Drama is a city and municipality in northeastern Greece in Macedonia. Drama is the capital of the regional unit of Drama, part of the East Macedonia and Thrace region; the town is the economic center of the municipality, which in turn comprises 60 percent of the regional unit's population. The next largest communities in the municipality are Choristi, Χiropótamos, Kallífytos, Kalós Agrós, Koudoúnia. Built at the foot of mount Falakro, in a verdant area with abundant water sources, Drama has been an integral part of the Hellenic world since the classical era. In the modern era, tobacco production and trade, the operation of the railway and improvement of the road network towards the port of Kavala, led to an increase in the population of the city and to the enhancement of commercial activity. Drama hosts the "Eleftheria", cultural events in commemoration of the city's liberation, at the end of June or beginning of July, an annual film festival in September. Archaeological finds show that in the area of the modern city there used to be an ancient Greek settlement named Dyrama or alternatively Hydrama, both meaning "rich in water".
Some scholars associate Drama with the ancient Greek Drabescus. Hydrama was notable as the place of worship for many Gods of classical Greek mythology Apollo and Artemis. With the passage of time Dyrama became Drama. In the South Slavic languages, the city is known as Драма, itself a transliteration of the Greek name; the municipality Drama was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 2 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Drama Sidironero The municipality has an area of 840.103 km2, the municipal unit 488.830 km2. Drabescus was part of the Roman and Byzantine Empires along with the rest of Greece; the region was conquered by Ottoman Empire in 1371. In the 19th century, the town became centre of the Sanjak of Drama. In 1912 during the First Balkan War, Drama was taken from the Ottomans by Bulgarian troops. Subsequently, in 1913 as a result of the Treaty of Bucharest, following the Second Balkan War, it was incorporated into Greece along with the rest of eastern Macedonia.
Drama was occupied by Bulgarian troops in the wake of the German invasion of Greece, from 1941 to 1944 during World War II. On 29 September 1941, in response to local communist guerrilla attacks against the Bulgarians in the villages of Drama, the Bulgarian occupation forces applied harsh reprisals in Drama and several villages like Choristi, Kyrgia and Prosotsani. On 4 March 1943, after midnight, the Bulgarian military authorities rounded up the Jewish population across their zone of occupation in eastern Macedonia and Thrace; the 4,000-strong community, including 589 Jews from Drama, was carried by train into Bulgarian territory and assembled in the tobacco warehouses, which were empty at that time of year. From there, they were taken by train to the Treblinka extermination camp. None of the 589 Jews from Drama returned. In the recent past the economy of the Drama area relied on the local paper and textile-clothing industries. However, these industries have either closed down or moved across the border to Bulgaria, because of the low demands of the Bulgarian workforce, with a negative impact on the local economy and employment.
The situation worsened after 2007, when Bulgaria was admitted to the EU, local Greek businessmen moved to expand their operations there. Other sources of revenue include agriculture, consisting of tobacco plantations, small-scale mining and forestry. There have been efforts to exploit the rich local natural environment and to develop ecotourism. There is a modern ski resort on Mount Falakro. Drama hosts an annual short film festival. Since 1978, Drama hosts Drama International Short Film Festival. In 1987, the festival was recognized nationally. In 1995, it added the International competition section where short films from all over the world visiting the city every year. In 1996, the festival was included in the National Cultural Network of Cities by the Greek Ministry of Culture; the Archaeological Museum of Drama covers human presence in the regional unit of Drama from the mid Paleolithic Period with traces of life from Paleolithic hunts in the caves of the source of the Angitis, up to modern times.
The exhibition space consists of three main halls. In the first archaeological finds from the cave of Maara give witness to the presence of nomadic hunters in the area from the mid Palaeolithic period, while other finds show us about the life of settled farmers and animal rearers from Neolithic villages and the passage of the Copper Age in the city of Drama and the village of Sitagri; the reproduction of a Neolithic house with finds which describe the activities of Neolithic man and his daily activities is the main centre of interest for visitors of all ages. Bust of Dionysius, found in the area of Kali Vrysi; the same hall continues the journey through time to the Iron Age and years where the main element was the worship of Dionysius at the city of Drama itself and at Kali Vrysi and other areas of the regional unit. In the second hall architectural sculptures and coins confirm that life continued in the city and throughout the whole regional
Greek Football Cup
The Greek Football Cup known as the Greek Cup or for sponsorship reasons the Football Cup OPAP, is a Greek football competition, run by the Hellenic Football Federation. Because it involves clubs of all standards playing against each other, there is the possibility for "minnows" from the lower divisions to become "giant-killers" by eliminating top clubs from the tournament and theoretically win the Cup; the current holders of the Greek Cup are PAOK, who beat AEK Athens 2–0 in the 2018 final held on 12 May 2018. The Greek Cup under EPO began in 1931. In its early years, entry was optional. Teams were paired against each other without a draw taking place. On, for many years, a proper draw took place and two-legged matches were added. In 1962, there was no cup winner because the final between Olympiacos and Panathinaikos was abandoned; until 1964, if the final score was a draw, the two teams played a replay match, while penalties didn't exist. That year, in the semi-final between Panathinaikos and Olympiacos,fans of both teams stormed the pitch, damaged the football field and stopped the game, believing that it was fixed to end in a draw, in order to be replayed for financial reasons.
Both teams were ejected from the competition and therefore,in 1964 AEK won the title but the final match was not held. AEK won in simiral fashion in 1966 when Olympiacos did not show up in the final. In 1965, a new rule was applied, to determine that, if the game was undecided after extra time, the winner would be determined by the toss of a coin. Panathinaikos won this way in the 1969 final against Olympiacos. Afterwards the penalty shootout was applied; until 1971, teams from all over the country and amateur, had been taking part. Each team first played against clubs from its own association and the winners continued in a nationwide competition. Due to this, strong professional sides met amateur neighbourhood teams, sometimes beating them with high scores. Since 1971, only teams from professional divisions are allowed to participate, while amateur clubs take part in the Amateur Cup. In 1991 and 1992 the finals were two-legged, it is considered that the most exciting match in the history of the competition was the 2009 final between Olympiacos and AEK.
Notes: • In the periods 1933–38 and 1940–46 the competition was not held. • In 1961–62 final match was abandoned. • In 1963–64 and 1965–66 final matches were not held. • Statistical paradox: 76 editions of the competition, 75 concluded with a cup winner, 74 finals. 11 clubs have won the Greek Football Cup, from a total of 6 cities. Greek Super League Greek Super Cup Greek League Cup Cup at UEFA RSSSF
Greece national football team
The Greece national football team represents Greece in association football and is controlled by the Hellenic Football Federation, the governing body for football in Greece. Greece's main home grounds are located in the capital-city Athens at the Olympic Stadium in Maroussi and in the port of Piraeus at the Karaiskakis Stadium. Greece is one of only ten national teams to have been crowned UEFA European Champions. At the UEFA Euro 1980 Greece made their first appearance in a major tournament and although they did not make it through the group stage, their qualification to the eight-team tournament gave them a position in the top eight European football nations that year. Greece had to wait until 1994 to experience their first FIFA World Cup participation, but after an undefeated qualifying run they produced a poor performance in the final tournament, losing all three group matches without scoring; the UEFA Euro 2004 marked a high point in Greece's football history when they were crowned European champions, in only their second participation in the tournament, against all the odds.
The Greeks, dismissed as rank outsiders before the tournament, defeated some of the favourites in the competition including hosts Portugal and defending European champions France, with Greece beating the former in both the opening game of the tournament and again in the final. Their triumph gave them a qualification for the 2005 FIFA Confederations Cup. In the decade after the 2004 victory, Greece qualified for the final tournaments of all but one major competitions entered, reaching the quarter-finals at the UEFA Euro 2012 and the round of 16 at the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Moreover, they occupied a place in the top 20 of the FIFA World Rankings for all but four months during that period, reached an all-time high of eighth in the world from April to June 2008, as well as in October 2011; the first appearance of a Greek national football team was at the 1906 Intercalated Games in Athens. The Greek team participated in the Inter-Allied Games in Paris, following the end of World War I, in the 1920 Summer Olympics of Antwerp.
A notable figure during these years was Giorgos Kalafatis and manager of the team. During the next decades, the Greek team did not manage to have any success, despite the passion of the Greek people for football; the country's economical and social problems and after World War II, did not allow successful preparation of the national team. At its best moment, Greece narrowly missed qualifying for the 1970 FIFA World Cup, despite a good quality team, including some of the greatest-ever Greek players, such as Mimis Domazos, Giorgos Sideris, Giorgos Koudas and Mimis Papaioannou. Greece, under the guidance of Alketas Panagoulias, made its first appearance in a major tournament at the Euro 1980 in Italy, after qualifying top of a group that included the Soviet Union and Hungary, both world football powers. In the final tournament, Greece was drawn into group A with West Germany, the Netherlands, Czechoslovakia. In their first game, Greece held the Dutch until the only goal of the game was scored with a penalty kick by Kist, in the 65th minute.
Three days Greece played Czechoslovakia in Rome. After holding the Czechoslovakians 1–1 at the end the first half, Greece lost 3–1. In their last game, Greece earned a 0–0 draw against eventual winners West Germany, concluding what was considered a decent overall performance in the team's maiden presence in a final phase of any football competition; the team's success in qualifying for the 1994 FIFA World Cup in the United States, marked the first time they had made it to the FIFA World Cup finals. Greece finished undefeated in their qualifying group, surpassing Russia in the final game. In the final tournament Greece were drawn into Group D with Nigeria and Argentina. After the successful qualifying campaign, expectations back in Greece were high as no one could imagine the oncoming astounding failure. Most notable reason for this complete failure was the fact that legendary coach Alketas Panagoulias opted to take a squad full of those players – though most of them aging and out of form – that helped the team in the qualifying instead of new emerging talents seeing it as a reward for their unprecedented success.
Furthermore, they had the disadvantage of being drawn into a "group of death", with runners-up at the 1990 FIFA World Cup Argentina semifinalists Bulgaria, Nigeria, one of the strongest African teams. It is worth mentioning that all players of the squad, including the three goalkeepers, took part in those three games, something rare; this tournament was humiliating for the Greek squad. In their first game against Argentina at Foxboro Stadium just outside Boston, they lost 4–0. Four days Greece suffered another 4–0 blow from Bulgaria at Soldier Field in Chicago, in what would be their final game, they lost to Nigeria 2–0 at Foxboro Stadium again. In the end, Greece were eliminated in the first round by losing all three games, scoring no goals and conceding ten. Greece failed to qualify for the Euro 1996 finishing third in the group behind Scotland. In their 1998 World Cup qualifying tournament the team finished only one point shy of second-placed Croatia after a 0–0 draw by the eventual Group winners, the Danish.
In their Euro 2000 qualifying group, Greece finished again in third place, two points behind second-placed Slovenia in a disappointing campaign that saw the team lose at home to Latvia. In the 2002 World Cup qualifying Greece finished a disappointing fourth in their group behind England and Finland, which led to the sacking of coach Vasilis Daniil, replaced by Otto Rehhagel. Highlights of the campaign included a 5–1 de
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
South Melbourne FC
South Melbourne Football Club is an Australian semi-professional soccer club based in suburb of Albert Park, in Melbourne, Victoria. The club competes in the National Premier Leagues Victoria, with matches played at Lakeside Stadium. Founded in 1959 as South Melbourne Hellas, with a basis in the Greek community, South Melbourne were once considered the most successful soccer club in Australia; the club has won four national championships, a string of Victorian State League titles, represented Oceania in the 2000 FIFA Club World Championship. Along with the Marconi Stallions, they were one of two clubs to compete in every season of the National Soccer League; the club was chosen by the IFFHS as the Oceania team of the 20th century. South Melbourne was formed in 1959 with the amalgamation of three struggling Melbourne soccer clubs—South Melbourne United, the oldest of the three clubs with a history dating back to the early 1900s—the Greek-backed Yarra Park Aias, Hellenic. Theo Marmaras, initiator of the merger proposal and president of Hellenic, became the first president of the new club.
In recognition of the large Greek Australian support base of Hellenic and Yarra Park, which were the best-supported of the three clubs, the new club was named South Melbourne Hellas, the name by which it was to be known for the majority of its 50 years. The first emblem reflected the colour scheme of the Greek national flag; the first uniform consisted of jersey of white with a red'V' around the collar, the was that of South Melbourne United, as well as blue shorts and blue and white hooped socks. On they would adopt predominantly blue and white strips, with various designs throughout the seasons, with the most common being a predominantly royal blue strip. South Melbourne won the Victorian First Division championship of 1960, the club's inaugural year of competition; the club was promoted to the Victorian State League First Division the following year, where it finished fifth in its first year. With a number of astute signings—Scottish journeyman Tommy Anderson, Ernie Ackerley, Leo Damianakos, Jim Pyrgolios and Andreas Roussis of Panathinaikos and Apollon Athens—the club won the division championship in 1962, 1964, 1965.
In 1965, South Melbourne secured the services of 35-year-old former AEK Athens F. C. star Kostas Nestoridis as player-coach. The result was a significant increase in crowd attendances and a fourth league title in 1966. Eager to repeat its success, the club recruited a number of Greek and local footballers, but they failed to make any impact. By 1969, the import experiment was considered a failure and most of the Greek players returned to their homeland. In 1970, the club focused its attention on recruiting local soccer players, it soon signed two players that would become South Melbourne's greatest players, Steve Walker and striker Jim Armstrong. South Melbourne missed out on the title by a point in the 1971 season, edged out by Footscray JUST, but with Armstrong scoring goals aplenty, South Melbourne went on to win the championship in 1972; the season saw coach Bill Curran consolidate the first team's strength by signing midfielder Peter Bourne and promoting skilled youngsters Giovanni Batticiotto, Fethon Ileris and Bill Hasapis.
The club continued its successful run with the 1974 title, second place in 1975, with star recruits Jimmy Mackay, Peter Ollerton and Duncan Cummings, capped off its final year in the Victorian State League by winning the 1976 championship. South Melbourne joined Mooroolbark, Heidelberg United, Footscray JUST as Melbourne's participants in the newly formed National Soccer League in 1977. A mass exodus of its best players, saw the team slump to 11th place in its inaugural year, but a recruiting drive by coach Dave Maclaren gave the club a respectable third in 1978, it wasn't to last. South Melbourne finished at the bottom of the league table in 1979; the recruitment of Alan Davidson, George Campbell, Steve Blair, Branko Buljevic, Alun Evans, Charlie Egan, helped South Melbourne climb the NSL ladder in the early part of the decade, with South becoming runners up in the NSL in 1981, their best NSL placing at the time. They won the Ampol Cup in 1982; some solid player signings such as gave the club some respectability, but a combination of committee problems and a string of coaches, never allowed the team to settle and gain consistency.
South Melbourne finished first on the league ladder in 1984, but in a newly restructured NSL competition, it had to win the finals series to win the title. The club powered past local rivals Heidelberg United in the Southern Division play-offs, edged out Sydney Olympic in the Grand Final to win the 1984 national championship. After the departure of George Campbell to rivals Preston Makedonia in 1983/84, Branko Buljevic to Footscray Just in 1985 and others, South Melbourne could not repeat the success of the previous year. Despite finishing in first place, it was knocked out of the finals series by local rivals Brunswick Juventus and Preston. A major overhaul by coach Brian Garvey saw a number of new signings being made, including youngsters Paul Trimboli, David Healy, Kimon Taliadoros and Harry Micheil; the young team put in some memorable performances as the decade came to a close, finishing in the top half of the league table, but failed to win another championship. The club appointed Ferenc Puskás as coach for the 1989/90 season, helping South win the NSL Cup tournament for that season, as well backing up their 1988 Dockerty Cup win with victory in the 1989 tournament.
On 28 November 1981, South Melbourne Hellas and Melb
Panionios G. S. S; the Pan-Ionian Gymnastics Club of Smyrna, is a Greek multi sport club founded in 1890. Based in Smyrna/Izmir, the club was uprooted in the population exchange between Greece and Turkey following the Asia Minor Catastrophe in 1922, it is now based in the Athenian suburb of Nea Smyrni, in Greece, where many of the refugees from Smyrna settled. The Panionios football team has won the Greek Cup twice while the Panionios basketball team won the Greek Cup in 1991. Panionios has a long tradition of raising talented athletes in many sports Panionios was founded in 1890 under the name Orpheus, by Greeks of Smyrna in the Ottoman Empire; the name related with the legendary musician of ancient Greece, because the main activity of the club was the music. Three years in 1893, members of Orpheus who wished the activities of Orpheus to be focused on sport withdrew from the club and founded a new club; that was named Gymnasium and it was the first Greek sport club in Smyrna. In 1896, Gymnasium organized the first Panionian Games and in 1897 participated in the foundation of SEGAS along with 25 clubs from Greece and two from Cyprus.
In October 1898, Orpheus and Gymnasion merged again to form Panionios GSS. The next years Panionios took part in all Panhellenic Games, it took over the organisation of Panionian Games. Between 1898 and 1922, the games were held 19 times; these games together Panhellenic. In 1900, Panionios organised the first poetry competition; the winner was Stelios Sperantzas with the poem anthem of Panionios. The first years, Panionios hadn't got its own gymnasium; the club rented out a court near the wharf, from the French company of Smyrna. In 1910 the French company sold Panionios stayed homeless. Thanks to Chrysostomos of Smyrna, Panionios was allotted a big area for its gymnasium near the Greek cemetery; the inauguration of new stadium was held in 1911 during 14th Panionian Games. The presence of Panionios in Smyrna finished with the Asia Minor Catastrophe. After the Asia Minor Catastrophe and the expulsion of Greek of Asia Minor, Panionios threatened to be dissolved; the club rescued thanks to Dimitrios Dallas.
He regrouped the club. The first years Panionios hadn't got own sport facilities; the offices of the club were temporarily accommodated in a small room in Panathenaic Stadium in Athens. In 1923 Panionios reestablished the Panionian Games in Athens with the participation 10 athletic clubs. Panionian games were repeated during 35th anniversary of Panionios. In November 1937, Panionios Board of Directors led by President D. Karabatis and the Municipality of Nea Smyrni agreed to relocate the club in Nea Smyrni, the Athens suburb, inhabited by Greek Asia Minor refugees coming from Smyrna, the club's historical home. Construction works started in 1938, were completed one year 1939. After the construction of stadium, Panionios regrouped the football team. Panionios football team won the championship of EPS Athens in 1951 and it was the runner-up of Panhellenic championship the same year; the next year it was the runner up of the Football Cup where defeated by Olympiacos in the replay game. Panionios football team evolved to one of the protagonists of Greek championship with steady presence in first division.
It was runner-up of the championship one more time, in 1971 and it has won two football cups in 1979 and 1998. Furthermore, Panionios has the last years in water polo. Panionios Basketball team has won a Greek cup in 1989 and one time was a runner-up of the championship; the team has a steady presence in the first division finishing many times in the top four of the championship. The Panionios basketball women team has won a championship in 2007; the last years, Panionios has a successful team in water polo. So far, it has played five times in the final of Greek cup; the most successful department of Panionios is the Field team. The women Track and Field team has won 21 Panhellenic championships so far. CurrentPanionios F. C.: The football team competes in the Greek Superleague since the 1997-98 season. Panionios B. C.: The men's basketball team competes in the Greek A2 Basketball League, following the first relegation from the Greek Basket League in the 2014-15 season. The women's basketball team competes in the Greek Women's Basketball League.
It the club's only section to finish 1st in its respective championship, becoming Greek champions in 2006-07. Panionios W. P. C.: The men's water polo team competes in the A1 Ethniki division since 2002-03, following promotion from the Beta Ethniki and immediately from A2 Ethniki. The women's team competes in the Beta Ethniki. Panionios V. C; the men's volleyball team shall compete in the A2 Ethniki Volleyball for the first time in 2015-16, following promotion from ESPEDA's first division in 2014-15. It is the oldest volleyball club in Greece; the women's team competes in the A2 Ethniki being the first of its kind in Greece. Panionios H. C.: The handball team failed to compete in the 2014-15 Beta Ethniki, due to lack of a home ground. Panionios Gymnastics Panionios Swimming Panionios Chess Panionios Track and field Panionios JudoOlder Departments not operatingCycling Rowing Weightlifting Panionios F. C. Greek Cup Winners: 1979, 1998 Balkans Cup Winners: 1971Panionios B. C. Greek Cup: Winners: 1991 Greek basketball women's Championship Winners: 2007
Iraklis F.C. (Thessaloniki)
Iraklis Football Club or Iraklis, is a Greek football club, based in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. The club competes in the Football League, the second tier of Greek football, it plays. Founded in 1908 as "Macedonikos Gymnasticos Syllogos", they are one of the oldest in Greek football and the oldest in Thessaloniki, hence the nickname Ghireos. A year the name "Iraklis" was added to the club's name as an honour to the ancient Greek hero Heracles; the team's colours are inspired by the Greek flag. Iraklis is a founding member of Macedonia Football Clubs Association, as well as the Hellenic Football Federation, as a part of G. S. Iraklis. Before the formation of the nationwide league of Alpha Ethniki, Iraklis competed in the league, run by the Macedonia Football Clubs Association, winning it on no less than five occasions; the club has played in five Greek Cup finals, lifting the trophy once in the 1976 final, the club's only domestic trophy. They have an international title, as they won the Balkans Cup in 1985.
Iraklis traced its roots back in 1899. The club was established as a cultural union of the Greeks of Thessaloniki, but in 1902 it founded a sports department. Football was a new sport at the time, but increasing in popularity and thus the board of directors decided to line up a football team; the first match, held by the Omilos Filomouson football team was on 23 April 1905, against a team of the Western European diaspora of the city called Union Sportive. Omilos Filomouson won the match by a 3–0 scoreline. On, the club faced financial problems, but members of the club joined forces with another Greek athletic club of the city, called Olympia; the result of this union was the foundation of a new club on 29 November 1908, called Makedonikos Gymnastikos Syllogos, that gained a permission to operate by the Ottoman authorities. The new club's first president was Alkiviadis Maltos; the name of the club had a direct reference to the ethnic tensions that took place in the area at that time. Due to the Young Turks' revolt of 1908 and their promises for ease of ethnic tensions in the area, the club was forced to change its name.
Thus a new name was decided for the club, Ottomanikos Ellinikos Gymnastikos Syllogos Thessalonikis "Iraklis". The new name was approved, together with a new statute and a new board of directors, by a general assembly of the club on 13 April 1911. After the integration of Thessaloniki in the Kingdom of Greece, the operation of the club was accepted by the Greek courts in 1914 and on 11 January 1915 Iraklis became a registered sports club. Shortly after the end of the Second Balkan War, Iraklis together with the three Jewish football clubs of the city, Progrès Sportive and French-German School Alumni Union organised the first Thessaloniki Football Championship in January and February 1914. Iraklis won Alliance 3–1, Progrès Sportive 5–1 and after winning the French-German School Alumni Union, the club was proclaimed Champion of Thessaloniki. On 6 April 1914, Iraklis played a match against Athinaikos Syllogos Podosfairou, that ended as a draw, it was the club's first match against a club outside Thessaloniki.
In 1914, Iraklis established the club's youth squad, so the students of the Greek Gymnasium of the city could train in football. A year Iraklis won the second Thessaloniki Football Championship; the next championship was not held due to World War I. In the years following World War I, several football clubs were established in Thessaloniki and that led to the establishment of the Macedonia Football Clubs Association in 1923; the first championship from the newly founded association was organised shortly afterwards and Iraklis lost in the tournament's final 4–1 from Aris. In 1924 Iraklis played its first match against a club from outside the borders of Greece, it was a match against a contest that ended 2 -- 1 in favour of Iraklis. It was in that same year that Iraklis played its first match abroad, a 3–0 friendly win against SK Bitola. In 1926 the club appointed Hungarian Joseph Sveg as manager, the first foreign manager in Greece. Under Sveg's guidance, Iraklis won the Championship organised by the Macedonia Football Clubs Association in 1926–27.
By winning 6–0 against the reigning champion of West Macedonia Ermis Shorovich and the champion of East Macedonia and Thrace Rodopi, Iraklis was proclaimed Champion of Macedonia and Thrace. In the following years, Iraklis did not have any success finishing in runner up and lower positions in the Macedonia Football Clubs Association Championship. In the 1933–34 season Iraklis won the Northern Group of the National Championship qualifying for the championship final, where the club had to compete against the champion of the Southern group Olympiacos; the first leg was played in Iraklis Ground on 10 June 1934. Although Iraklis took a 2–0 lead at half time, Olympiacos managed to make a comeback in the second half, winning the game by a 2–3 scoreline; the second leg was played a week in Piraeus and Olympiacos was proclaimed National champion by winning this match 2–1. In the following years Iraklis faced mid table mediocrity, with the exception of the 1936–37 season, when the club was only one point short to Macedonia Football Clubs Association champions PAOK.
The 1938–39 season was a successful one for Iraklis, as it won both the Macedonia Football Clubs Association championship and the Northern Group of the National Championshi