Kathakali is one of the major forms of classical Indian dance. It is a "story play" genre of art, but one distinguished by the elaborately colorful make-up, costumes and facemasks that the traditionally male actor-dancers wear. Kathakali is a Hindu performance art in the Malayalam-speaking southwestern region of India. Kathakali's roots are unclear; the developed style of Kathakali originated around the 17th century, but its roots are in the temple and folk arts, which are traceable to at least the 1st millennium CE. A Kathakali performance, like all classical dance arts of India, synthesizes music, vocal performers and hand and facial gestures together to express ideas. However, Kathakali differs in that it incorporates movements from ancient Indian martial arts and athletic traditions of South India. Kathakali differs in that the structure and details of its art form developed in the courts and theatres of Hindu principalities, unlike other classical Indian dances which developed in Hindu temples and monastic schools.
The traditional themes of the Kathakali are folk mythologies, religious legends and spiritual ideas from the Hindu epics and the Puranas. The vocal performance has traditionally been performed in Sanskritised Malayalam. In modern compositions, Indian Kathakali troupes have included women artists, as well as adapted Western stories and plays such as those by Shakespeare; the term Kathakali is derived from Katha which means "story, or a conversation, or a traditional tale", Kali which means "performance and art". Elements and aspects of Kathakali can be found in ancient Sanskrit texts such as the Natya Shastra; the Natya Shastra is attributed to sage Bharata, its first complete compilation is dated to between 200 BCE and 200 CE, but estimates vary between 500 BCE and 500 CE. The most studied version of the Natya Shastra text consists of about 6000 verses structured into 36 chapters; the text, states Natalia Lidova, describes the theory of Tāṇḍava dance, the theory of rasa, of bhāva, gestures, acting techniques, basic steps, standing postures – all of which are part of Indian classical dances including Kathakali.
Dance and performance arts, states this ancient Hindu text, are a form of expression of spiritual ideas and the essence of scriptures. The roots of Kathakali are unclear. Jones and Ryan state. Kathakali emerged as a distinct genre of performance art during the 16th and 17th centuries in a coastal population of south India that spoke Malayalam; the roots of Kathakali, states Mahinder Singh, are some 1500 years old. According to Farley Richmond and other scholars, Kathakali shares many elements such as costumes with ancient Indian performance arts such as Kutiyattam and medieval era Krishnanattam though a detailed examination shows differences. Kutiyattam, adds Richmond, is "one of the oldest continuously performed theatre forms in India, it may well be the oldest surviving art form of the ancient world". Kutiyattam, was performed in theatres specially designed and attached to Hindu temples dedicated to the Shiva and to Krishna; the designs of these theatres matched the dimensions and architecture recommended as "ideal" in the ancient Natya Shastra, some of them could house 500 viewers.
Krishnanattam is the immediate precursor of Kathakali, states Zarrilli. Krishnanattam is dance-drama art form about the life and activities of Hindu god Krishna, that developed under the sponsorship of Sri Manavedan Raja, the ruler of Calicut; the traditional legend states that Kottarakkara Thampuran requested the services of a Krishnanattam troupe, but his request was denied. So Kottarakkara Thampuran created another art form based on Krishnanattam, called it Ramanattam because the early plays were based on the Hindu epic Ramayana, which over time diversified beyond Ramayana and became popular as'Kathakali'. Another related performance art is Ashtapadiyattom, a dance drama based on the Gita Govinda of the twelfth-century poet Jayadeva, told the story of Krishna embodied as a humble cowherd, his consort Radha, three cow girls. Kathakali incorporates several elements from other traditional and ritualistic art forms like Mudiyettu and Padayani besides folk arts such as Porattunatakam that shares ideas with the Tamil Terukkuthu tradition.
The south Indian martial art of Kalarippayattu has influenced Kathakali. Despite the links, Kathakali is different from temple-driven arts such as "Krishnanattam", Kutiyattam and others because unlike the older arts where the dancer-actor had to be the vocal artist, Kathakali separated these roles allowing the dancer-actor to excel in and focus on choreography while the vocal artists focused on delivering their lines. Kathakali expanded the performance repertoire and standardized the costume making it easier for the audience to understand the various performances and new plays. Kathakali is structured around plays called Attakatha, written in Sanskritized Malayalam; these plays are written in a particular format that helps identify the "action" and the "dialogue" parts of the performance. The Shloka part is the metrical verse, written in third person – entirely in Sanskrit - describing the action part of the choreography; the Pada part contains the dialogue part. These Attakatha texts grant considerable flexibility to the actors to improvise.
All these plays were derived from Hindu texts such as the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and the Bhagavata Purana. A Kathakali
A municipality is a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets; the term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district; the term is derived from French Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium, referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments. A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass only one populated place such as a city, town, or village several of such places only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile. Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. In various countries, municipalities are referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages such as French commune, Italian comune, Romanian comună, Spanish comuna, in Germanic languages such as German Kommune, Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities and communes, a commune may be part of a municipality. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.
In Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, parishes, rural municipalities, townships and villes among others; the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include regional municipalities. Nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality if their population was under 100,000.
Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional Act,1992. In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town, organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, for the governing body itself; such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, in Scotland as a council area. A district can retain its district title. In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided.
This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and on may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. In the United States, "municipality" is understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law contex
Zamorin of Calicut
Samoothiri of Kozhikode is the hereditary title of the Hindu monarch of the kingdom of Kozhikode on Malabar Coast, India. The Samoothiris were based at the city of Kozhikode, one of the important trading ports on the south-western coast of India. At the peak of their reign, the Samoothiri's ruled over a region from Kollam to Panthalayini Kollam, it was after the dissolution of the kingdom of Cheras of Cranganore in the early 12th century, the Samoothiris – autonomous chiefs of Eranadu – demonstrated their political independence. The Samoothiris maintained elaborate trade relations with the Muslim Middle-Eastern sailors in the Indian Ocean, the primary spice traders on the Malabar Coast in the Middle Ages. Kozhikode was an important entrepôt in south-western India where Chinese and West Asian trade met; the Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama visited the Kozhikode in 1498, opening the sailing route directly from Europe to Asia. The Portuguese efforts to lay the foundations to Estado da Índia, to take complete control over the commerce was hampered by the forces of Samoothiri of Kozhikode.
The Kunjali Marakkars, the famous Muslim warriors, were the naval chiefs of Kozhikode. By the end of the 16th century the Portuguese – now commanding the spice traffic on the Malabar Coast – had succeeded in replacing the Muslim merchants in the Arabian Sea; the Dutch supplanted the Portuguese in the 17th century. In 1766 Haider Ali of Mysore defeated the Samoothiri of Kozhikode – an English East India Company dependant at the time – and absorbed Kozhikode to his state. After the Third Mysore War, Malabar was placed under the control of the Company; the status of the Samoothiri as independent rulers was changed to that of pensioners of the Company. The title "Samoothiri" appears in sources only after the c. 15th century, first time in the writings Ibn Batutah. It is safe to assume that the Eradis of Nediyirippu assumed the title of "Samoothiri" in a period; the Samoothiris used the title "Punthurakon" in inscriptions, in palace records known as the Granthavaris, in official treaties with the English and the Dutch.
No records indicate the actual personal name of the ruler. Punthura may be a port of great fame; the title "Kunnalakkon" and its Sanskrit form "Shailabdhishvara" are found in literary works. Thrikkavil Kovilakam in Ponnani served as a second home for the Samoothiris of Kozhikode. Other secondary seats of the Samoothiri of Kozhikode, all established at much time, were Trichur and Cranganore; the chief Kerala ports under control of the Samoothiris in the late 15th century were Panthalayini Kollam, Kozhikode. The Samoothiri of Kozhikode derived greater part of his revenues by taxing the spice trade through his ports. Smaller ports in the kingdom were Puthuppattanam, Tanur, Ponnani and Kodungallur; the port of Beypore served as a ship building center. The port at Kozhikode held the superior economic and political position in Kerala, while Kollam and Kannur were commercially confined to secondary roles. Travellers have called the city by different names – variations of the Malayalam name; the travellers from Middle-East called it "Kalikooth", Tamils called the city "Kallikkottai", for the Chinese it was "Kalifo" or "Quli".
In the Middle Ages, Kozhikode was dubbed the "City of Spices" for its role as the major trading point of Asian spices. The Chinese and Middle-Eastern interests in Malabar, the political ambition of the newly emergent rulers, i.e. the Samoothiris, the decline of port Kodungallur, etc. boosted the prosperity of the port. The rise of the Kozhikode, both the port and the state, seems to have taken place only after the 13th century AD. Kozhikode, despite being located at a geographically inconvenient spot, owed much of its prosperity to the economic policies of the Samoothiris of Kozhikode. Trade at port Kozhikode was managed by the Muslim port commissioner known as the Shah Bandar Koya; the port commissioner supervised the customs on the behalf of the king, fixed the prices of the commodities and collected the share to the Kozhikode treasury. The name of the famous fine variety of cotton cloth called calico is thought to have derived from Kozhikode. Known as "Fandarina", "Shaojunan". Located north of Kozhikode, close to a bay.
The geographical location is ideal for the wintering of ships during the annual monsoon rains. Presence of Chetti and Jewish merchants among others. According to K. V. Krishna Iyer, the court historian in Kozhikode, the members of the royal house of Samoothiri belonged the Samanta community; the Samantas claimed a status higher than the rest of the Nairs. The Hindu theological formula that the rulers must be of Kshatriya varna may have been a complication for the Nair Samantas of the Kodungallur Chera monarch. So the Samantas – crystallized as a distinctive social group, something of a "sub-caste" – began to style themselves as "Samanta Ksatriyas"; the Samantas have birth and death customs identical to the Nair community. In the royal family, thalis of the princesses were tied by Kshatriyas from Kodungallur chief's family, which the Samoothiri recognised as more ancient and therefore higher rank; the majority of the women's sambandham partners were Nambudiri Brahmins. The
Malappuram district, with its headquarters at Malappuram, is a district in the state of Kerala, India. The district was formed on 16 June 1969. Malappuram district is composed of portions of the former Palakkad and Kozhikode districts: Ernad taluk and portions of Tirur taluk in Kozhikode district, portions of Perinthalmannna and Ponnani taluks in Palakkad district. A stronghold of orthodox Brahminical Hinduism many famous scholars like Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri who composed the Narayaneeyam in Sanskrit, poonthanam namboodiri and Thunchaththu Ramanujan Ezhuthachan came from Malappuram; the ancient Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics though centred in Thrissur had namboodiri and nair scholars coming from malappuram. Today the district includes the classic medieval centre of Vedic learning. Islam came to Malappuram early in prophet Mohammed's era itself. Ponnani, one of the oldest centres of Islamic education in the region is located here. In 1921 the present-day Malappuram district was part of the Moplah rebellions, followed by decades of stagnant economic and political development.
In the early years of Communist rule in Kerala, Malappuram experienced land reform under the Land Reform Ordinance. During the 1970s Persian Gulf oil reserves were opened to commercial extraction, thousands of unskilled workers migrated to the Gulf, they sent money home, supporting the rural economy, by the late 20th century the region had First World health standards and near-universal literacy. Malappuram district contains abundant wildlife and a number of small hills, forests and streams flowing to the west and paddy, cashew nut, ginger, coconut, banana and rubber plantations. Malappuram is one of two Muslim-majority districts in south India; the Hindu temples and Moplah mosques of the region are known for their colorful festivals, it is the most populous district in Kerala. Religions practised in the district include Hinduism, Christianity, Sikhism and tribal religions. Malappuram, meaning "terraced place atop the hills", derives from the geography of the district headquarters. Before the district's formation, the region was known as Eranad, Vettathunad etc.
The district has a rich political heritage. The port of Ponnani was a centre of trade with Ancient Rome. After the Chera Dynasty a number of dynasties controlled the area, by the ninth century the region was ruled by the Kulasekharas of Mahodayapuram. After the disintegration of the Kulasekhara kingdom a number of Nair city-states emerged, including Valluvanad, Vettattunadu and Nediyiruppu. During the 13th century, the Samoothiri of Calicut expanded their territories to Malabar. Thirunavaya, the seat of Mamankam, was in Malappuram district. European colonial powers first landed in Malabar during the 15th century, the Samoothiris allied with foreign powers. During the 18th century, the de facto Mysore kingdom rulers Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan marched into the Samoothiris’ districts. Malappuram has been part of movements such as Khilafat Movement and Moplah Rebellion in the early 20th century. Before Indian independence in 1947, Malappuram was part of Malabar District in the Madras Presidency of British India.
The present district was administered as parts of Kozhikode, Eranad taluk, Valluvanad Taluk and Ponnani taluk. Malabar District remained part of Madras state for some time after independence, but on 1 November 1956 it merged with Travancore-Cochin to form the state of Kerala. Large-scale changes in the territorial jurisdiction of the region took place in 1957 and 1969. On 1 January 1957, Tirur taluk was formed from portions of Ponnani taluk. Another portion of Ponnani taluk was transferred to the new Chavakkad taluk in Thrissur district, the remainder is present-day Ponnani taluk. Perinthalmanna taluk was formed from the former Valluvanad Taluk. Of these, Eranad Taluk and Tirur remained in Kozhikode District and Perinthalmanna Taluk and Ponnani taluk remained in Palakkad District; the new district of Malappuram was formed with four taluks, four towns, fourteen developmental blocks and 100 panchayats. Two more taluks, Tirurangadi and Kondotty were formed from Tirur Taluk and Eranad taluk; the district, in northern Kerala, is bounded on the northeast by Wayanad and northwest by Kozhikkode districts, on the northeast by Tamil Nadu, on the southeast and south by Palakkad District, on the southwest by Thrissur District and on the west by the Arabian Sea.
In the 2011 census the district had a population of 4,112,920. Malappuram is the 50th-most-populous of India's 640 districts, with a population density of 1,158 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population-growth rate from 2001 to 2011 was 13.39 percent. Malappuram has a sex ratio of 1096 women to 1000 men, its literacy rate is 93.55 percent. Malayalam is the district's principal language. Minority Dravidian languages are Allar and Aranadan, kept alive by the low education level of its 200 speakers. Tamil spoken by partial number of people. Malappuram Ponnani Wayanad Eranad Tirur Tirurangadi Ponnani Perintalmanna Nilambur Kondotty Malappuram, Kondotty, Mankada, Thirurangadi, Vallikkunnu, Tanur, Nilambur, Wandoor and Tavanur About 1,000 people are aided annually under a self-employment programme. There are KINFRA food-processing and IT industrial estates in Kakkancherry, Inkel SME Park at Panakkad for Small and Medium Industries and a rubber plant and industrial estate in Payyanad. MALCOSPIN, The Malappuram Spinn
Tirur railway station
Tirur railway station is a major railway station in Kerala serving the town of Tirur in Malappuram District of Kerala. It lies in the Shoranur - Mangalore Section of the Southern Railways. All passenger and express trains have a halt here; the station has three tracks. Though no trains originate from this station, trains halting at the station connect the town to prominent cities in India such as Thiruvananthapuram, Chennai, Bangalore, Coimbatore, New Delhi, Pune, Jammu Tawi, Ahmedabad, Kolkata and so forth; the first railway line in Kerala was commissioned on 12 March 1861 from Beypore to Tirur. The proposed High Speed Rail has a stop in Tirur
K. C. Manavedan Raja
His Highness Kizhakke Covilakam Manavedan Raja alias Cheriyanujan Raja was an Indian aristocrat and administrator. He was the titular Zamorin of Calicut from 1932 to 1937. Manavedan Raja was born in the Kottakkal branch of the Zamorin Royal family of Calicut in 1855, he graduated from the University of Madras and entered the provincial civil service, the first from the family. Appointed to the civil service on June 4, 1880, he rose to become Assistant Collector in 1882 and Sub-Collector by 1895, he served as a District Collector and a judge. In 1932, he succeeded to become the Zamorin of Calicut; as the titular Zamorin, Manavedan Raja proved himself to be an able visionary. It was in 1934, that the famous Guruvayur Satyagraha happened. People, under the leadership of Gandhian K Kelappan, campaigned for the opening of Guruvayur Temple to all castes. Mahatma Gandhi himself came to Kerala in support of the movement, met with the Zamorin Manavedan Raja, the chief administrator of Guruvayoor temple. Though the talks were not published, it is speculated that the Zamorin told Gandhi that he cannot take decisions which might cause great social unrest.
Subsequently, Gandhi advised Kelappan to call off the Satyagraha. Manavedan Raja started a Raja's High School in Kottakkal, for educating the children of Kovilakam, he significantly improved and expanded Zamorins College at Calicut. Raja's children were well educated, his elder son became a District Collector. His fourth son, M. K. Vellodi joined Indian Civil Service and became the first Chief Minister of Hyderabad State. Vellodi was the first High Commissioner of India to UK, he rose to the position of Cabinet Secretary. Raja, K. C. R.. "A Family Reunion". Kcrraja.com. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Great Britain India Office; the India List and India Office List. London: Harrison and Sons. P. 537
Kottakkal Madhu is a Sopana music singer and composer from Kottakkal, who specializes in Kathakali related music. He was born to K. Govindan K. Sathyabhama, he learned his music from Parameswara Iyer. Subsequently, in 1980, he joined P. S. V. Natyasangham at Kottakkal, an institute for learning performing arts, to learn Kathakali vocal music, he became a senior faculty member at the P. S. V. Natyasangham, he has composed music in many kathakali performances in India and toured Switzerland once with the P. S. V. Natyasangham group, he was a recipient of the T. V. Kochaniyan award, constituted in memory of the former chairman of the Kerala Kalamandalam to encourage young artists, he is married to Vrinda and has two daughters and Keerthana. As a singer, Madhu is known for experimenting with newer nuances in the Raga vistara and introducing new Ragas; this has endeared him to the younger audiences of Kathakali. Kottakkal Madhu, along with Pathiyoor Sankarankutty may be the foremost exponents of Kathakali padam singing at present.
Kottakkal Madhu was the chosen singer in all prominent multimedias to have featured Kathakali, like the Indo/French film: Vanaprastham, indiavideo.org series on Kathakali and Sanskrit film Priyamanasam. Cyberkerala - Kottakkal Madhu The Hindu - Consummate performer of female roles The Hindu - Helping hand to Kathakali Invis Multimedia.com - Vocal: Kottakkal Madhu List of kathakalipadams sung by Madhu from kathakalipadam.com: A comprehensive database for kathakali music with streaming