Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon, sometimes other elements. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, tools, automobiles, machines and weapons. Iron is the base metal of steel. Iron is able to take on two crystalline forms, body centered cubic and face centered cubic, depending on its temperature. In the body-centered cubic arrangement, there is an iron atom in the center and eight atoms at the vertices of each cubic unit cell, it is the interaction of the allotropes of iron with the alloying elements carbon, that gives steel and cast iron their range of unique properties. In pure iron, the crystal structure has little resistance to the iron atoms slipping past one another, so pure iron is quite ductile, or soft and formed. In steel, small amounts of carbon, other elements, inclusions within the iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations that are common in the crystal lattices of iron atoms; the carbon in typical steel alloys may contribute up to 2.14% of its weight.
Varying the amount of carbon and many other alloying elements, as well as controlling their chemical and physical makeup in the final steel, slows the movement of those dislocations that make pure iron ductile, thus controls and enhances its qualities. These qualities include such things as the hardness, quenching behavior, need for annealing, tempering behavior, yield strength, tensile strength of the resulting steel; the increase in steel's strength compared to pure iron is possible only by reducing iron's ductility. Steel was produced in bloomery furnaces for thousands of years, but its large-scale, industrial use began only after more efficient production methods were devised in the 17th century, with the production of blister steel and crucible steel. With the invention of the Bessemer process in the mid-19th century, a new era of mass-produced steel began; this was followed by the Siemens–Martin process and the Gilchrist–Thomas process that refined the quality of steel. With their introductions, mild steel replaced wrought iron.
Further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking replaced earlier methods by further lowering the cost of production and increasing the quality of the final product. Today, steel is one of the most common manmade materials in the world, with more than 1.6 billion tons produced annually. Modern steel is identified by various grades defined by assorted standards organizations; the noun steel originates from the Proto-Germanic adjective stahliją or stakhlijan, related to stahlaz or stahliją. The carbon content of steel is between 0.002% and 2.14% by weight for plain iron–carbon alloys. These values vary depending on alloying elements such as manganese, nickel, so on. Steel is an iron-carbon alloy that does not undergo eutectic reaction. In contrast, cast iron does undergo eutectic reaction. Too little carbon content leaves iron quite soft and weak. Carbon contents higher than those of steel make a brittle alloy called pig iron. While iron alloyed with carbon is called carbon steel, alloy steel is steel to which other alloying elements have been intentionally added to modify the characteristics of steel.
Common alloying elements include: manganese, chromium, boron, vanadium, tungsten and niobium. Additional elements, most considered undesirable, are important in steel: phosphorus, sulfur and traces of oxygen and copper. Plain carbon-iron alloys with a higher than 2.1% carbon content are known as cast iron. With modern steelmaking techniques such as powder metal forming, it is possible to make high-carbon steels, but such are not common. Cast iron is not malleable when hot, but it can be formed by casting as it has a lower melting point than steel and good castability properties. Certain compositions of cast iron, while retaining the economies of melting and casting, can be heat treated after casting to make malleable iron or ductile iron objects. Steel is distinguishable from wrought iron, which may contain a small amount of carbon but large amounts of slag. Iron is found in the Earth's crust in the form of an ore an iron oxide, such as magnetite or hematite. Iron is extracted from iron ore by removing the oxygen through its combination with a preferred chemical partner such as carbon, lost to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.
This process, known as smelting, was first applied to metals with lower melting points, such as tin, which melts at about 250 °C, copper, which melts at about 1,100 °C, the combination, which has a melting point lower than 1,083 °C. In comparison, cast iron melts at about 1,375 °C. Small quantities of iron were smelted in ancient times, in the solid state, by heating the ore in a charcoal fire and welding the clumps together with a hammer and in the process squeezing out the impurities. With care, the carbon content could be controlled by moving it around in the fire. Unlike copper and tin, liquid or solid iron dissolves carbon quite readily. All of these temperatures could be reached with ancient methods used since the Bronze Age. Since the oxidation rate of iron increases beyond 800 °C, it is important that smelting take place in a low-oxygen environment. Smelting, using carbon to reduce iro
The Novoazovsk Raion is one of the 18 administrative raions of Donetsk Oblast in eastern Ukraine. Its administrative center is located in the city of Novoazovsk, its southern portion borders the Azov Sea. Population: 35,737 Novoazovsk Raion borders the city of Mariupol to its west and has the international Russia-Ukraine border to its east. To its northwest, Novoazovsk Raion shares borders with Volodarske Raion. To its north, Novoazovsk Raion borders Telmanove Raion; the raion is divided into 15 municipal councils: one city municipality, one town municipality and 13 - rural councils. Within Novoazovsk Raion there are one city, one urban-type settlement, 9 selsoviets, 59 small settlements. Included within the raion are 14 industrial organizations, 4 construction and transport organizations, 9 kolhozy, 5 sovhozy, 3 fisheries cooperatives, 5 industrial organizations, 4 construction companies, 35 medical schools, 27 resort areas, 26 libraries. Before the defeat of the Don Republic by the Red Army in 1920, the territory of the Novoazovsk Raion was part of the Taganrog Okrug of the Don Republic.
In April of the same year, the territory as the Taganrog Raion was ceded to the newly organaized Donetsk Governorate. In the beginning of 1923, the Novo-Mykolayivka Raion was organized. On 22 September 1923, the administrative center of the Novo-Mykolayivka Raion, Novo-Mykolayivka, was renamed Budyonivka, the Raion became Budyonivka Raion. In 1958, the Budyonivka Raion was again renamed, becoming the Novoazovsk Raion, its administrative center was renamed Novoazovsk. Within the Novoazovsk Raion, were born the Arctic explorer Georgy Sedov, the general-polkovnik Hero of the Soviet Union I. Lyudnikov, poet N. Scherbina, the sculptor N. Yasinenko. On 9 December 2014, the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's national parliament, changed the boundaries and total area of the Novoazovsk Raion to encompass 818.612 km2. The district's administration buildings and government were moved to the Vynohradne urban-type settlement following the events surrounding the War in Donbass. According to the 2001 Ukrainian Census: The nature preserve Khomytovs'ka steppe or Khomutovskyy steppe, part of the Ukrainian steppe National Park, is a nature preserve located within the oblast.
Having an area is 10.28 km², the preserve consists of many types of flora. It is listed in the UNESCO list of natural monuments; the regional park Meotyda is a natural park with a total area of 130.17 km². The park contains over 640 types of rare and unique flora, 15 of which are listed in the Ukraine's Red Book of Rare Species. Sjedove is an urban-type settlement with a population of 2,770. A kolhoz by the name of Zavet Il'icha, the urban-type settlement now consists of the Kholodne and Obryv settlements. Bezimenne is a village with a population of 2,529, it used to be known as the Druzhba Narodiv kolhoz. The village now consists of the following settlements: Vedens'ke, Kachkars'ke, Mitkogo-Kacharki, Pavlovs'ke, Patriotychne and Roza. Vynohradne is a village with a population of 1,856. Known as the Rodyna kolhoz, it now consists of the Pioners'ke, Prymors'ke and Kalynovka settlements. Kominternove is a village with a population of 494, it used to be known as the Ohorodnyi kolhoz. The village now consists of the Dzerzhyns'ke, Leninske, Nova Tavria, Novobydogo settlements.
Krasnoarmiis'ke is a village with a population of 1,191. Known as the Zaria Komunyzna kolhoz, the village now consists of the Kozats'ke, Oktyabr and Shevchenko settlements. Pavlopil' is a village with a population of 615. Known as the Avantgarde kolhoz, it now consists of the Pyschevyk and Chernenko settlements. Prymors'ke is a village with a population of 1,495, it used to be known as the Prymors'kyi kolhoz. The village now consists of the Sosnovs ` ke, Pervomais ` ke and Ukrains ` ke settlements. Samilove is a village with a population of 536. Known as the Mayak kolhoz, the village now consists of the Klynykyno, Kovs'ke, Markyno and Scherbak settlements. Khomutove is a village with a population of 760, it was known as the kolhoz by the name of Lenin. The village now consists of the following settlements: Bessarabka, Rozy Liuksemburh and Sedogo-Vasyl'evla. Shyrokyne is a settlement with a population of 1,347. Known as the kolhoz by the name of 21st Convention of the CPSU, the settlement now consists of the following settlements: Berdians'ke, Lebedyns'ke, Sakhanka and Sopyno.
Administrative divisions of Donetsk Oblast Verkhovna Rada website - Administrative divisions of the Amvrosiivsky Raion
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element in group 12 of the periodic table. In some respects zinc is chemically similar to magnesium: both elements exhibit only one normal oxidation state, the Zn2+ and Mg2+ ions are of similar size. Zinc has five stable isotopes; the most common zinc ore is sphalerite, a zinc sulfide mineral. The largest workable lodes are in Australia and the United States. Zinc is refined by froth flotation of the ore and final extraction using electricity. Brass, an alloy of copper and zinc in various proportions, was used as early as the third millennium BC in the Aegean, the United Arab Emirates, Kalmykia and Georgia, the second millennium BC in West India, Iran, Syria and Israel/Palestine. Zinc metal was not produced on a large scale until the 12th century in India, though it was known to the ancient Romans and Greeks; the mines of Rajasthan have given definite evidence of zinc production going back to the 6th century BC. To date, the oldest evidence of pure zinc comes from Zawar, in Rajasthan, as early as the 9th century AD when a distillation process was employed to make pure zinc.
Alchemists burned zinc in air to form what they called "philosopher's wool" or "white snow". The element was named by the alchemist Paracelsus after the German word Zinke. German chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf is credited with discovering pure metallic zinc in 1746. Work by Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta uncovered the electrochemical properties of zinc by 1800. Corrosion-resistant zinc plating of iron is the major application for zinc. Other applications are in electrical batteries, small non-structural castings, alloys such as brass. A variety of zinc compounds are used, such as zinc carbonate and zinc gluconate, zinc chloride, zinc pyrithione, zinc sulfide, dimethylzinc or diethylzinc in the organic laboratory. Zinc is an essential mineral, including to postnatal development. Zinc deficiency affects about two billion people in the developing world and is associated with many diseases. In children, deficiency causes growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, infection susceptibility, diarrhea.
Enzymes with a zinc atom in the reactive center are widespread in biochemistry, such as alcohol dehydrogenase in humans. Consumption of excess zinc may cause ataxia and copper deficiency. Zinc is a bluish-white, diamagnetic metal, though most common commercial grades of the metal have a dull finish, it is somewhat less dense than iron and has a hexagonal crystal structure, with a distorted form of hexagonal close packing, in which each atom has six nearest neighbors in its own plane and six others at a greater distance of 290.6 pm. The metal is hard and brittle at most temperatures but becomes malleable between 100 and 150 °C. Above 210 °C, the metal can be pulverized by beating. Zinc is a fair conductor of electricity. For a metal, zinc has low melting and boiling points; the melting point is the lowest of all the d-block metals aside from cadmium. Many alloys contain zinc, including brass. Other metals long known to form binary alloys with zinc are aluminium, bismuth, iron, mercury, tin, cobalt, nickel and sodium.
Although neither zinc nor zirconium are ferromagnetic, their alloy ZrZn2 exhibits ferromagnetism below 35 K. A bar of zinc generates a characteristic sound when bent, similar to tin cry. Zinc makes up about 75 ppm of Earth's crust. Soil contains zinc in 5–770 ppm with an average 64 ppm. Seawater has only 30 ppb and the atmosphere, 0.1–4 µg/m3. The element is found in association with other base metals such as copper and lead in ores. Zinc is a chalcophile, meaning the element is more to be found in minerals together with sulfur and other heavy chalcogens, rather than with the light chalcogen oxygen or with non-chalcogen electronegative elements such as the halogens. Sulfides formed as the crust solidified under the reducing conditions of the early Earth's atmosphere. Sphalerite, a form of zinc sulfide, is the most mined zinc-containing ore because its concentrate contains 60–62% zinc. Other source minerals for zinc include smithsonite, hemimorphite and sometimes hydrozincite. With the exception of wurtzite, all these other minerals were formed by weathering of the primordial zinc sulfides.
Identified world zinc resources total about 1.9–2.8 billion tonnes. Large deposits are in Australia and the United States, with the largest reserves in Iran; the most recent estimate of reserve base for zinc was made in 2009 and calculated to be 480 Mt. Zinc reserves, on the other hand, are geologically identified ore bodies whose suitability for recovery is economically based at the time of determination. Since exploration and mine development is an ongoing process, the amount of zinc reserves is not a fixed number and sustainability of zinc ore supplies cannot be judged by extrapolating the combined mine life of today's zinc mines; this concept is well supported by data from the United States Geol
Donetsk is an industrial city in Ukraine on the Kalmius River. The population was estimated at 929,063 in the city, over 2,000,000 in the metropolitan area. According to the 2001 Ukrainian Census, Donetsk was the fifth-largest city in Ukraine. Administratively, it has been the centre of Donetsk Oblast, while it is the unofficial capital and largest city of the larger economic and cultural Donets Basin region. Donetsk is adjacent to another major city of Makiivka and along with other surrounding cities forms a major urban sprawl and conurbation in the region. Donetsk has been a major economic and scientific centre of Ukraine with a high concentration of companies and a skilled workforce; the original settlement in the south of the European part of the Russian Empire was first mentioned as Aleksandrovka in 1779, under the Russian Empress Catherine the Great. In 1869, Welsh businessman, John Hughes, built a steel plant and several coal mines in the region. During Soviet times, the city's steel industry was expanded.
In 1924, it was renamed Stalino, in 1932 the city became the centre of the Donetsk region. Renamed Donetsk in 1961, the city today remains the centre for steel industry. Since April 2014, Donetsk and its surrounding areas have been one of the major sites of fighting in the ongoing Donbass War, as pro-Russian separatist forces have battled against Ukrainian military forces for control of the city and surrounding areas. Through the majority of the course of this war, the city of Donetsk has been administered by the pro-Russian separatist forces, with outlying territories of the Donetsk region being divided between the two sides. On June 27, 2014, the unrecognized nation of South Ossetia recognized the Donetsk People's Republic's independence from Ukraine; as of May 8, 2018, the Donetsk People's Republic has full control of the city, with Ukrainian and DPR forces still engaging in combat outside of the city. The city was founded in 1869 when the Welsh businessman John Hughes built a steel plant and several coal mines at Aleksandrovka, in the south of European part of Russia.
It was named Hughesovka. In its early period, it received immigrants from Wales the town of Merthyr Tydfil. By the beginning of the 20th century, Yuzovka had 50,000 inhabitants, had attained the status of a city in 1917; the main district of "Hughezovka" is named English Colony, the British origin of the city is reflected in its layout and architecture. When the Russian Civil War broke out, on 12 February 1918 Yuzovka was part of the Donets-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic; the Republic was disbanded at the 2nd All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets on 20 March 1918 when the independence of the Soviet Ukraine was announced. It failed to achieve recognition, either internationally or by the Russian SFSR, and, in accordance with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, was abolished. In 1924, under the Soviet rule, the city's name was changed to Stalin. In that year, the city's population totaled 63,708, in the next year, 80,085. In 1929–31 the city's name was changed to Stalino; the city did not have a drinking water system until 1931, when a 55.3 km system was laid underground.
In July 1933, the city became the administrative center of the Donetsian Oblast of the Ukrainian SSR. In 1933, the first 12 km sewer system was installed, next year the first exploitation of gas was conducted within the city. In addition, some sources state that the city was called Trotsk—after Leon Trotsky—for a few months in 1923. At the beginning of World War II, the population of Stalino consisted of 507,000, after the war, only 175,000; the German invasion during World War II completely destroyed the city, rebuilt on a large scale at the war's end. It was occupied by German and Italian forces as part of the Reichskommissariat Ukraine between 16 October 1941 and 5 September 1943. In 1945, young men and women aged 17 to 35, from the Danube Swabian communities of Yugoslavia and Romania, were forcibly sent to Russia as Allied "war reparations", being put to work as slave labour to rebuild Stalino and to work in its mines; the conditions were so poor that many died from malnutrition. During Nikita Khrushchev's second wave of destalinization in November 1961, the city was renamed Donetsk, after the Seversky Donets River, a tributary of the Don in order to distance it from the former leader Joseph Stalin.
In 1965, the Donetsk Academy of Sciences was established as part of the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR. After experiencing a tough time in the 1990s, when it was the center of gang wars for control over industrial enterprises, Donetsk has modernised in recent years under the influence of big companies. In 1994 a referendum took place in the Donetsk Oblast and the Luhansk Oblast, with around 90% supporting the Russian language gaining status of an official language alongside Ukrainian, for the Russian language to be an official language on a regional level. In the 1990s and the 2000s coal mine collapses took place in Donetsk and the region, taking the lives of hundreds. Ukraine has had a series of mining accidents since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, one reason being given is the linking of miners' pay t
War in Donbass
The War in Donbass is an armed conflict in the Donbass region of Ukraine. From the beginning of March 2014, protests by pro-Russian and anti-government groups took place in the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine collectively called the "Donbass", in the aftermath of the 2014 Ukrainian revolution and the Euromaidan movement; these demonstrations, which followed the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, which were part of a wider group of concurrent pro-Russian protests across southern and eastern Ukraine, escalated into an armed conflict between the separatist forces of the self-declared Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics, the Ukrainian government. In the Donetsk People's Republic, from May 2014 until a change of the top leadership in August 2014, some of the top leaders were Russian citizens. According to the Ukrainian government, at the height of the conflict in mid-2014, Russian paramilitaries were reported to make up between 15% to 80% of the combatants. Between 22 and 25 August 2014, Russian artillery and what Russia called a "humanitarian convoy" crossed the border into Ukrainian territory without permission of the Ukrainian government.
Crossings occurred both in areas under the control of pro-Russian forces and in areas that were not under their control, such as the south-eastern part of Donetsk Oblast, near Novoazovsk. These events followed the reported shelling of Ukrainian positions from the Russian side of the border over the course of the preceding month. Head of the Security Service of Ukraine, Valentyn Nalyvaichenko characterised the events of 22 August as a "direct invasion by Russia of Ukraine", while other western and Ukrainian officials described the events as a "stealth invasion" of Ukraine by Russia. Russia's official position on the presence of Russian forces in Donbass has been vague: while official bodies have denied presence of "regular armed forces" in Ukraine, it has on numerous occasions confirmed presence of "military specialists", along with other euphemisms accompanied by an argument that Russia "was forced" to deploy them to "defend the Russian-speaking population"; as a result of the August 2014 events, DPR and LPR insurgents regained much of the territory they had lost during the Ukrainian government's preceding military offensive.
Ukraine, the DPR and the LPR signed an agreement to establish a ceasefire, called the Minsk Protocol, on 5 September 2014. Violations of the ceasefire on both sides became common. Amidst the solidification of the line between insurgent and government-controlled territory during the ceasefire, warlords took control of swaths of land on the insurgent side, leading to further destabilisation; the ceasefire collapsed in January 2015, with renewed heavy fighting across the conflict zone, including at Donetsk International Airport and at Debaltseve. Involved parties agreed to a new ceasefire, called Minsk II, on 12 February 2015. Following the signing of the agreement, separatist forces launched an offensive on Debaltseve and forced Ukrainian forces to withdraw from it. In the months after the fall of Debaltseve, minor skirmishes continued along the line of contact, but no territorial changes occurred; this state of stalemate led to the war being labelled a "frozen conflict". In 2017, on average one Ukrainian soldier died in combat every three days, with the number of Russian and separatist troops remaining in the region estimated at 6,000 and 40,000 respectively.
By the end of 2017, OSCE observatory mission had accounted for around 30,000 individuals in military-style dress crossing from Russia to Donbass just at two border checkpoints it was allowed to monitor. Since the start of the conflict there have been more than twenty ceasefires, each intended to remain in force indefinitely, but none of them stopped the violence; the most successful attempt to halt the fighting was in 2016, when a ceasefire held for six consecutive weeks. The latest ceasefire came into force on 8 March 2019, which led to a significant decrease of fighting in the following days. Attempts to seize the Donetsk Regional State Administration building began since pro-Russian protests erupted in the eastern and southern regions of Ukraine, in the wake of the 2014 Ukrainian revolution. Pro-Russian protesters occupied the Donetsk RSA from 1–6 March, before being removed by the Security Service of Ukraine. On 6 April, 1,000–2,000 people gathered at a rally in Donetsk to demand a status referendum similar to the one held in Crimea in March.
The demonstrators stormed the RSA building, took control of its first two floors. They said that if an extraordinary legislative session was not held by regional officials to implement a status referendum, they would take control of the regional government with a "people's mandate", dismiss all elected regional councillors and members of parliament; as these demands were not met, the activists held a meeting in the RSA building, voted in favour of independence from Ukraine. They proclaimed the Donetsk People's Republic. Concurrent to the events in Donetsk, armed forces led by Russian operative Igor Girkin stormed and occupied government buildings in other regional centres beginning on 12 April. Unrest in Luhansk Oblast began on 6 April, when 1,000 activists seized and occupied the SBU building in the city of Luhansk, following similar occupations in the cities of Donetsk and Kharkiv. Protesters barricaded the building, demanded that all arrested separatist leaders be released. Police were able to retake control of the building, but the demonstrators regathered for a'people's assembly' outside the building and called for a'people's gove
Administrative divisions of Ukraine
Ukraine is divided into several levels of territorial entities. On the first level there are 27 regions: 24 oblasts, one autonomous republic, two "cities with special status". Following the 2014 Crimean crisis and Sevastopol became de facto administrated by the Russian Federation, which claims them as the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol; the international community recognises them as being Ukrainian territory. The administrative division in Ukraine was directly inherited from the local republican administration of the Soviet Union, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, has not changed since the middle of the 20th century, it is somewhat complex as beside having several levels of a territorial subdivision, it has a classification for various populated places cities. According to the Article 133 of Constitution of Ukraine, "the system of the administrative and territorial structure of Ukraine is composed of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, districts, districts in city and villages."
Note, that although certain types of subdivision are not mentioned in Constitution of Ukraine, they are mentioned for regional composition. For disambiguation regular raions are sometimes denoted as rural to distinguish them from raions in city. Ukraine's administrative divisions are divided as follows: By geographical characteristics the units are divided on regions and places of settlement. By their status they can be administrative-territorial units, self-governed territorial units; the autonomous republic has a unique status of territorial autonomy, while districts in cities combine both characteristics of administrative territorial as well as self-governed territorial units. By position in the system of administrative division of Ukraine, the units divided into territorial units of prime level, of middle level, of higher level. Administrative division has changed because some territories are not under the control of the government. For example, Sievierodonetsk has become the new central regional center.
Regions, districts are governed by a state administration, a chief of, appointed by the president after a nomination by the cabinet of ministers. Crimea has its own cabinet of ministers, however the state administration is represented by the office of the Presidential Representative of Ukraine. A basic and the lowest level of administrative division is a settlement, governed by a local council. Cities as a settlement always carry a special status within a region and have their own form of self-administration and some may consist of their own city's districts. City municipalities are governed by a city council; some smaller cities and rural localities may be under control of city municipalities based on larger cities. Towns as well as villages are not controlled by state administration and are self-governed by either a town council or a village council within the limits of the Constitution and the laws of Ukraine. Village councils may carry a combined jurisdiction which may include several hamlets.
Unlike villages, each town council always has a separate jurisdiction which may be part of bigger city's council. Hamlet is governed by a village council of nearby village. Ukraine is divided into 3 main administrative divisions: oblast and council. Note, settlements such as cities do not necessary constitute the basic level of the Ukrainian administrative territorial system. For that purpose cities are categorized into own three categories that correspond to each level of subdivisions. Cities with special status and regional significance beside being divided into special districts in city may include smaller cities, and/or villages. Please, note that the settlement's population size is not the only factor for its status; the final decision on status change is carried out by the Ukrainian parliament. The following table is based on the 2001 Ukrainian Census; the following numbers are based on the 2001 Ukrainian Census. Top level:Autonomous Republic of Crimea Oblasts of Ukraine Cities with special status: Kiev and Sevastopol Middle level: Raions Cities of oblast significance City districts Primary level: Cities of raion significance Urban-type settlements Villages Rural-type settlements Total cities: 454, an increase of 20 compared with the 1989 census.
Before the introduction of oblasts in 1932, Ukraine comprised 40 okruhas, which had replaced the former Russian Imperial guberniya subdivisions. In 1932 the territory of the Ukrainian SSR was re-established based on oblasts. Excluded in the administrative changes was Western Ukraine, which at that time formed part of the Second Polish Republic and shared in the Polish form of administrative division based on voivodeships. In the post-World War II period, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic consisted of 25 oblasts and two cities with special status. After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, Crimea obtained the status of an autonomous republic wit
City status is a symbolic and legal designation given by a national or subnational government. A municipality may receive city status because it has the qualities of a city, or because it has some special purpose. City status was a privilege granted by royal letters of patent; the status foreign trade, in contrast to towns. Sovereigns could establish cities by decree, e.g. Helsinki, regardless of what was in the location beforehand. With the establishment of federal governments, the new capital could be established from scratch, e.g. Brasília, without going through organic growth from a village to a town. British city status was conferred on settlements with a diocesan cathedral. In the United States city can be used for much smaller settlements; the Government of China in 1982–1997 upgraded many counties to cities by decree, thereby increasing their city count from 250 to more than 650 during this period. 15% of the counties in China became cities. The new "cities" may include large rural areas as well as urban areas.
The upgrade was considered desirable by local governments because the new status provides additional powers of taxation and administration, the right to expand the size of government, an increase in the proportion of land which could be converted from agriculture to buildings. City status in Belgium City status in Ireland City status in Sweden City status in the United Kingdom City rights in the Low Countries Statutory city City with special status Federal cities of Russia.