed contemplative space. A boulder from a Korean battlefield is a focal commemorative point with the words "Peace and Independence" inscribed in Korean. Inside are images and text etched into stainless steel panels telling the story of the Australians who served in the Korean War, on the left telling the general story and on the right telling of particular involvement of the Navy and Air Force.
A scroll recognises the 21 nations that committed medical units to the UN command. The obelisk at the front commemorates those; the inscription, taken from the UN Memorial Cemetery, Busan, is a poignant link with the Australians who are buried there. A ground-breaking ceremony was conducted on 17 September 1999 by Kim Dae-jung, President of the Republic of Korea and John Howard MP, Prime Minister of Australia, commemorated by a foundation stone; the memorial was dedicated in the presence of Sir William Deane AC K. B. E. Governor-General of Australia and John Howard MP, Prime Minister of Australia. Queensland Korean War Memorial Military Memorials of National Significance in Australia Official website Korean War Memorial in AustralianPlanet
San Joaquin Valley National Cemetery
San Joaquin Valley National Cemetery is a United States National Cemetery located at 32053 West McCabe Road, Santa Nella, in Merced County, California. This cemetery has space available to accommodate casketed and cremated remains over 322 acres of land; the number of interments through fiscal year 2008 is 30,054. In 1989, the Romero Ranch Company donated land to the Department of Veterans Affairs for the creation of a National Cemetery; the first phase developed 105 acres of the land, was completed in May 1992, giving enough space for the interment of over 20,000 remains. There is a small military museum on site, which has exhibits of uniforms and other memorabilia; the California Korean War Veterans Memorial, erected in 1998. It consists of 16 five-foot-tall granite monoliths arranged in a circle. Engraved on each monolith is the name of the 2,495 veterans from California who died during the Korean War; the 11th Airborne Memorial, a granite and bronze monument dedicated in 2002 in honor of all airborne forces.
Seaman William Troy — Medal of Honor recipient for action aboard the USS Colorado while assaulting Korean forts in 1871. Mac Foster — Sergeant, United States Marine Corps, professional boxer Fred Carl Lindholm — CPA for General Motors, Van Nuys, avid Edsel owner. Cem.va.gov: Official San Joaquin Valley National Cemetery website Cem.va.gov: National Cemetery Administration website
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
West Potomac Park
West Potomac Park is a U. S. national park in Washington, D. C. adjacent to the National Mall. It includes the parkland that extends south of the Lincoln Memorial Reflecting Pool, from the Lincoln Memorial to the grounds of the Washington Monument; the park is the site of many national landmarks, including the Korean War Veterans Memorial, Jefferson Memorial, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial, George Mason Memorial, the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial; the park includes the surrounding land on the shore of the Tidal Basin, an artificial inlet of the Potomac River, created in the 19th century, an inlet that links the Potomac with the northern end of the Washington Channel. West Potomac Park is administered by the National Park Service. None of the National Mall west of the Washington Monument grounds and below Constitution Avenue NW existed prior to 1882. After terrible flooding inundated much of downtown Washington, D. C. in 1881, Congress ordered the Army Corps of Engineers to dredge a deep channel in the Potomac and use the material to fill in the Potomac and raise much of the land near the White House and along Pennsylvania Avenue NW by nearly 6 feet.
In the process, the nearby Babcock Lakes, a series of small ponds, were filled in. This "reclaimed land" — which included West Potomac Park, East Potomac Park, the Tidal Basin — was complete by 1890, designated Potomac Park by Congress in 1897. Congress first appropriated money for the beautification of the reclaimed land in 1902, which led to the planting of sod and trees; the famous sakura of Washington line the Tidal Basin and are the main attraction at the National Cherry Blossom Festival in early spring, when the cherry blossoms bloom. Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore, upon returning to Washington from a visit to Japan, initiated the idea of cherry trees in Washington, approaching the Superintendent of Public Building and Grounds in 1885, her idea was rejected. In 1906, Dr. David Fairchild, a botanist who worked for the U. S. Department of Agriculture, imported 75 flowering cherry trees and 25 single-flowered weeping types from the Yokohama Nursery Company in Japan. Fairchild planted these trees on a hillside on his own property in Chevy Chase, testing their hardiness in the Washington area.
In 1907, pleased with the success of the trees and his wife began to promote Japanese flowering cherry trees as the ideal type of tree to plant along avenues in the Washington area. Friends of family became interested, on September 26, arrangements were completed with the Chevy Chase Land Company to order 300 Oriental cherry trees for the Chevy Chase area. In 1908, Fairchild gave cherry saplings to boys from each school in the District to plant in schoolyards on Arbor Day. In closing his Arbor Day speech, Fairchild expressed a vision that the "Speedway" be transformed into a "Field of Cherries". In attendance was Eliza Scidmore, whom afterwards he referred to as a great authority on Japan. In 1909, Scidmore decided to try to raise the money required to purchase the cherry trees and donate the trees to the city. Scidmore sent a note outlining her new plan to the new First Lady, Helen Herron Taft—the wife of President William Howard Taft— who had once lived in Japan and was familiar with the beauty of the flowering cherry trees.
Two days the First Lady responded: The White House, Washington April 7, 1909 Thank you much for your suggestion about the cherry trees. I have taken the matter up and am promised the trees, but I thought it would be best to make an avenue of them, extending down to the turn in the road, as the other part is still too rough to do any planting. Of course, they could not reflect in the water, but the effect would be lovely of the long avenue. Let me know what you think about this. Sincerely yours, Helen H. Taft On April 8, the day after Taft's letter, Dr. Jokichi Takamine, the Japanese chemist famous as the discoverer of adrenaline and takadiastase, was in Washington with Midzuno, the Japanese consul in New York City; when told Washington was to have Japanese cherry trees planted along the Speedway, he asked whether the First Lady would accept a donation of an additional 2,000 trees. Midzuno thought it was a fine idea and suggested the trees be given in the name of the capital city of Tokyo. Takamine and Midzuno met with the Helen Taft.
On April 13, five days after the First Lady's request, the Superintendent of Public Building and Grounds ordered the purchase of 90 cherry trees of the Fugnezo variety from Hoopes Brothers and Thomas Company in West Chester, Pennsylvania. The trees were planted along the Potomac River from the present site of the Lincoln Memorial south toward East Potomac Park. After planting, it was discovered that the trees were not named, were not of the Fugnezo variety, but instead of the Shirofugen cultivar; these trees have since disappeared. Some months on August 30, the Japanese embassy informed the U. S. Department of State that Tokyo intended to donate 2,000 cherry trees to the United States to be planted along the Potomac River. On December 10, the trees arrived in Seattle, on January 6, 1910 arrived in the capital. However, an inspection team for the Department of Agriculture discovered to everyone's dismay that the trees were infested with insects and plant diseases. To p
A commemorative plaque, or plaque, or in other places referred to as a historical marker or historic plaque, is a plate of metal, stone, wood, or other material attached to a wall, stone, or other vertical surface, bearing text or an image in relief, or both, to commemorate one or more persons, an event, a former use of the place, or some other thing. Many modern plaques and markers are used to associate the location where the plaque or marker is installed with the person, event, or item commemorated as a place worthy of visit. A monumental plaque or tablet commemorating a deceased person or persons, can be a simple form of church monument. Most modern plaques affixed in this way are commemorative of something, but this is not always the case, there are purely religious plaques, or those signifying ownership or affiliation of some sort. A plaquette is a small plaque, but in English, unlike many European languages, the term is not used for outdoor plaques fixed to walls; the Benin Empire, which flourished in present-day Nigeria between the thirteenth and nineteenth centuries, had an exceedingly rich sculptural tradition.
One of the kingdom's chief sites of cultural production was the elaborate ceremonial court of the Oba at the palace in Benin. Among the wide range of artistic forms produced at the court were rectangular brass or bronze plaques. At least a portion of these plaques, which were created from the thirteenth through sixteenth centuries, commemorate significant persons and events associated with the Oba's court, including important battles during Benin's sixteenth century expansionary period. Brass or bronze memorial plaques were produced throughout medieval Europe from at least the early thirteenth through the sixteenth centuries as a form of sepulchral memorial inset into the walls of churches or surfaces of tombs. Surviving in great numbers, they were manufactured from sheet brass or latten occasionally coloured with enamels, tend to depict conventional figures with brief inscriptions. Historical markers are put on display by the owners of sites listed by national agencies concerned with historic preservation such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation and the National Register of Historic Places, the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, An Taisce, National Historical Commission of the Philippines, the National Trusts of other countries.
Other historical markers are created by local municipalities, non-profit organizations, companies, or individuals. In addition to geographically defined regions, individual organizations, such as E Clampus Vitus or the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, can choose to maintain a national set of historical markers that fit a certain theme; the Royal Society of Arts established the first scheme in the world for historical commemoration on plaques in 1866. The scheme was established under the influence of the British politician William Ewart and the civil servant Henry Cole; the first plaque was unveiled in 1867 to commemorate Lord Byron at his birthplace, 24 Holles Street, Cavendish Square. The earliest historical marker to survive, commemorates Napoleon III in King Street, St James's, was put up in 1867; the original plaque colour was blue, but this was changed by the manufacturer Minton, Hollins & Co to chocolate brown to save money. In 1901, the scheme was first taken over by the local government authority - the London County Council.
Bundesdenkmalamt Institut du Patrimoine National Historic Sites of Canada Index: National Historic Sites of Canada National Monuments of Chile Monument historique Plaque commémorative Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz Kulturdenkmal Declared monuments of Hong Kong List of Grade I historic buildings in Hong Kong List of Grade II historic buildings in Hong Kong List of Grade III historic buildings in Hong Kong Fondo per l'Ambiente Italiano Rijksmonument New Zealand Historic Places Trust National Monuments of Singapore Kulturgüterschutz — or: Protection des biens culturels. They are installed by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines; this practice started in 1933, with NHCP's predecessor, the Philippine Historical Research and Markers Committee, which only marked antiquities in Manila. The initial markers were placed in 1934. Markers have their texts in Filipino, while there are markers in the English language for markers that were installed during the American occupation. Markers in regional languages such as Cebuano and Kapampangan, are available and issued by the NHCP.
Markers are found all over the country, there have been markers installed outside the country. The plaques themselves are permanent signs installed in publicly visible locations on buildings, monuments, or in special locations. There are more than 1,500 markers to date. Most markers are located within Luzon in Metro Manila, which has prompted the NHCP to install more markers in Visayas and Mindanao, for their greater inclusion in the national historical narrative. Issues and controversies have been the concern of several individual markers, from the commemoration of the late dictator Ferdinand Marcos to the reaction of the Japanese embassy to the comfort women statue and marker. There have been some markers replaced by new ones because of rectified information, theft, or loss due to war or disasters. Many American-era mark
Hibiscus syriacus is a species of flowering plant in the mallow family Malvaceae. It is native to south-central and southeast China, but introduced elsewhere, including much of Asia, it was given the epithet syriacus. Common names include the Korean rose, rose of Sharon, Syrian ketmia or rose mallow and rosa de Sharon. Hibiscus syriacus is a hardy deciduous shrub, it is upright and vase-shaped, reaching 2–4 m in height, bearing large trumpet-shaped flowers with prominent yellow-tipped white stamens. The flowers are pink in color, but can be dark pink, light pink or white. Individual flowers are short-lived. However, numerous buds produced on the shrub's new growth provide prolific flowering over a long summer blooming period; the soil in which the Hibiscus thrives on is a moist, but well-drained, mixture of sand, clay and loam. Maintaining an alkaline, neutral pH levels. Hibiscus syriacus is tolerant of air pollution, humidity, poor soil and drought. Shoots make interesting indoor vase cuttings, as they stay green for a long time, some new flowers may open from the more mature buds.
The species has naturalized well in many suburban areas, might be termed invasive, so it does seed around. The branches white-lenticeled, with raised leaf scars and small buds. Stems and branches do not branch much unless pruned, resulting in many long, straight stems that originate from about 0.5–1.5" above the ground, giving rise to the shrub's overall vase shape. The leaves appear unusually late in May, they are green or yellowish green, broadly ovate, palmately veined, 3 in long. They have three distinct lobes with coarsely-toothed margins. H. syriacus has 5-petaled flowers in solid colors of white, purple, violet, or blue, or bicolors with a different colored throat, depending upon the cultivar. Extending from the base of these five petals is the pistil at the center, with the stamen around it; these basic characteristics give the H. syriacus flower and its many variants their distinctive form. The plant can bloom continuously from July through September at night; the 4 in wide, single- or double-flowering, large-petaled showy flowers adorn the plant throughout the summer.
With maturity, flexible plant stems become weighted under the load of prolific summer flowers, bend over halfway to the ground. Most modern cultivars are fruitless; the fruits of those that have them are green or brown, ornamentally unattractive 5-valved dehiscent capsules, which persist throughout much of the winter on older cultivars. They will shatter over the course of the dormant season and spread their germinating seeds around the base of the parent plant, forming colonies with time. Though it has no fall color and can be stiff and ungainly if badly pruned, H. syriacus remains a popular ornamental shrub today, with many cultivars. Full-grown plants can tolerate a wide range of conditions, including frost and urban pollution. However, the best results are produced in a sheltered position. Hibiscus syriacus is easily propagated from either seeds, with variable results, or by layering or cuttings, cloning the original. Old shrubs can develop trunk cankers that may prove fatal to the plant; the plant has some susceptibility to leaf spots, blights and canker.
Japanese beetles and aphids are occasional insect visitors. Japanese beetles can damage foliage if left unchecked. William Robinson mentioned several varieties in The English Flower Garden that are still available today. Triploid varieties were first produced at the National Arboretum, Washington DC, by Dr. D. Egolf, resulting in plants that bloom lavishly, as they are sterile and set no seed. In the market are'Lady Stanley','Ardens','Lucy', and'Blushing Bride'; the following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:- Hibiscus syriacus known as the Korean rose, is the national flower of South Korea. The flower appears in national emblems, Korea is compared poetically to the flower in the South Korean national anthem; the flower's name in Korean is mugunghwa. The flower's symbolic significance stems from the Korean word mugung, which means "eternity" or "inexhaustible abundance". Various emblems of South Korea contain Hibiscus syriacus. Hibiscus syriacus has been grown as a garden shrub in Korea since time immemorial.
On it was introduced and grown in the gardens of Europe as early as the 16th century, though as late as 1629 John Parkinson thought it was tender and took great precautions with it, thinking it "would not suffer to be uncovered in the Winter time, or yet abroad in the Garden, but kept in a large pot or tubbe in the house or in a warme cellar, if you would have them to thrive." By the end of the 17th century, some knew it to be hardy: Gibson, describing Lord Arlington's London house noted six large earthen pots coddling the "tree hollyhock", as he called it, "that grows well enough in the ground". By the 18th century the shrub was common in English gardens and in the American colonies, known as Althea frutex and "Syrian ketmia". Bailey, L. H.. Manual of Gardening. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. Curtis, William; the Botanical Magazine, Vol. 3. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundati