Extraterrestrial life called alien life, is life that occurs outside of Earth and that did not originate from Earth. These hypothetical life forms may range from simple prokaryotes to beings with civilizations far more advanced than humanity; the Drake equation speculates about the existence of intelligent life elsewhere in the universe. The science of extraterrestrial life in all its forms is known as exobiology. Since the mid-20th century, there has been an ongoing search for signs of extraterrestrial life; this encompasses a search for current and historic extraterrestrial life, a narrower search for extraterrestrial intelligent life. Depending on the category of search, methods range from the analysis of telescope and specimen data to radios used to detect and send communication signals; the concept of extraterrestrial life, extraterrestrial intelligence, has had a major cultural impact, chiefly in works of science fiction. Over the years, science fiction communicated scientific ideas, imagined a wide range of possibilities, influenced public interest in and perspectives of extraterrestrial life.
One shared space is the debate over the wisdom of attempting communication with extraterrestrial intelligence. Some encourage aggressive methods to try for contact with intelligent extraterrestrial life. Others—citing the tendency of technologically advanced human societies to enslave or wipe out less advanced societies—argue that it may be dangerous to call attention to Earth. Alien life, such as microorganisms, has been hypothesized to exist in the Solar System and throughout the universe; this hypothesis relies on consistent physical laws of the observable universe. According to this argument, made by scientists such as Carl Sagan and Stephen Hawking, as well as well-regarded thinkers such as Winston Churchill, it would be improbable for life not to exist somewhere other than Earth; this argument is embodied in the Copernican principle, which states that Earth does not occupy a unique position in the Universe, the mediocrity principle, which states that there is nothing special about life on Earth.
The chemistry of life may have begun shortly after the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ago, during a habitable epoch when the universe was only 10–17 million years old. Life may have emerged independently at many places throughout the universe. Alternatively, life may have formed less then spread—by meteoroids, for example—between habitable planets in a process called panspermia. In any case, complex organic molecules may have formed in the protoplanetary disk of dust grains surrounding the Sun before the formation of Earth. According to these studies, this process may occur outside Earth on several planets and moons of the Solar System and on planets of other stars. Since the 1950s, scientists have proposed that "habitable zones" around stars are the most places to find life. Numerous discoveries in such zones since 2007 have generated numerical estimates of Earth-like planets —in terms of composition—of many billions; as of 2013, only a few planets have been discovered in these zones. Nonetheless, on 4 November 2013, astronomers reported, based on Kepler space mission data, that there could be as many as 40 billion Earth-sized planets orbiting in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars and red dwarfs in the Milky Way, 11 billion of which may be orbiting Sun-like stars.
The nearest such planet may be 12 light-years away, according to the scientists. Astrobiologists have considered a "follow the energy" view of potential habitats. A study published in 2017 suggests that due to how complexity evolved in species on Earth, the level of predictability for alien evolution elsewhere would make them look similar to life on our planet. One of the study authors, Sam Levin, notes "Like humans, we predict that they are made-up of a hierarchy of entities, which all cooperate to produce an alien. At each level of the organism there will be mechanisms in place to eliminate conflict, maintain cooperation, keep the organism functioning. We can offer some examples of what these mechanisms will be." There is research in assessing the capacity of life for developing intelligence. It has been suggested that this capacity arises with the number of potential niches a planet contains, that the complexity of life itself is reflected in the information density of planetary environments, which in turn can be computed from its niches.
Biologist David Zeigler has argued that, based on evolutionary convergence from many different ancestral groups on Earth, a worm form is a life form on other life-bearing planets. Life on Earth requires water as a solvent in place. Sufficient quantities of carbon and other elements, along with water, might enable the formation of living organisms on terrestrial planets with a chemical make-up and temperature range similar to that of Earth. More life based on ammonia has been suggested, though this solvent appears less suitable than water, it is conceivable that there are forms of life whose solvent is a liquid hydrocarbon, such as methane, ethane or propane. About 29 chemical elements play an active positive role in living organisms on Earth. About 95% of living matter is built upon only six elements: carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur; these six elements form the basic building blocks of all life on Earth, whereas most of the remaining elements are found only in trace amounts. The unique characteristics of carbon make it unlikely that it could be replaced on another planet, to generate the biochemistry necessary for life.
The carbon atom has the unique ability to make four strong chemical
Doctor Stephen Vincent Strange is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by artist Steve Ditko and writer Stan Lee, the character first appeared in Strange Tales #110. Doctor Strange serves as the Sorcerer Supreme, the primary protector of Earth against magical and mystical threats. Inspired by stories of black magic and Chandu the Magician, Strange was created during the Silver Age of Comic Books to bring a different kind of character and themes of mysticism to Marvel Comics; the character's origin story indicates. After a car accident damages his hands and hinders his ability to perform surgery, he searches the globe for a way to repair them and encounters the Ancient One. After becoming one of the old Sorcerer Supreme's students, he becomes a practitioner of both the mystical arts and the martial arts, he has a suit consisting of two main relics, the Cloak of Levitation and the Eye of Agamotto, which give him added powers. Strange is aided along the way by his friend and valet, a large assortment of mystical objects.
He takes up residence in a mansion called the Sanctum Sanctorum, located in New York City. Strange takes the title of Sorcerer Supreme to help to defend the world against future threats. In 2008, Doctor Strange was ranked 83rd in Wizard's "200 Greatest Comic Book Characters of All Time" list, in 2012 was ranked 33rd in IGN's list of "The Top 50 Avengers", he was ranked 38th on IGN's list of "Top 100 Comic Book Heroes". The character was first portrayed in live-action by Peter Hooten in the 1978 television film Dr. Strange. Benedict Cumberbatch stars as the character in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, first appearing in the role in the 2016 film Doctor Strange, he reprised the role in the 2017 film Thor: Ragnarok, the 2018 film Avengers: Infinity War, will return in Avengers: Endgame in 2019. Artist Steve Ditko and writer Stan Lee have described the character as having been the idea of Ditko, who wrote in 2008, "On my own, I brought in to Lee a five-page, penciled story with a page/panel script of my idea of a new, different kind of character for variety in Marvel Comics.
My character wound up being named Dr. Strange because he would appear in Strange Tales." In a 1963 letter to Jerry Bails, Lee called the character Ditko's idea, saying: Well, we have a new character in the works for Strange Tales Steve Ditko is gonna draw him. It has sort of a black magic theme; the first story is nothing great, but we can make something of him--'twas Steve's idea and I figured we'd give it a chance, although again, we had to rush the first one too much. Little sidelight: Originally decided to call him Mr. Strange, but thought the "Mr." bit too similar to Mr. Fantastic -- now, however, I remember we had a villain called Dr. Strange just in one of our mags, hope it won't be too confusing! Doctor Strange debuted in Strange Tales #110, a split book shared with the feature "The Human Torch". Doctor Strange appeared in issues #110–111 and #114 before the character's eight-page origin story in #115. Scripter Lee's take on the character was inspired by the Chandu the Magician radio program that aired on the Mutual Broadcasting System in the 1930s.
He had Doctor Strange accompany spells with elaborate artifacts, such as the "Eye of Agamotto", the "Wand of Watoomb", "Hoary Hosts of Hoggoth". Ditko showcased surrealistic mystical landscapes and vivid visuals that helped make the feature a favorite of college students at the time. Comics historian Mike Benton wrote: The Dr. Strange stories of the 1960s constructed a cohesive cosmology that would have thrilled any self-respecting theosophist. College students, minds freshly opened by psychedelic experiences and Eastern mysticism, read Ditko and Lee's Dr. Strange stories with the belief of a recent Hare Krishna convert. Meaning was everywhere, readers analyzed the Dr. Strange stories for their relationship to Egyptian myths, Sumerian gods, Jungian archetypes. "People who read Doctor Strange thought people at Marvel must be heads," recalled then-associate editor and former Doctor Strange writer Roy Thomas in 1971, "because they had had similar experiences high on mushrooms. But I don't use hallucinogens, nor do I think any artists do."Originating in the early 1960s, the character was a predictor of counter-cultural trends in art prior to them becoming more established in the 1960s.
As historian Bradford W. Wright described: Steve Ditko contributed some of his most surrealistic work to the comic book and gave it a disorienting, hallucinogenic quality. Dr. Strange's adventures take place in bizarre worlds and twisting dimensions that resembled Salvador Dalí paintings. Inspired by the pulp-fiction magicians of Stan Lee's childhood as well as by contemporary Beat culture, Dr. Strange remarkably predicted the youth counterculture's fascination with Eastern mysticism and psychedelia. Never among Marvel's more popular or accessible characters, Dr. Strange still found a niche among an audience seeking a challenging alternative to more conventional superhero fare; as co-plotter and sole plotter in the Marvel Method, Ditko took Strange into ever-more-abstract realms. In a 17-issue story arc in Strange Tales #130-146, Ditko introduced the cosmic character Eternity, who personified the universe and was depicted as a silhouette filled with the cosmos. Golden Age artist/writer Bill Everett succeeded Ditko as artist with issues #147-152
What If (comics)
What If, sometimes rendered as What If...?, is a series of comic books published by Marvel Comics whose stories explore how the Marvel Universe might have unfolded if key moments in its history had not occurred as they did in mainstream continuity. What If comics have been published in eleven series as well as many stand-alone issues since the 1970s; the stories of the inaugural series feature the alien Uatu the Watcher as a narrator. From his base on the moon, Uatu observes both alternate realities. Most What If stories begin with Uatu describing an event in the mainstream Marvel Universe introducing a point of divergence in that event and describing the consequences of the divergence. Uatu was used in the second series until a point where, in the Fantastic Four comic book, Uatu was punished for destroying another Watcher; this made the use of Uatu improbable so the character was phased out to its last appearance in issue #76. Without a framing device, the stories themselves became the focus.
In series, some writers chose to introduce alternative narrators. For example, in Volume 3, in What If Karen Page Had Lived?, What If Jessica Jones Had Joined the Avengers? and in Daredevil, Brian Michael Bendis, the writer himself, makes a cameo as narrator. In the early 2006 series, a hacker, whose online alias is "The Watcher", opens each of the six issues. Marvel has given several What If stories official numerical designations to make them contiguous with the Marvel Comics Multiverse and differentiate them from the main Marvel Universe of Earth-616. Marvel Comics issued backup features, Untold Tales From the Marvel Universe; these stories explained the origins of some of Marvel's superhuman races. The initial 47-issue series ran from February 1977 to October 1984; the first What If story was "What If Spider-Man had Joined the'Fantastic Four'?". It presented an alternate version of events seen in The Amazing Spider-Man #1. What If #24, titled "What If Gwen Stacy Had Lived?" and focuses on the consequences of Spider-Man's secret identity being publicly exposed, is one of the most regarded What If stories.
Following the cancellation of the series, Marvel published a one-shot What If? Special with the story "What If Iron Man Had Been a Traitor?" From July 1989 to November 1998, Marvel published 114 monthly. The second series revisited and revised ideas from volume 1. In volume 2, stories could span multiple issues. Sometimes, the volume 2 stories would offer multiple plots and endings; the reader could decide. For example, in What If the War Machine Had Not Destroyed the Living Laser?, three endings were offered. The humorous aspect of volume 1 was retained through volume 2 in issue #34, an all-humor issue containing a number of single-page gags and two complete stories. In issue #105, What If introduced Spider-Girl; the new character was popular enough for a spin-off series. From this, the MC2 line of publications were developed. In February 2005, Marvel published a further six issues of What If, they were all in the "one-shot" format. The editor, Justin Gabrie, attributed the publication of volume 3 to a suggestion from C. B.
Cebulski. Marvel published a single parody edition called Wha... Huh?!? in August 2005. In February 2006, publication of volume 4 began. Again, there were six issues in the "one-shot" format. However, rather than follow What if tradition of using a divergence from a specific plot point, Volume 4 more resembled the DC Comics equivalent, which presents stories that are continuities based on alternative versions of canon. All but one of the Volume 4 issues uses this format, explained by Uatu the Watcher having discovered historical documents from an alternative dimension. From the Japanese feudal era, the divergence of a shared, alternative universe, Earth-717, begins; this divergence is the time. It is the realm where characters are given alternative life histories and where they proceed in alternative historical periods. Examples from volume 4 include, Captain America battling the "White Skull" during the American Civil War. In 2006, Marvel published another set of What If? issues, including one based on the Spider-Man story "The Other".
Volume 6 consists of five issues. A sixth, "What If: This Was the Fantastic Four", featuring Spider-Man, Ghost Rider, Hulk, was to be released in November 2007, but it was withheld due to the death of Mike Wieringo. What If: This Was the Fantastic Four was released as a tribute to Wieringo in June 2008 as a 48-page special. All its proceeds went to the Hero Initiative; the other issues were: "What If?: Planet Hulk". Specials for "Civil War" and "X-Men: Rise and Fall of the Shi'ar Empire" and "What If: Spider-Man vs. Wolverine"; these issues were collected into a trade paperback, What If...? Civil War. In December 2008, Marvel published 5, they included: Fallen Son: The Death of Captain America, House of M, Spider-Man: Back in Black, Secret Wars. A new "Fantastic Four" consisted of Hulk, Spider-Man, Iron Man, Wolverine. In a
David T. Wenzel is an illustrator and children's book artist, he is best known for his graphic novel adaptation of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit. Wenzel's first ambition had been to work for one of the big animation houses in California, but his early career path led him instead to work at an advertising agency and as a penciler in the mainstream comic book industry. From the mid-1970s to the early 1980s he worked on such Marvel Comics titles as Avengers and Savage Sword of Conan, he penciled part of The Avengers story arc. Segueing from comics to children's literature in the 1980s, Wenzel illustrated Robb Walsh's Kingdom of the Dwarfs for Centaur Books, illustrated a series of books about American colonial life for Troll Associates. A recommendation from college classmate Larry Marder was key to Wenzel's landing his next major project. Marder was working with the people who had secured the rights to adapt The Hobbit to comics, he knew firsthand that Wenzel had devoted his senior year in college to drawing Tolkien's characters.
And so Wenzel provided the painted art for The Hobbit: An Illustrated Edition of the Fantasy Classic, a three-part adaptation of The Hobbit, written by Chuck Dixon and Sean Deming. The work was published by Eclipse Comics in 1989. Published in a collected edition by Ballantine in 1990, The Hobbit: An Illustrated Edition of the Fantasy Classic is one of the most successful graphic format adaptations of a piece of classic literature. In 2001, it was updated by Del Rey Books with a new cover, larger format, 32 new pages of artwork. Another graphic novel project in a similar vein was Wenzel and writer Douglas Wheeler's adaptation of some of the Brothers Grimm's fairytales for NBM in 1995. In 1998 Wenzel teamed with acclaimed comics writer Kurt Busiek on The Wizard’s Tale, the story of Evernight, a land ruled by a consortium of evil wizards who discover that one of their kind harbors a "dangerous" glimmer of good; the Wizard’s Tale was designed to be a crossover book that blended children’s book elements with the format and readability of a graphic novel.
Other notable projects Wenzel has done include Robert L. May's Christmas bestseller Rudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer. Wenzel's non-book related projects include puzzles, greeting cards, two entire miniature kingdoms of collectible figurines, he teaches at Lyme Academy College of Fine Arts in Connecticut. Wenzel cites illustrators like Arthur Rackham, Edmund Dulac, N. C. Wyeth, Howard Pyle as influences. Wenzel lives in Connecticut with an artist and high school art teacher, their sons Brendan and Christopher are both artists, Wenzel's brother Greg is a book writer and illustrator. 2014 Irma Black Award Honor for The King of Little Things The Hobbit: An Illustrated Edition of the Fantasy Classic ISBN 0-345-44560-0 Aliens: Stalker Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm ISBN 1-56163-130-2 The Wizard's Tale ISBN 1-56389-589-7 Middle-earth: the World of Tolkien Illustrated ISBN 0-87818-014-1 Kingdom of the Dwarfs ISBN 0-87818-017-6 Boston Tea Party: Rebellion in the Colonies ISBN 0-89375-734-9 Jamestown, New World Adventure ISBN 0-89375-724-1 More About Dinosaurs ISBN 0-89375-668-7 Salem Days: Life in a Colonial Seaport ISBN 0-89375-732-2 Pilgrims and Thanksgiving ISBN 0-8167-0222-5 Hauntings: Ghosts and Ghouls from Around the World ISBN 0-316-36796-6 The Liberty Tree: the Beginning of the American Revolution ISBN 0-679-83482-6 Halloween Night ISBN 0-87358-762-6 Sebastian in Central Park ISBN 0-9713174-0-2 Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer ISBN 0-448-42534-3 Little Bear's Bad Day ISBN 0-06-053546-6 Little Bear's Picture ISBN 0-694-01701-9 Lost in Little Bear's Room ISBN 0-694-01706-X Lucky Little Bear ISBN 0-694-01700-0 A Hat for Ivan ISBN 1-58134-414-7 Your Special Gift ISBN 1-58134-698-0 Rodeo Time ISBN 978-0-06-055778-2 Baby Loves You So Much!
ISBN 978-0-8249-5550-2 Official website David Wenzel at the Comic Book DB
Leonard Norman Wein was an American comic book writer and editor best known for co-creating DC Comics' Swamp Thing and Marvel Comics' Wolverine, for helping revive the Marvel superhero team the X-Men. Additionally, he was the editor for writer Alan Moore and illustrator Dave Gibbons' influential DC miniseries Watchmen. Wein was inducted into the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 2008. Wein was born on June 12, 1948, in New York City, was raised in a Jewish household. One of two children of Phillip and Rosalyn Wein, he lived in The Bronx until age 7, when he moved with his family to Levittown, New York, on Long Island. There he graduated from Division Avenue High School in 1966, went on to an art degree from nearby Farmingdale State College. Wein's younger brother, died in 2007. In a 2003 interview, Len Wein recalled that he "was a sickly kid. While I was in the hospital at age seven, my dad brought me a stack of comic books to keep me occupied, and I was hooked. When my eighth grade art teacher, Mr. Smedley, told me he thought I had actual art talent, I decided to devote all my efforts in that direction in the hope that I might someday get into the comics biz."Approximately once a month, as a teenager and his friend Marv Wolfman took DC Comics' weekly Thursday afternoon tour of the company's offices.
Wolfman was active in fanzine culture, together he and Wein produced sample superhero stories to show to the DC editorial staff. At that point, Wein was more interested in becoming an artist than a writer. In a 2008 interview, Wein said his origins as an artist have helped him "describe art to an artist so that I can see it all in my own head", claimed he "used to have artists at DC, guys like Irv Novick and a few of the others, who would come into the office waiting for their next assignment and ask Julie Schwartz,'Do you have any Len Wein scripts lying around? He's always easy to draw.'"Eventually, DC editor Joe Orlando hired both Wolfman and Wein as freelance writers. Wein's first professional comics story was "Eye of the Beholder" in DC's Teen Titans #18, for which he co-created, with Wolfman, Red Star, the first official Russian superhero in the DC universe. Neal Adams was called upon to rewrite and redraw a Teen Titans story, written by Wein and Wolfman; the story, titled "Titans Fit the Battle of Jericho!", would have introduced DC's first African American superhero but was rejected by publisher Carmine Infantino.
The revised story appeared in Teen Titans #20. That year, Wein was writing anthological mystery stories for DC's The House of Secrets and Marvel's Tower of Shadows and Chamber of Darkness, he additionally began writing for DC's romance comic Secret Hearts and the company's toyline tie-in Hot Wheels. Wein's first superhero work for Marvel was a one-off story in Daredevil #71 co-written with staff writer/editor Roy Thomas. Wein began scripting sporadic issues of such DC superhero titles as Adventure Comics, The Flash, Superman, while continuing to write anthological mysteries, along with well-received stories for the semi-anthological occult title The Phantom Stranger #14–26. Wein and artist Bernie Wrightson created the horror character the Swamp Thing in The House of Secrets #92. Over the next several decades, the Swamp Thing would star in DC series and miniseries – including an initial 1972–76 series begun by Wein and Wrightson, the early 1980s The Saga of the Swamp Thing, edited by Wein and featuring early work by writer Alan Moore—as well as two theatrical films, a syndicated television series.
Abigail Arcane, a major supporting character in the character's mythos, was introduced by Wein and Wrightson in Swamp Thing #3. Wein wrote the second story featuring Man-Thing, introducing Barbara Morse and the concept that "Whatever Knows Fear Burns at the Man-Thing's Touch!", edited Steve Gerber's run on that title. Wein wrote a well-regarded run of Justice League of America wherein, together with artist Dick Dillin, he re-introduced the Seven Soldiers of Victory in issues #100–102 and the Freedom Fighters in issues #107–108. In the fall of 1972, Wein and writers Gerry Conway and Steve Englehart crafted a metafictional unofficial crossover spanning titles from both major comics companies; each comic featured Englehart and Wein, as well as Wein's first wife Glynis, interacting with Marvel or DC characters at the Rutland Halloween Parade in Rutland, Vermont. Beginning in Amazing Adventures #6, the story continued in Justice League of America #103, concluded in Thor #207; as Englehart explained in 2010, "It seemed like a radical concept and we knew that we had to be subtle and each story had to stand on its own, but we worked it out.
It's worthwhile to read those stories back to back to back – it didn't matter to us that one was at DC and two were at Marvel – I think it was us being creative, thinking what would be cool to do." Libra, a supervillain created by Wein and Dillin in Justice League of America #111, would play a leading role in Grant Morrison's Final Crisis storyline in 2008. W
Parallel universes in fiction
A parallel universe known as an alternate universe or alternate reality, is a hypothetical self-contained reality co-existing with one's own. A specific group of parallel universes are called a "multiverse", although this term can be used to describe the possible parallel universes that constitute reality. While the three terms are synonymous and can be used interchangeably in most cases, there is sometimes an additional connotation implied with the term "alternate universe/reality" that implies that the reality is a variant of our own, with some overlap with the similarly-named Alternate history; the term "parallel universe" is more general, without implying a relationship, or lack of relationship, with our own universe. A universe where the laws of nature are different – for example, one in which there are no Laws of Motion – would in general count as a parallel universe but not an alternative reality and a concept between both fantasy world and earth; the actual quantum-mechanical hypothesis of parallel universes is "universes that are separated from each other by a single quantum event."
Fiction has long borrowed an idea of "another world" from myth and religion. Heaven, Hell and Valhalla are all "alternative universes" different from the familiar material realm. Plato reflected on the parallel realities, resulting in Platonism, in which the upper reality is perfect while the lower earthly reality is an imperfect shadow of the heavenly; the lower reality is similar but with flaws. The concept is found in ancient Hindu mythology, in texts such as the Puranas, which expressed an infinite number of universes, each with its own gods. In Persian literature, "The Adventures of Bulukiya", a tale in the One Thousand and One Nights, describes the protagonist Bulukiya learning of alternative worlds/universes that are similar to but still distinct from his own. One of the first Science fiction examples is Murray Leinster's Sidewise in Time, in which portions of alternative universes replace corresponding geographical regions in this universe. Sidewise in Time describes it in the manner that similar to requiring both longitude and latitude coordinates in order to mark your location on Earth, so too does time: travelling along latitude is akin to time travel moving through past and future, while travelling along latitude is to travel perpendicular to time and to other realities, hence the name of the short story.
Thus, another common term for a parallel universe is "another dimension", stemming from the idea that if the 4th dimension is time, the 5th dimension - a direction at a right angle to the fourth - are alternate realities. In modern literature, a parallel universe can be divided into two categories: to allow for stories where elements that would ordinarily violate the laws of nature. Examples of the former include Terry Pratchett's Discworld and C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia, while examples of the latter include Harry Turtledove's Worldwar series. A parallel universe may serve as a central plot point, or it may be mentioned and dismissed, having served its purpose of establishing a realm unconstrained by realism; the aforementioned Discworld, for example, only rarely mentions our world or any other worlds, as setting the books on a parallel universe instead of "our" reality is to allow for magic on the Disc. The Chronicles of Narnia utilises this to a lesser extent - the idea of parallel universes are brought up but only mentioned in the introduction and ending, its main purpose to bring the protagonist from "our" reality to the setting of the books.
While technically incorrect, looked down upon by hard science-fiction fans and authors, the idea of another "dimension" has become synonymous with the term "parallel universe". The usage is common in movies and comic books and much less so in modern prose science fiction; the idea of a parallel world was first introduced in comic books with the publication of The Flash #123, "Flash of Two Worlds". In written science fiction, "new dimension" more – and more – refer to additional coordinate axes, beyond the three spatial axes with which we are familiar. By proposing travel along these extra axes, which are not perceptible, the traveler can reach worlds that are otherwise unreachable and invisible. In 1884, Edwin A. Abbott wrote, it describes a world of two dimensions inhabited by living squares and circles, called Flatland, as well as Pointland and Spaceland and posits the possibilities of greater dimensions. Isaac Asimov, in his foreword to the Signet Classics 1984 edition, described Flatland as "The best introduction one can find into the manner of perceiving dimensions."
In 1895, The Time Machine by H. G. Wells used time as an additional "dimension" in this sense, taking the four-dimensional model of classical physics and interpreting time as a space-like dimension in which humans could travel with the right equipment. Wells used the concept of parallel universes as a consequence of time as the fourth dimension in stories like The Wonderful Visit and Men Like Gods, an idea proposed by the astronomer Simon Newcomb, who talked about both time and parallel universes.
A cyborg, short for "cybernetic organism", is a being with both organic and biomechatronic body parts. The term was coined in 1960 by Nathan S. Kline; the term cyborg is not the same thing as biorobot or android. While cyborgs are thought of as mammals, including humans, they might conceivably be any kind of organism. D. S. Halacy's Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman in 1965 featured an introduction which spoke of a "new frontier", "not space, but more profoundly the relationship between'inner space' to'outer space' – a bridge...between mind and matter."In popular culture, some cyborgs may be represented as visibly mechanical or as indistinguishable from humans. Cyborgs in fiction play up a human contempt for over-dependence on technology when used for war, when used in ways that seem to threaten free will. Cyborgs are often portrayed with physical or mental abilities far exceeding a human counterpart, such as RoboCop. According to some definitions of the term, the physical attachments humanity has with the most basic technologies have made them cyborgs.
In a typical example, a human with an artificial cardiac pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator would be considered a cyborg, since these devices measure voltage potentials in the body, perform signal processing, can deliver electrical stimuli, using this synthetic feedback mechanism to keep that person alive. Implants cochlear implants, that combine mechanical modification with any kind of feedback response are cyborg enhancements; some theorists cite such modifications as contact lenses, hearing aids, or intraocular lenses as examples of fitting humans with technology to enhance their biological capabilities. As cyborgs are on the rise some theorists argue there is a need to develop new definitions of aging and for instance a bio-techno-social definition of aging has been suggested; the term is used to address human-technology mixtures in the abstract. This includes not only used pieces of technology such as phones, the Internet, etc. but artifacts that may not popularly be considered technology.
When augmented with these technologies and connected in communication with people in other times and places, a person becomes capable of much more than they were before. An example is a computer, which gains power by using Internet protocols to connect with other computers. Another example, becoming more and more relevant is a bot-assisted human or human-assisted-bot, used to target social media with likes and shares. Cybernetic technologies include highways, electrical wiring, electrical plants and other infrastructure that we hardly notice, but which are critical parts of the cybernetics that we work within. Bruce Sterling in his universe of Shaper/Mechanist suggested an idea of alternative cyborg called Lobster, made not by using internal implants, but by using an external shell. Unlike human cyborgs that appear human externally while being synthetic internally, Lobster looks inhuman externally but contains a human internally; the computer game Deus Ex: Invisible War prominently featured cyborgs called Omar, where "Omar" is a Russian translation of the word "Lobster".
The concept of a man-machine mixture was widespread in science fiction before World War II. As early as 1843, Edgar Allan Poe described a man with extensive prostheses in the short story "The Man That Was Used Up". In 1911, Jean de La Hire introduced the Nyctalope, a science fiction hero, the first literary cyborg, in Le Mystère des XV. Edmond Hamilton presented space explorers with a mixture of organic and machine parts in his novel The Comet Doom in 1928, he featured the talking, living brain of an old scientist, Simon Wright, floating around in a transparent case, in all the adventures of his famous hero, Captain Future. He uses the term explicitly in the 1962 short story, "After a Judgment Day," to describe the "mechanical analogs" called "Charlies," explaining that "yborgs, they had been called from the first one in the 1960s...cybernetic organisms." In the short story "No Woman Born" in 1944, C. L. Moore wrote of Deirdre, a dancer, whose body was burned and whose brain was placed in a faceless but beautiful and supple mechanical body.
The term was coined by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline in 1960 to refer to their conception of an enhanced human being who could survive in extraterrestrial environments: Their concept was the outcome of thinking about the need for an intimate relationship between human and machine as the new frontier of space exploration was beginning to open up. A designer of physiological instrumentation and electronic data-processing systems, Clynes was the chief research scientist in the Dynamic Simulation Laboratory at Rockland State Hospital in New York; the term first appears in print five months earlier when The New York Times reported on the Psychophysiological Aspects of Space Flight Symposium where Clynes and Kline first presented their paper. A book titled Cyborg: Digital Destiny and Human Possib