Korean reunification

Korean reunification refers to the potential reunification of North Korea and South Korea into a single Korean sovereign state. The process towards reunification was started by the June 15th North–South Joint Declaration in June 2000, was reaffirmed by the Panmunjom Declaration for Peace and Unification of the Korean Peninsula in April 2018. In the Panmunjom Declaration, the two countries agreed to work towards a peaceful reunification of Korea in the future, the joint statement of the United States President Donald Trump and North Korean Chairman Kim Jong-un at the Singapore Summit in June 2018. Prior to World War I and Japan's annexation of Korea, all of Korea was unified as a single state for centuries, known as the Goryeo and Joseon dynasties, the last unified state, the Korean Empire. After World War II and beginning in the Cold War, Korea was divided into two countries along the 38th parallel. North Korea was administered by the Soviet Union in the years following the war, with South Korea being managed by the United States.

In 1950, North Korea invaded the South, beginning the Korean War, which ended in stalemate in 1953. Since the end of the Korean War, reunification has become more of a challenge as the two countries have grown to be divergent at a steady pace. However, in the late 2010s, relations between North and South Korea have warmed somewhat, beginning with North Korea's participation at the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang County, Gangwon Province, South Korea. In 2019, South Korean president Moon Jae-in had proposed reunification of the two divided nations in the Korean peninsula by 2045; the current division of the Korean Peninsula is the result of decisions taken at the end of World War II. In 1910, the Empire of Japan annexed Korea, ruled over it until its defeat in World War II; the Korean independence agreement occurred on 1 December 1943, when the United States and Great Britain signed the Cairo Declaration, which stated: "The aforesaid three powers, mindful of the enslavement of the people of Korea, are determined that in due course Korea shall become free and independent".

In 1945, the United Nations developed plans for trusteeship administration of Korea. The division of the peninsula into two military occupation zones was agreed – a northern zone administered by the Soviet Union and a southern zone administered by the United States. At midnight on 10 August 1945, two army lieutenant colonels selected the 38th parallel as a dividing line. Japanese troops to the North of this line were to surrender to the Soviet Union and troops to the South of this line would surrender to the United States; this was not intended to result in a long-lasting partition, but Cold War politics resulted in the establishment of two separate governments in the two zones in 1948 and rising tensions prevented cooperation. The desire of many Koreans for a peaceful unification was dashed when the Korean War broke out in 1950. In June 1950, troops from North Korea invaded South Korea. Mao Zedong encouraged the confrontation with the United States and Joseph Stalin reluctantly supported the invasion.

After three years of fighting that involved both Koreas and United Nations forces led by the U. S. the war ended with an armistice agreement at the same boundary. Despite now being politically separate entities, the governments of North and South Korea have proclaimed the eventual restoration of Korea as a single state as a goal. After the "Nixon Shock" in 1971 that led to détente between the United States and China, in 1972 the North and South Korean governments made a 7 · 4 South and North Korea Joint Statement that a representative of each government had secretly visited the capital city of the other side and that both sides had agreed to a North-South Joint Communiqué, outlining the steps to be taken towards achieving a peaceful reunification of the country: Unification shall be achieved through independent Korean efforts without being subject to external imposition of interference. Unification shall be achieved through peaceful means, not through the use of force against each other; as a homogeneous people, a great national unity shall be sought above all, transcending difference in ideas and systems.

In order to ease tensions, foster an atmosphere of mutual trust between the South and the North, the two sides have agreed not to slander or defame each other, not to undertake armed provocations whether on a large or small scale, to take positive measures to prevent inadvertent military incidents. The two sides, in order to restore severed national ties, promote mutual understanding, expedite independent peaceful unification, have agreed to carry out various exchanges in many fields such as culture and science; the two sides have agreed to cooperate positively with each other to seek early success of the North-South Red Cross talks, which are underway with the fervent expectations of the entire people. The two sides, in order to prevent the outbreak of unexpected military incidents and to deal directly and with problems arising between the North and the South, have agreed to install a direct telephone line between Seoul and Pyongyang; the two sides, in order to implement the aforementioned agreed upon items, to solve various problems existing between the North and the South, to settle the unification problem on the basis of the agreed upon principles for unification of the Fatherland, have agreed to establish and operate a North-South Coordinating Committee co-chaired by Director Yi Hurak and Director Kim Yong-ju.

The two sides convinced that the aforementioned agreed upon items correspond with the common aspiratio


Masafi is a village located on the edge of the Hajar Mountains in the United Arab Emirates. It sits at the inland entrance of the Wadi Ham; the border between the emirates of Fujairah and Ras Al Khaimah runs through the town, which houses a barracks used by the United Arab Emirates Armed Forces. Until recently, with the construction of the Sharjah to Kalba road and the'truck road' between Dibba and the 311 highway at Ras al-Khaimah, the road through Masafi was the only route from the interior to the East Coast of the UAE; the road from the inland town of Dhaid splits at Masafi, leading to Dibba to the north and Fujairah City to the south. A number of excavations point to Bronze Age habitation in Masafi, which has a restored stone and adobe fort, smaller but architecturally similar to that at nearby Al Bithnah restored as part of the same project; the fort encloses an exceptional example of a falaj, an underground waterway constructed to channel water from the mountains to the oasis towns of the interior.

At the turn of the 20th century, Masafi was a village of some 50 houses, with the villagers being split between the Sharqiyin and Mazari tribes, with some 30 cattle, 350 sheep and 5,000 date palms. Masafi was the site of a rough airstrip used by the Trucial Oman Scouts. Masafi is a branded producer of bottled water and other consumer goods such as tissue paper; the company's 250,000 m² bottling plant is located in the northern part of the town, part of Ra's Al Khaimah. Capable of producing 90,000 bottles an hour, the plant produced, until 2017, the only bottled water in the UAE labelled as mineral water, changing its branding to identify as'Deep Earth Water'. In 1980, the company was the sponsor of the first Masafi Car Rally, a popular annual event no longer held. Located some 5 km West of Masafi, the Masafi Friday Market is open week-round and has become a popular tourist destination, consisting of a number of permanent and semi-permanent stalls selling toys, plants and rugs, pots and fruit and vegetables.

The market grew around a number of farmers and other vendors using the presence of speed bumps on the road slowing traffic to sell vegetables and accessories from the backs of their trucks and expanded over time to form the present township. Much of one side of the market was destroyed by fire on 30 May 2015. Masafi Club

Vladimir Bonch-Bruyevich

Vladimir Dmitriyevich Bonch-Bruyevich was a Soviet politician, historian and Old Bolshevik. He was Vladimir Lenin's personal secretary, he was a brother of Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch-Bruyevich. Vladimir Dmitriyevich Bonch-Bruyevich was born in Moscow to a land surveyor family who came from the Mogilev province and belonged to the nobility of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania. At the age of ten, he was sent to the Moscow Institute of Surveying and graduated from the school of land surveying. In 1889, he was arrested for taking part in a student demonsrtaion, banished to Kursk, he returned to Moscow in 1892 and entered the "Moscow Workers' Union" and distributed illegal literature. Since 1895 he was active in the social-democratic circles. In 1896 he emigrated to Switzerland and organized shipments of Russian revolutionary literature and printing equipment and became an active member of Iskra. One of Bonch-Bruyevich's research interests were Russia's dissenting religious minorities, which were persecuted to various extent by both the established Orthodox Church and the Tsarist government.

He believed that Flagellants were "transmission points" for revolutionary propaganda. During the 1917 revolutions, he is reputed to have played a crucial in neutralising the Cossack garrison in the capital, through his contacts in the New Israel and Old Israel sects, he met Grigori Rasputin, but judged that he was an Orthodox christian, not sectarian. In the late 1890s, he collaborated with Vladimir Chertkov and Leo Tolstoy, in particular in the arrangement of the Doukhobors' emigration to Canada in 1899. Bonch-Bruyevich sailed with the Doukhobors, spent a year with them in Canada. During that time, he was able to record much of their orally transmitted tradition, in particular the Doukhobor "psalms", he published them as "The Doukhobor Book of Life". When the RSDLP split in 1903 between the Bolsheviks, led by Lenin, the Mensheviks, Bonch-Bruyevich was among the original Bolsheviks, he helped bring out the RSDLP newspaper Iskra while it was still under Lenin's control, backed Lenin during 1904, when it appeared he might be losing control of the Bolsheviks to conciliators who wanted to heal the split.

In Dember 1904, he helped the first Bolshevik newspaper. According to Lenin's widow "Bonch-Bruyeich was in charge of the business side, he permanently beamed, concocted divers grandiose plans, was always dashing around on printing-press matters." He helped set up and run the party archive. Bonch-Bruyevich returned to Russia early in 1905, for a time worked illegally for the Bolsheviks in St Petersburg, organising the underground storage of weapons. After the 1905 revolution, he was able to operate legally. In 1906, he organised the Bolsheviks' weekly newspaper Наша мысль, the journal Вестник жизни and several other publications. From 1907, he headed the Bolshevik publishing house, Жизнь и знание. From 1912 he was a member of the editorial board of the newspaper Pravda. During this time he was arrested, but did not serve a long prison sentence. On the outbreak of the February Revolution, in 1917, Bonch-Bruyevich founded the newspaper Izvestya, used it in April as a vehicle to defend Lenin's decision to return to Russia through Germany, despite the two countries being at war.

He was dismissed from the staff by the Menshevik-controlled Petrograd soviet in May for using it to disseminate Bolshevik propaganda. During June and July 1917, Bolshevik party meetings were held at his dacha, to avoid the attention of the police. In August, the head of the provisional government, Alexander Kerensky ordered his arrest, he went into hiding. During the October Revolution, he was in charge of protecting the Bolshevik party headquarters in the Smolny Institute, in Petrograd. Bonch-Bruyevich was head of administration for the Council of People's Commissars from November 1917 to October 1920. Between December 1917 and March 1918 he was the chairman of the Committee against the pogroms and in February – March 1918 a member of the Committee for the Revolutionary Defense of Petrograd. From 1918 he was Deputy Chairman of the Board of Medical Colleges. In 1919 he was Chairman of the Committee for the construction of sanitary checkpoints at railway stations in Moscow and the Special Committee for Rehabilitation of water supply and sanitation in Moscow.

Between 1918–1919 he was the head of the publishing house of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party "Kommunist." Bonch-Bruevich took an active part in the nationalization of the banks in the preparation of the Soviet government moving to Moscow in March 1918. In 1918 as Managing Director of the Council of the People's Commissars, he endorsed setting in motion the Red Terror. In 1918 he was elected a member of the Socialist Academy of Social Sciences. After Lenin's death, he did research and authored works on the history of the revolutionary movement in Russia, the history of religion and atheism, sectarianism and literature. In the Soviet Union, Bonch-Bruyevich was best known as the author of a canonical Soviet book about Vladimir Lenin, whom Bonch-Bruyevich served as secretary in the years following the Bolshevik revolution in 1917. Following Lenin's death, Bonch-Bruevich was one of the key people involved in organising the funeral, he opposed the mummification of Lenin's body.

Between 1920 and 192