Kotzebue or Qikiqtaġruk is a city in the Northwest Arctic Borough in the U. S. state of Alaska. It is the borough's seat, by far its largest community and the economic and transportation hub of the subregion of Alaska encompassing the borough; the population of the city was 3,201 as of the 2010 census, up from 3,082 in 2000. The city has an All-America City award Owing to its location and relative size, Kotzebue served as a trading and gathering center for the various communities in the region; the Noatak and Kobuk Rivers drain into the Kotzebue Sound near Kotzebue to form a center for transportation to points inland. In addition to people from interior villages, inhabitants of the Russian Far East came to trade at Kotzebue. Furs, seal-oil, rifles and seal skins were some of the items traded. People gathered for competitions like the current World Eskimo Indian Olympics. With the arrival of the whalers, gold seekers, missionaries the trading center expanded. Kotzebue is known as Qikiqtaġruk, which means "small island" in Iñupiatun, the language spoken by Iñupiat.
In the words of the late Iñupiaq elder Blanche Qapuk Lincoln of Kotzebue: "Iḷiḷgaaŋukapta tamarra pamna imiqaqtuq. Taavaasii kuuqahuni taiñña Adams-kutlu Ipaalook-kutlu, taapkuak piagun tavra. Taiñña suli Katyauratkutlu, Lena Norton tupqata piagun tavra kuuk suli taugani... Manna uvva qikiqtaq, Qikiqtaġruŋmik tavra atiqautiginiġaa qikiqtaupluni. Nunałhaiñġuqtuq marra pakma.". Kotzebue gets its name from the Kotzebue Sound, named after Otto von Kotzebue, a Baltic German who explored the sound while searching for the Northwest Passage in the service of Russia in 1818. A United States post office was established in 1899. In 1997, three 66-kw wind turbines were installed in Kotzebue, creating the northernmost wind farm in the United States. Today, the wind farm consists of 19 turbines, including two 900 kW EWT turbines; the total installed capacity has reached 3-MW, displacing 250,000 gallons of diesel fuel every year. On September 2, 2015, U. S. President Barack Obama gave a speech on Climate Change, in Kotzebue, becoming the first sitting president to visit a site north of the Arctic Circle.
Kotzebue lies on a gravel spit at the end of the Baldwin Peninsula in the Kotzebue Sound. It is located at 66°53′50″N 162°35′8″W 30 miles from Noatak and other nearby smaller communities, it is 33 miles north of the Arctic Circle on Alaska's western coast. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 28.7 square miles, of which 27.0 square miles is land, 1.6 square miles, or 5.76%, is water. Kotzebue is home to the NANA Regional Corporation, one of thirteen Alaska Native Regional Corporations created under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971 in settlement of Alaska Native land claims. Kotzebue is a gateway to Kobuk Valley National Park and other natural attractions of northern Alaska. A Northwest Arctic Heritage Center is located in the town to acclimate National Park Service travelers. Nearby Selawik National Wildlife Refuge maintains office space in the town. Kotzebue has a dry subarctic climate bordering on the Tundra climate, with long, somewhat snowy, cold winters, short, mild summers.
Monthly daily average temperatures range from −2.8 °F in January to 54.6 °F in July, with an annual mean of 22.9 °F. Days of above 70 °F can be expected an average of five days per summer. Precipitation is both most frequent and greatest during the summer months with August the wettest month averaging 2.18 inches. Kotzebue average rainfall is 11.0 inches per year. Snowfall averages about 57.8 inches a season. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −58 °F to 85 °F, with the latter occurring as as June 19, 2013. Kotzebue first appeared on the 1880 U. S. Census under its predecessor unincorporated Inuit village named "Kikiktagamute." It did not appear again until 1910 as Kotzebue. It formally incorporated in 1958; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,082 people, 889 households, 656 families residing in the city. The population density was 114.1 people per square mile. There were 1,007 housing units at an average density of 37.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 71.19% Native American, 19.47% White, 1.82% Asian, 0.32% Black or African American, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.78% from other races, 6.36% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.17% of the population. There were 889 households out of which 50.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.1% were married couples living together, 17.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.1% were non-families. 19.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.40 and the average family size was 3.93. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 39.8% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 17.2% from 45 to 64, 4.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $57,163, the median income for a family was $58
The electromagnetic wave equation is a second-order partial differential equation that describes the propagation of electromagnetic waves through a medium or in a vacuum. It is a three-dimensional form of the wave equation; the homogeneous form of the equation, written in terms of either the electric field E or the magnetic field B, takes the form: E = 0 B = 0 where v p h = 1 μ ε is the speed of light in a medium with permeability μ, permittivity ε, ∇2 is the Laplace operator. In a vacuum, vph = c0 = 299,792,458 meters per a fundamental physical constant; the electromagnetic wave equation derives from Maxwell's equations. In most older literature, B is called magnetic induction. In his 1865 paper titled A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field, Maxwell utilized the correction to Ampère's circuital law that he had made in part III of his 1861 paper On Physical Lines of Force. In Part VI of his 1864 paper titled Electromagnetic Theory of Light, Maxwell combined displacement current with some of the other equations of electromagnetism and he obtained a wave equation with a speed equal to the speed of light.
He commented: The agreement of the results seems to show that light and magnetism are affections of the same substance, that light is an electromagnetic disturbance propagated through the field according to electromagnetic laws. Maxwell's derivation of the electromagnetic wave equation has been replaced in modern physics education by a much less cumbersome method involving combining the corrected version of Ampère's circuital law with Faraday's law of induction. To obtain the electromagnetic wave equation in a vacuum using the modern method, we begin with the modern'Heaviside' form of Maxwell's equations. In a vacuum- and charge-free space, these equations are: ∇ ⋅ E = 0 ∇ × E = − ∂ B ∂ t ∇ ⋅ B = 0 ∇ × B = μ 0 ε 0 ∂ E ∂ t These are the general Maxwell's equations specialized to the case with charge and current both set to zero. Taking the curl of the curl equations gives: ∇ × = ∇ × = − ∂ ∂ t = − μ 0 ε 0 ∂ 2 E ∂ t 2 ∇ × = ∇ × = μ 0 ε 0 ∂ ∂ t = − μ 0 ε 0 ∂ 2 B ∂
The music of Epirus, in Epirus, northwestern Greece, present to varying degree in the rest of Greece and the islands, contains folk songs that are pentatonic and polyphonic, characterized as relaxed and exceptionally beautiful, sung by both male and female singers. Distinctive songs include shepherd's songs and drinking songs; the clarinet is the most prominent folk instrument in Epirus, used to accompany dances slow and heavy, like the menousis, podhia, sta dio, sta tria, kentimeni, koftos and tsamikos. The polyphonic song of Epirus constitutes one of the most interesting musical forms, not only for the east Mediterranean and the Balkans, but for the worldwide repertoire of the folk polyphony like the yodeling of Switzerland. Except from its scale, what pleads for the old origin of the kind is its vocal, collective and modal character; the corresponding dances are stately. Women's dances are noble, allowing for a minimum of leg and arm movement, calling for formal traditional attire: ankle-length black coats, gold thread tuques with a single long tassel, hammered gold jewellery.
World Music: The Rough Guide by Simon Broughton, Mark Ellingham - 1999 - ISBN 1-85828-635-2 Greek Folk Dances by Rickey Holden, Mary Vouras – 1965 Engendering Song: Singing and Subjectivity at Prespa by Jane C. Sugarman,1997,ISBN 0-226-77972-6 Greek traditional music from Epirus Songs from Politsani Epirus Music "Deropolitissa", Greek traditional song from Epirus Skaros, Greek traditional shepherd's song from Epirus Moiroloi, Greek traditional lament song from Epirus
Kailash Colony is a Delhi Metro station in Delhi. It is located between Nehru Place stations on the Violet Line; the station was opened with the first section of the Line on 3 October 2010, in time for the Commonwealth Games opening ceremony on the same day. List of available ATM at Kailash Colony metro station are List of Delhi Metro stations Transport in Delhi Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Delhi Suburban Railway Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. Delhi Metro Annual Reports "Station Information". Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd.. Archived from the original on 19 June 2010. UrbanRail. Net – descriptions of all metro systems in the world, each with a schematic map showing all stations
The Airdrome Sopwith Camel is an American amateur-built aircraft and produced by Airdrome Aeroplanes, of Holden, Missouri. The aircraft is supplied as a kit for amateur construction; the aircraft is a full-scale replica of the First World War British Sopwith Camel fighter. The replica is powered by modern engines; the Airdrome Sopwith Camel features a strut-braced biplane layout, a single-seat open cockpit, fixed conventional landing gear and a single engine in tractor configuration. The aircraft fuselage is made from welded 4130 steel tubing, covered in doped aircraft fabric; the Airdrome Sopwith Camel has a wingspan of 26.2 ft and a wing area of 195 sq ft. The standard engine used is the 150 hp four stroke Rotec R3600 radial engine. Building time from the factory-supplied kit is estimated at 450 hours by the manufacturer. One example had been completed by December 2011. Data from KitplanesGeneral characteristics Crew: one Wingspan: 26.2 ft Wing area: 195 sq ft Empty weight: 943 lb Gross weight: 1,243 lb Fuel capacity: 18 U.
S. gallons Powerplant: 1 × Rotec R3600 nine cylinder, air-cooled, four stroke radial engine, 150 hp Propellers: 2-bladed woodenPerformance Cruise speed: 85 mph Stall speed: 40 mph Range: 200 mi Rate of climb: 675 ft/min Wing loading: 6.4 lb/sq ft
The second USS Wanderer was a patrol vessel that served in the United States Navy from 1917 to 1918. Wanderer was a motorboat built in 1913 at Norfolk, Virginia, by Craig Brothers, owned by R. F. Barret of Norfolk, she was acquired by the U. S. Navy for service as a section patrol boat during World War I. Inspected at the 5th Naval District on 13 April 1917 and designated SP-2440, she was placed in commission on the same day as USS Wanderer. Wanderer operated on local and section patrol duties for the duration of World War I, she was returned to her owner on 30 December 1918. Wanderer was one of two U. S. Navy ships named USS Wanderer in service during World War I, the other being USS Wanderer; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. NavSource Online: Section Patrol Craft Photo Archive Wanderer ^ "Wanderer II". Public2.nhhcaws.local. Retrieved 2019-09-23