Mookambika is the Hindu goddess, representing Adi Parashakti, known as Shakti. She is depicted with three eyes and four arms with a divine disc and conch; the goddess has a large following among the people of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu states of India, popularly being known as Mooghambighai Amma or Thaai Mooghambighai, where Amma and Thaai mean "mother". As per legends, there lived a sage in ancient years named Kola Maharishi, troubled by a demon; the demon was in penance to obtain boon from gods, only for the sake of troubling more. Shiva's wife Parvati made the demon dumb, so he can't ask for boons; the demon was called as Mookasura. The frustrated mute demon started creating more problems to the sage and the people around. Upon the appealed request of the sage, Goddess Parvati descended in a powerful form and killed Mookasura. So the goddess came to be hailed as Mookambika; the sage requested the goddess to stay in that place and so did goddess took her abode in the same place, called Kollur. Mookambika Temple, Kollur Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary
P. Aisha Potty
P. Aisha Potty is an Indian politician and the current MLA of Kottarakkara since May 2016, she has been the Member of Legislative Assembly from Kottarakkara constituency, Kollam for three consecutive terms since 2006. Daughter of Shri N. Vasudevan Potty and Smt. N. J. Parvathy Antharjanam, Aisha Potty is member of All India Lawyers Union National Council, she is the convener of State Women’s Sub Committee
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Punalur is a town and a business center in Kollam District, in the Indian State of Kerala. It is the second biggest commercial center in the district. It's the headquarters of Punalur Taluk and Punalur Revenue Division. It's situated in the eastern part of Kollam district of the southern Indian state of Kerala, on the banks of the Kallada River and foothills of the western ghats, it is about 45 kilometres north-east of Kollam and 75 kilometres north of Thiruvananthapuram. It is the second Largest city in Kollam District after Kollam and is one of the biggest Municipal Towns in Kerala, home to a paper industry with the Punalur Paper Mills, established in the 1850s, one of the first industries in Kerala and a pioneer in the industrial revolution of the state. Punalur is known as the "Pepper village of Kerala". Punalur became an important trading and transport centre between Kollam and Tirunelveli under the rule of the Travancore Kingdom. Steady progress by the Punalur Panchayat administration saw an upgrade to municipality status in 1971.
It is believed that Punalur derived its name by the word'Punal', "Ooru", referring to the river passing through the town. Punalur is a city on a mountain path which had good relations with Tamil Nadu to the East from time unknown. Most parts of Punalur taluk were inhabited before the Indus Valley Civilization. Human civilizations existed in Punalur during the Mesolithic period around Thenmalai. Punalur is described in inscriptions of Vellayani; until 1734, Punalur was under the direct rule of the Ilaydathu Swaroopam. It was annexed by Marthanda Varma and came under the rule of Travancore; the British Raj established a good hold over this part of India due to its rich agricultural resources. Shenduruny has a rich heritage. A recent study conducted by Dr. P. Rajendran], archaeological research associate of the Poona Deccan College, has resulted in the excavation of the remains of Stone Age culture from a large cave situated at the north western part of the Shenduruny River, it was proved. This study brought out the fact that the Shenduruny River Valley Civilization was one of the oldest river valley civilizations in India.
It dates to between 5210 and 4420 BC, making it older than the Indus Valley Civilization, believed to have flourished from 4400 to 3700 BC. Cave paintings seen here are comparable to the Mesolithic paintings found in the caves of central India; the cave found. According to Dr. Rajendran, the marshy place seen below just in front of the cave once must have been a lake. Now the Shenduruny River has the reputation that it had nourished a civilization in the prehistoric past. Punalur served as a pivot point in the rise of the independence movement and against the rule of Diwan. Many meetings were centered on Punalur due to its close proximity to Tamil Nadu. Many important decisions on planning and attacking Tirunelveli collector were taken in Punalur; the Taluk headquarters was shifted from Pathnapuram to Punalur, after an attack at Pathnapuram in 1880. This helped aid the growth of Punalur; the flow of goods to and from Tamil Nadu started traveling through Punalur. Punalur is the first settlement after the Western ghats.
The opening of the Punalur Suspension Bridge increased the importance of Punalur as a centre of trade between Tamil Nadu and Kerala. The rail route between Kollam and Thiruchendur made the town more prosperous. Punalur Paper Mills, the first of its kind in Kerala, served both as an economic centre as well as a source of jobs; the Punalur paper mill employees' union was one of the first organised employee unions in the state of Kerala itself. The workers of Punalur paper mill participated in movements including freedom fight and the riot against Diwan rule; the Travancore plywood industry added to Punalur's importance in the industrial field. Punalur Market is one of the largest vegetable/agro-products markets in Kerala; the cultural history of Punalur reflects in the work of traditional and modern artists and performing groups of music, cinema, etc. acclaimed contributions of Punalur N. Rajagopalan Nair, Punalur Balan and Lalithambika Antharjanam in theatre and Malayalam literature. Punalur has an average elevation of 56 metres.
Many tourists have visited scenic spots along the Kallada River. The Palaruvi Falls is 35 kilometres from Punalur; the first planned eco-tourism project in Kerala is only 20 kilometres from Punalur on NH 208 towards Sengottai. Punalur Assembly constituency is part of the Kollam. K Raju, the current Minister For Forestry And Animal Husbandry is MLA of Punalur assembly constituency. N K Premachandran is MP of Kollam Lok Sabha constituency. Punalur is a City in Kerala; the municipality was formed on 1st April 1971, with an area of 34.06 square kilometres. Punalur is a Grade-II municipality and divided into 35 electoral wards. Punalur is the largest municipality in Kollam District. Punalur is one of the two Revenue Divisions of Kollam district another being Kollam itself. Punalur Revenue divisional office was formed on Keralapiravi day 1st November 2018. It's headed by RDO/Sub Collector. Punalur RDO headquarters is situated at TB Jn. Punalur Revenue division administratively divided into three Taluks: Punalur and Pathanapuram, each of, subdivided into 50 villages.
Punalur is the headquarters of the Punalur Taluk and is one of the major and l
Kollam district is one of 14 districts of the state of Kerala, India. The district has a cross-section of Kerala's natural attributes; the district has many waterbodies. Kallada river is one among them, the east side land of river is EastKallada and the west side land is WestKallada. Kallada Boat race is one among the famous festival events of district. Though it is a competition between two land sides of the river, many boat clubs from various place,s beyond the district participate in the event. Kollam is the capital of Kerala's cashew industry. Plains, lakes and backwaters, forests and rivers make up the topography of the district; the area had trading relationships with Ancient Rome. Kollam's temperature is steady throughout the year; the average temperature ranges from 25 to 32 degrees Celsius. Summer runs from March until May. Kollam receives an annual average rainfall of around 2,700 millimetres. Kollam receives both northeast monsoons. Winter is from November to February. According to the 2011 census Kollam district has a population of 2,629,703 equal to the nation of Kuwait or the US state of Nevada.
This gives it a ranking of 155th in India. The district has a population density of 1,056 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 1.72 percent. Kollam has a sex ratio of 1113 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 93.77 percent. In 2011 Indian Census Hindu population is 64.42%, Muslim 19.3%, Christian 16%. The Kollam Urban Agglomeration is the 6th most populous UA in the state. Kollam is placed 49th in the list of most populous urban agglomerations in India; the total urban population of the entire district is 1,187,158. The metropolitan area of Kollam includes Adichanalloor, Ayanivelikulangara, Elampalloor, Chengamanadau, Kollam, Kulasekharapuram, Meenad, Neendakara, Panayam, Paravur, Poothakkulam, Thodiyoor, Thrikkaruva and Vadakkumthala The history of the district's administration can be traced back to 1835, when the Travancore state consisted of two revenue divisions with headquarters at Kollam and Kottayam; when Travancore and Cochin were combined into Travancore-Cochin, Kollam was one of the three revenue divisions.
When the state of Kerala was formed in 1957, half portion of Chenkotta taluk was merged with the state of Madras. In 1957, the Cherthala, Mavelikara, Karthikapalli and Thiruvalla taluks were united to form the new district of Alappuzha. In 1983, Pathanamthitta taluk and Adoor taluk and seven villages of Kunnathur taluk were removed from Kollam district to form the new Pathanamthitta district. Police administration in Kollam is divided into two districts: rural; the City Police is headed by a City Police Commissioner, an IPS officer with the rank of SP. The rural police is headed by the Rural Superintendent of Police, with its headquarters at Kottarakkara. Both heads report to the Inspector General of Thiruvananthapuram Range; the Kollam City Police is divided into three subdivisions, each under an Assistant Commissioner of Police: Karunagappally and Chathannoor. Each subdivision is divided into circles, headed by the Circle Inspector of Police; each circle is divided into a number of police stations, headed by a Sub-Inspector of Police.
The Kollam Rural Police District is divided into two subdivisions, each under an Assistant Superintendent of Police / Deputy Superintendent of Police: Kottarakkara and Punalur. There are a total of 29 police stations, in 13 circles. Kollam city traffic is controlled by the City Traffic Police, with a Traffic Police Station located near the Asramam Ground. Kerala's first coastal police station was established in Kollam; the first police museum in India has a large collection of rare photographs. The museum has a room dedicated to officers killed in the line of duty; the forensic section has a large collection of photographs. The museum is located at the Kollam East Police Station. Kollam District now divided into two Revenue Divisions. 1) Kollam Kollam taluk Karunagapally taluk Kunnathur taluk2) Punalur Punalur taluk Kottarakara taluk Pathanapuram taluk Kollam is administratively divided into 6 taluks. They are Kollam, Kunnathur, Kottarakkara and Pathanapuram, which are subdivided into 104 villages.
The tahsildar is the revenue official in charge of each taluk. There are four municipalities in Kollam District. Punalur, Paravur and Kottarakkara are the municipalities. There is a long-standing demand for upgrading Pathanapuram & Anchal panchayaths into municipal status. Kollam district has three Lok Sabha constituencies, they include the Chavara, Eravipuram, Chathannoor and Punalur assembly constituencies. While the Kunnathur and Pathanapuram constituencies are in the Mavelikkara Lok Sabha constituency, the Karunagapally assembly constituency is in the Alappuzha Lok Sabha constituency. Kollam is connected by train service, it is connected to neighbouring states by bus service operated by the Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (K
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken in the Indian state of Kerala and the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry by the Malayali people, it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India. Malayalam has official language status in the state of Kerala and in the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry and is spoken by 38 million people worldwide. Malayalam is spoken by linguistic minorities in the neighbouring states. Due to Malayali expatriates in the Persian Gulf, the language is widely spoken in Gulf countries; the origin of Malayalam remains a matter of dispute among scholars. One view holds that Malayalam and modern Tamil are offshoots of Middle Tamil and separated from it sometime after the c. 7th century. A second view argues for the development of the two languages out of "Proto-Dravidian" or "Proto-Tamil-Malayalam" in the prehistoric era. Designated a "Classical Language in India" in 2013, it developed into the current form by the influence of the poet Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan in the 16th century.
The oldest documents written purely in Malayalam and still surviving are the Vazhappalli Copper plates from 832 and Tharisapalli Copper plates from 849. The earliest script used to write Malayalam was the Vatteluttu alphabet, the Kolezhuttu, which derived from it; the current Malayalam script is based on the Vatteluttu script, extended with Grantha script letters to adopt Indo-Aryan loanwords. The oldest literary work in Malayalam, distinct from the Tamil tradition, is dated from between the 9th and 11th centuries; the first travelogue in any Indian language is the Malayalam Varthamanappusthakam, written by Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar in 1785. The word Malayalam originated from the words mala, meaning "mountain", alam, meaning "region" or "-ship"; the term referred to the land of the Chera dynasty Tamil dynasty, only became the name of its language. The language Malayalam is alternatively called Alealum, Malayali, Malean and Mallealle; the earliest extant literary works in the regional language of present-day Kerala date back to as early as the 12th century.
However, the named identity of this language appears to have come into existence only around the 16th century, when it was known as "Malayayma" or "Malayanma". The word "Malayalam" was coined in the period, the local people referred to their language as both "Tamil" and "Malayalam" until the colonial period; the held view is that Malayalam was the western coastal dialect of Tamil and separated from Tamil sometime between the 9th and 13th centuries. Some scholars however believe that both Tamil and Malayalam developed during the prehistoric period from a common ancestor,'Proto-Tamil-Dravidian', that the notion of Malayalam being a'daughter' of Tamil is misplaced; this is based on the fact that Malayalam and several Dravidian languages on the western coast have common features which are not found in the oldest historical forms of Tamil. Robert Caldwell, in his 1856 book "A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian Family of Languages", opined that Malayalam branched from Classical Tamil and over time gained a large amount of Sanskrit vocabulary and lost the personal terminations of verbs.
As the language of scholarship and administration, Old-Tamil, written in Tamil-Brahmi and the Vatteluttu alphabet greatly influenced the early development of Malayalam. The Malayalam script began to diverge from the Tamil-Brahmi script in the 9th centuries, and by the end of the 13th century a written form of the language emerged, unique from the Tamil-Brahmi script, used to write Tamil. Malayalam is similar to some Sri Lankan Tamil dialects, the two are mistaken by native Indian Tamil speakers; the Portuguese called the Kerala variant of Malayalam-Tamil Lingua Malabar Tamul. It was called Malabar Thamozhi; the first book to be printed in Lingua Malabar Tamul was Cartilha in 1554, which used Portuguese letters to write the Malabar Thamozhi. Ravikutty Pilla Por, written in the 17th century, is the shining example of Malayanma literature. Ananthapuri Varnanam, written in the 1800s, was among the last of these Malayalam-Tamil books. Itty Achudan, the famed Ayurvedic physician, used Malayanma and Kolezhuttu to write Hortus Malabaricus in 1678.
In the 17th century, the Malayanma script was extensively used by the Catholics of Kerala. Samkshepa Vedartham, in Malayanma, was printed in Rome in 1772; the Ramban Bible, written in Malayanma, was translated from Syriac by Fr. Phillipose and published in 1811. After this period, the British banned Malayanma and most of the books written in Malayanma disappeared; the British never supported or translated Malayanma books into Grantha Malayalam, which they chose to promote in the 19th century. Iravikutti Pilla Por, Vadakkan Pattu, Thacholi Pattu, Kannassa Ramayanam, Ramacharitham Ananthapuri Varnanam are a few of the Malayanma books which have survived. Malayanma, the indigenous Dravidian tongue, its great literary tradition were lost in history. In the 12th century, Kerala was invaded by the Tulu Bana Kings, with an army from Ahichatra on the Indo-Nepalese border. Keralolpathi mentions a Tulu invader called Banapperumal, the brother of Tulu king Kavi Raja Singhan of the Alupa dynasty, who invaded Kerala with a Large Nair army led by Pada Mala Nair.
Banapperumal established his capital at
Kottayam is a city in the Indian state of Kerala. It is the administrative capital of Kottayam district, located in south-west Kerala, it had a population of 136,812 in the city's administrative limits according to the 2011 census. Kottayam is 146 km north of Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala's capital city, it was known as ‘Cotym’ and ‘Cottayam’ during the British Raj. It hence called Akshara Nagari or Land of Letters. Many of the first Malayalam dailies like Deepika, Malayala Manorama, Mangalam were started and are headquartered in Kottayam. Headquarters of The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church is situated at Devalokam, Kottayam. During the British period, various missionaries, the Christian churches and St. Kuriakose Elias Chavara himself established many schools and other educational institutions in and around the city. Kottayam city is known as Chuvarchithra Nagari. Kottayam is known as the city of'Letters and Latex'. Kottayam district gets its name from the town of Kottayam, which serves as the headquarters of the district.
The royal house of the Thekkumkoor ruler were protected by a fort called Thaliyilkotta. It is believed that the name Kottayam is derived from a combination of the Malayalam words kotta which means fort and akam which means inside combining it become kottaykkakam, it can be translated as "the interior of the fort". From the beginning of the ninth century AD, the history of Thekkumkoor and of Kottayam are indistinguishable. Kottayam was a part of Vempolinad, an area in the Kulashekara Empire. By about 1100 AD, the Kingdom of Vempolinad had split into the Kingdoms of Thekkumkur and Vadakkumkur. After their separation, Thekkumkur became an independent kingdom, while Vedakkumkur became a vassal of Cochin; the royal house situated in Vennimala in Kottayam. It was protected by a fort known as Thaliyilkotta and as a result the locality came to be known in the same name as the fort. On a stage, Thekkumkoor kings shifted their headquarters to Nattassery near Kumaranallore at the outskirts of Kottayam town.
It is believed that the Thekkumkoor family ruled Kottayam from Thazhathangadi. The Portuguese and the Dutch established trade relations with both these kingdoms, dealing in black pepper and other spices. After the subjugation of the Dutch by Travancore in 1742, military operations of Marthanda Varma progressed against the northern neighbouring kingdoms including Thekkumkoor. Though Thekkumkoor allied with Chempakassery and Vadakkumkoor to protect the kingdom, all of them were annexed to Travancore. Another source states that the ruler of Thekkumkur had sided first with the Kingdom of Kayamkulam and with the principality of Ambalapuzha against Travancore under Marthanda Varma. After the fall of Ambalapuzha, as the ruler of Thekkumkoorr refused to come to terms with Travancore, his capital city was taken on 11 September in 1750 by Ramayyan Dalawa, the general and prime minister of Marthanda Varma and the state was annexed to Travancore in 1753. During British rule in India, Kottayam remained a part of the Princely State of Travancore.
There existed no institution in the princely state of Travancore before the 1800s. The Church Missionary Society of England established the CMS College the first college in India. Rev. Benjamin Bailey was the first principal of the CMS College, as it was known, the government of India welcomed the college as "a place of general education hence any demands of the state for officers to fill all departments of public service would be met" Kottayam has played its role in all the political agitations of modern times. The'Malayali Memorial' agitation may be said to have had its origin in Kottayam; the Malayali Memorial sought to secure better representation for educated Travancoreans in the Travancore civil service against persons from outside. The Memorial, presented to the Maharaja Sri Moolam Thirunal was drafted at a public meeting held in the Kottayam Public Library; the event marked the beginning of the modern political movement in the State. The people of Kottayam played a major role during the Abstention Movement in the 1930s, which aimed at the representation of Hindus of the lower castes, in the Travancore Legislature.
The Vaikom Satyagraha of 1924 against untouchability, led by Mahatma Gandhi, took place in Vaikom near Kottayam. Kottayam became a revenue division of Travancore. A fifth division, existed for a short period but was added to Kottayam. At the time of the integration of the State of Travancore and Cochin in 1949, these revenue divisions were renamed as districts and the Diwan Peshkars gave way to District Collectors; as a result, in July 1949, Kottayam came into being as a district. Kottayam has an average elevation of 3 metres above sea level, and is situated in the basin of the Meenachil River and in the basin of the Vembanad backwaters, which are formed from several streams in the Western Ghats in Idukki district. According to the division of places in Kerala based on altitudes, Kottayam is classified as being a midland area; the general soil type is alluvial soil. The vegetation is tropical evergreen and moist deciduous type; the climate in this district is pleasant. Kottayam's proximity to the equator results in little seasonal temperature variation, with moderate to high levels of humidity.
Annual temperatures range between 20 to 35 °C. From June through September, the south-west monsoon brings in heavy rains, as Kottayam lies on the windward side of the Western Ghats. From October to December, Kottayam receives light rain from the northwest monsoon; the average annual rainfall is 3,200 millimetres. Kottayam