The Dennis Dragon was a three-axle step-entrance double-decker bus manufactured by Dennis in England between 1982 and 1999. The Dennis Dragon was named "Dragon". In Chinese, Kowloon means "nine dragons" and it is an area in Hong Kong, so the name "Condor" was adopted for China Motor Bus' "Dragons" to avoid "naming for an opponent company". All were built for the overseas market, although some were repatriated. Dennis had registered the Condor name in the 1950s for a lightweight haulage chassis; the Dennis Dragon/Condor chassis was developed from 2-axle Dennis Dominator, with two separate wheels fitted in front of the rear axle. It was fitted with both Cummins engines coupled to a Voith or ZF gearbox; the Cummins engine was available as an option, but it replaced the Gardner engine as standard All Dennis Dragons/Condors, except four out of five prototypes, were fitted with Duple Metsec bodywork. In Hong Kong, this made Dennis Dragon/Condor easy to differentiate because most of the other bus models at the same period were bodied with Alexander bodywork.
In 1982, Kowloon Motor Bus purchased three 12 m non air-conditioned Dennis Dragons with Alexander bodywork for evaluation. KMB purchased; these had three doors. Between 1986 and 1994, KMB purchased the first of 370 11-metre non air-conditioned Dennis Dragons for the bus services of New Territories. Fifty had a closed back, reserved for installation of air-conditioning, but this was never fitted. All the non air-conditioned Dennis Dragons were withdrawn in 2012. In 1990, KMB purchased an 11-metre air-conditioned Dennis Dragon for testing. In following years up to 1999, KMB introduced 765 air-conditioned Dennis Dragons, including 235 9.9 metre buses, 360 11 metre buses and 170 12 metre buses. All the air-conditioned Dennis Dragons were withdrawn by July 2017, after that all KMB buses were of low-floor specification. In 1982, China Motor Bus received two 12 metre non air-conditioned Dennis Condors for evaluation, one of them was fitted with Duple Metsec bodywork, the other one with Alexander bodywork.
Because of the opening of MTR's Island Line in the 1980s, CMB didn't buy many Dennis Condors. Between 1989 and 1997, CMB bought only 46 12m non air-conditioned Condors, 28 11 metre non air-conditioned Condors and 92 11 metre air-conditioned Condors, it is rumoured that CMB's last ten air-conditioned Condors were bought due to unpredictable delivery time of the Dennis Trident 3s ordered. All the CMB's Dennis Condors were sold to New World First Bus when CMB lost its franchise in 1998, three of the 12 m Condors were subsequently converted to training buses. In 1999, NWFB converted one 11 metre Dennis Condor to an open-top bus, it was superseded by an air-conditioned Dennis Condor on 25 January 2008 The DLs were retired earlier by October 2000 and was sold out. DL1 & DL2 were sold to private preservationists in Hong Kong; some of them were shipped back to the UK and converted to an open-top bus in 2002 for the Big Bus Company. The DMs were retired by August 2002 and sold out, with an 11 m non air-conditioned Dennis Condor regarded by NWFB as its last "hot dog".
DM18 and DM22 has been under New World First Travel. DM9, DM12 and DM25 has been sold to Citybus as training buses, while DM17 was sold to 3 preservationists in the UK; the DAs were retired beginning January 2004 for the 22 buses, followed by 38 buses until 2012. All the remaining buses will be retired by September 2015. Citybus started to order air-conditioned Dennis Dragon in 1993; the Duple Metsec bodywork for Citybus's Dragons, which were assembled by Salvador Caetano in Portugal, were different from those supplied to KMB/CMB in that the frontal design resembled with those used on Alexander R-type body and a wider front door was used. Between 1994 and 1998, Citybus introduced 40 10.3 m Dennis Dragons. In 2000, Citybus rebuilt a 10.3 m Dragon as the world's first 3-axle double-decker air-conditioned trolleybus. One of Citybus's 10.3 m Dennis Dragon had been prematurely withdrawn in 2002 due to fire damage. All of the Citybus Dennis Dragons were withdrawn in 2015. In early 1996, Hong Kong Air Cargo Terminals Limited received four Dennis Dragons for use as staff buses.
They were similar with Citybus's 12-metre Dragon in appearance but with no route indicators and narrower seats were fitted so as to increase the seating capacity. All these buses were acquired by New World First Bus after HACTL ceased to operate its staff bus routes in September 1999, they re-entered service in 2000. In 1992, Stagecoach introduced ten Dennis Dragons in Malawi; the company introduced twenty Dennis Dragons in Kenya between 1995 and 1996. All the Dennis Dragons in Kenya were shipped back to England and allocated to Stagecoach Manchester's Magic Bus fleet, they re-entered service between 1998 and 2000 where they would stay in service with the company until 2010. After finishing the last orders, the Dennis Dragon was superseded by the Dennis Trident 3. Media related to Dennis Dragon at Wikimedia Commons DM17 in preservation - dedicated to a preserved ex-CMB/NWFB Dennis Condor Photos of KMB's Dennis Dragon
Bus services in Hong Kong
Bus services in Hong Kong have a long history. As of 2016, five companies operate franchised public bus services. There is a variety of non-franchised public buses services, including feeder bus services to railway stations operated by MTR, residents' services for residential estates; the bus service of Hong Kong can be divided into 3 types: Franchised bus, Non-franchised bus and Public light bus. As of 2014, there are 5 owned bus companies that provide franchised bus service across Hong Kong, operating more than 700 routes with some 5,800 buses. Hong Kong is one of the few cities in the world that bus services are not operated or owned by the Government; these are the five franchised bus companies in Hong Kong: Kowloon Motor Bus Company Limited Mainly provides service in Kowloon and New Territories, operating about 400 routes with about 3,850 buses. Some of them are cross-harbour routes, either operated or jointly operated with Citybus or New World First Bus. Citybus Limited Mainly provides service on Hong Kong Island, operates 108 bus routes, including 59 Hong Kong Island routes, 29 cross-harbour routes, 1 New Territories route and 19 routes to Tung Chung/Airport.
It operates 957 buses. Long Win Bus Company Limited Mainly services Tung Chung, Disneyland Resort and routes shuttling between the Airport and New Territories, operating 19 routes with 165 buses. New World First Bus Services Limited Mainly provides service on Hong Kong Island, provides routes in Kowloon and Tseung Kwan O, it operates 47 Hong Kong Island routes, 8 Kowloon and Tseung Kwan O routes and 34 cross-harbour routes. It operates with 711 buses. New Lantao Bus Company Limited Mainly provides service on Lantau Island, operating 22 Lantau routes and 1 New Territories route with 108 buses; the Kowloon Motor Bus Company Limited is one of the largest owned public bus operators in the world. KMB's fleet consists of about 3,800 buses on 400 routes and a staff of over 12,000. In 1979, Citybus began its operation in Hong Kong with one double-decker, providing shuttle service for the Hong Kong dockyard, it expanded into operating a residential bus route between City One and Kowloon Tong MTR station.
New World First Bus Services Limited was established in 1998, taking over China Motor Bus's franchise to provide bus services on Hong Kong Island together with Citybus. NWFB's parent company bought Citybus, but the two companies have been operating independently. Hong Kong franchised bus routes have a fixed path, service hours and schedule. Urban routes operate with double-decker buses, which have become a distinguishing feature of Hong Kong. Passengers are required to pay their bus fare when they board the bus, all buses accept payment by either Octopus card or cash; some routes such as cross-harbour routes and Disneyland Resort routes are operated jointly by two companies. Fares are distanced-based although longer distances are comparatively cheaper than shorter distance fares on a per km basis. Hong Kong's bus fare system is based on where a passenger boards, e.g. "tap on" but not where a passenger alights, e.g. "tap off". As such, a passenger pays the entire fare upon boarding regardless of point of alighting.
Many routes provide "step down fare". The non-franchised bus services of Hong Kong are provided by different private bus companies as a means to relieve the demand on franchised buses and green public minibuses in rush hour, they serve some remote places which are deemed non-profitable for franchised bus and green public minibus operators to serve. According to the Transport Department, there were 8111 registered non-franchised buses in Hong Kong as of 13 March 2014. Speaking, the services are divided into the following categories: Tourist services: Known as "Travel bus" in daily usage, providing transport services for tourists between tourist attractions. Hotel services: operated by hotels or by bus companies, providing transport services for hotel customers. School services: operated by bus companies, providing transport services for students. Employee services: operated by different institutes or by bus companies, providing transport services for employees. Residential services: Known as "Estate bus" in daily usage, they providing feeder services between new towns and urban areas.
Contract hire services: Hired by groups for transport services. On the other hand, MTR Corporation operates some feeder bus routes in Tuen Mun, Tin Shui Wai and Yuen Long to complement its West Rail Line and Light Rail services; the public light buses in Hong Kong are passenger transport vehicles with a capacity of 16 or 19 passengers. The capacity was 14 before the 1980s, they provide feeder services to the railway. There are 4,350 minibuses in Hong Kong and this figure has been capped by the Transport Department as available licences, they can be divided into two types: green public minibuses. The red public minibuses, which number around 1,200 of the 4,350 do not need to operate on fixed routes or fixed schedules and may charge any fare desired, although special prohibitions apply. Green public minibuses operate on fixed routes in set frequencies stipulated by the Transport Department of Hong Kong. Other kinds of light bus services, for example, the Nanny van transports provided by such van owners during the 1980s
The Cross-Harbour Tunnel is the first tunnel in Hong Kong built underwater. It consists of two steel road tunnels each with two lanes constructed using the single shell immersed tube method, it is the earliest of three vehicular harbour crossings in Hong Kong, opened for traffic on 2 August 1972. It was constructed under a 30-year private-sector franchise based on a build–operate–transfer model, the title passed to the Hong Kong government in August 1999 upon termination of the franchise, it has become one of the most congested roads in Hong Kong and the world, with 116,753 vehicles passing through it daily in 2013. The Hong Kong government used the operator model "Build Operate Transfer", or "BOT", for the implementation of the tunnel project; the concession was given to the Cross-Harbour Tunnel Company Limited, today the Cross-Harbour Holdings Limited, founded in 1965 to carry out the tunnel project. The Hong Kong government participated to 20% in order not to hand over their influence on the project.
The tunnel was designed with two lanes for each direction of travel for a capacity of 80,000 vehicles. The project was structurally managed jointly by the British engineering firms Scott Wilson Kirkpatrick & Partners and Freeman Fox & Partners; the tunnel links the main financial and commercial districts on both sides of Victoria Harbour, connecting Kellett Island, with a reclaimed site at Hung Hom Bay, Kowloon. The toll plaza is located at the Hung Hom end of the tunnel, has 14 toll booths, it provides the first road link between Hong Kong Island. Prior to the opening of the tunnel, cross-harbour vehicular traffic depended on ferries and for passengers, the Star Ferry; the project was joint-engineered by Scott Wilson Kirkpatrick & Partners and Freeman Fox & Partners Construction began in September 1969 and was to last four years. The concession period ran from the start of construction, so that the operator carried out the construction one year faster than planned. On 2 August 1972, the tunnel cost 5 HK $ per car for transit.
After just three and a half years of operation, the operator had re-recorded the construction costs. In 1984, the Hong Kong government introduced a tax in addition to the operator's toll to make the overcrowded tunnel less priced; the price for a car transit was now 10 HK $. In 1993, an electronic toll collection system was installed. Together with measures to control the flow of traffic, the vehicle capacity could be increased, it was administered by The Cross-Harbour Tunnel Company Ltd until August 1999, when the operation franchise agreement expired and the government assumed control. Since 1 November 2010, the tunnel is managed and maintained by Serco on contract basis; the 2017 Hong Kong action film Shock Wave, starring Andy Lau, set its main plot in the tunnel. The tunnel generates HK$700 million in annual toll revenue; as of 2018, there are 44 bus routes passing through the tunnel. Harbour crossings in Hong Kong List of tunnels and bridges in Hong Kong Megaproject Cross-Harbour Tunnel By-laws, c/o University of Hong Kong
The New Territories is one of the three main regions of Hong Kong, alongside Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula. It makes up 86.2% of Hong Kong's territory, contains around half of the population of Hong Kong. It is the region described in the Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory. According to that treaty, the territories comprise the mainland area north of the Boundary Street of Kowloon Peninsula and south of the Sham Chun River, as well as over 200 outlying islands, including Lantau Island, Lamma Island, Cheung Chau, Peng Chau in the territory of Hong Kong. After New Kowloon was defined from the area between the Boundary Street and the Kowloon Ranges spanned from Lai Chi Kok to Lei Yue Mun, the extension of the urban areas of Kowloon, New Kowloon was urbanised and absorbed into Kowloon; the New Territories now comprises only the mainland north of the Kowloon Ranges and south of the Sham Chun River, as well as the Outlying Islands. It comprises an area of 952 km2. New Kowloon has remained statutorily part of the New Territories instead of Kowloon.
The New Territories were leased from Qing China to the United Kingdom in 1898 for 99 years in the Second Convention of Peking. Upon the expiry of the lease, sovereignty was transferred to the People's Republic of China in 1997, together with the Qing-ceded territories of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon Peninsula. In 2011, the population of the New Territories was recorded at 3,691,093. With a population density of 3,801 per square kilometer. Hong Kong Island was ceded to Britain in 1842 and Kowloon south of Boundary Street and Stonecutters Island in 1860; the colony of Hong Kong attracted a large number of Chinese and Westerners to seek their fortune in the city. Its population increased and the city became overcrowded; the outbreak of bubonic plague in 1894 became a concern to the Hong Kong Government. There was a need to expand the colony to accommodate its growing population; the Qing Dynasty's defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War had shown that it was incapable of defending itself. Victoria City and Victoria Harbour were vulnerable to any hostile forces launching attacks from the hills of Kowloon.
Alarmed by the encroachment of other European powers in China, Britain feared for the security of Hong Kong. Using the most favoured nation clause that it had negotiated with Peking, the United Kingdom demanded the extension of Kowloon to counter the influence of France in southern China in June 1898. In July, it secured Weihaiwei in Shandong in the north as a base for operations against the Germans in Qingdao and the Russians in Port Arthur. Chinese officials stayed in the walled cities of Kowloon Weihaiwei; the extension of Kowloon was called the New Territories. The additional land was estimated to be 365 square miles or 12 times the size of the existing Colonial Hong Kong at the time. Although the Convention was signed on the 9 June 1898 and became effective on 1 July, the British did not take over the New Territories immediately. During this period, there was no Hong Kong Wilsone Black acted as administrator. James Stewart Lockhart, the Colonial Secretary of Hong Kong, was sent back from England to make a survey of New Territories before formal transfer.
The survey found that the new frontier at Sham Chun River suggested by Wilsone Black was far from ideal. It excluded the town of Shenzhen, the boundary would divide the town. There was no mountain range as a natural border. Lockhard suggested moving the frontier to the line of hills north of Shenzhen; this suggestion was not received favourably and the Chinese official suggested the frontier be moved to the hill much further south of the Sham Chun River. It was settled in March 1899; the new Hong Kong Governor Henry Blake arrived in November 1898. The date for the takeover of the New Territories was fixed as 17 April 1899 and Tai Po was chosen as the administrative centre; however the transfer was not peaceful. Before the handover in early April, Captain Superintendent of Police, Francis Henry May and some policemen erected a flagstaff and temporary headquarters at Tai Po and posted the Governor's proclamation of the takeover date. Fearing for their traditional land rights, in the Six-Day War of 1899, a number of clans attempted to resist the British, mobilising clan militias, organised and armed to protect against longshore raids by pirates.
The militia men attempted a frontal attack against the temporary police station in Tai Po, the main British base but were beaten back by superior force of arms. An attempt by the clansmen at guerilla warfare was put down by the British near Lam Tsuen with over 500 Chinese men killed, collapsed when British artillery was brought to bear on the walled villages of the clansmen. Most prominent of the villages in the resistance Kat Hing Wai, of the Tang clan, was symbolically disarmed, by having its main gates dismounted and removed. However, in order to prevent future resistance the British made concessions to the indigenous inhabitants with regards to land use, land inheritance and marriage laws; some of the concessions with regard to land use and inheritance remain in place in Hong Kong to this day and is a source of friction between indigenous inhabitants and other Hong Kong residents. Lord Lugard was Governor from 1907 to 1912, he proposed the return of Weihaiwei to the Chinese government, in return for the ceding of the leased New
Long Win Bus
Long Win Bus is a bus company operating franchised services in Hong Kong. It was established on 1 June 1997 to provide bus service between Hong Kong International Airport, North Lantau New Town and the New Territories, it is a subsidiary of Transport International. Long Win Bus was established on 1 June 1997 to operate peak-hour services after the opening of the Tsing Ma Bridge; the first route operated by Long Win Bus was route E31, served by Volvo Olympians. But on, Volvo Olympians have been retired from the bus fleet, were transferred to its parent company, Kowloon Motor Bus; the company's franchise was extended from June 2003 to May 2013. It has been extended again until May 2023; as of December 2017, Long Win Bus operated 30 routes covers the Airport, Tung Chung, Hong Kong Disneyland, the Ngong Ping 360 cable car and AsiaWorld-Expo. As of December 2017, Long Win Bus operated a fleet of 245 predominately double-decker buses. Media related to Long Win Bus at Wikimedia Commons Official website
The Lantau Link known as the Lantau Fixed Crossing, is a roadway linking Hong Kong International Airport to the urban areas in Hong Kong. It was opened on 27 April 1997, it opened to traffic on 22 May the same year; the Lantau Link is 3.5 kilometres long and consists of: the Tsing Ma Bridge, a suspension bridge linking Tsing Yi to Ma Wan island the Ma Wan Viaduct, a viaduct crossing Ma Wan the Kap Shui Mun Bridge, a cable-stayed bridge linking Ma Wan to Lantau IslandLink is split into two traffic levels. The speed limit is 80 kilometres per hour on the upper level and 50 kilometres per hour on the lower level. In normal situations, the lower level is not used except in special circumstances such as strong wind or serious accidents which could lead to the closure of the upper level; the lower level is not connected to Ma Wan. The Lantau Link is the only land passageway connecting other parts of Hong Kong. Near the Tsing Yi end of the Lantau Link is the cable-stayed Ting Kau Bridge, the Cheung Tsing and Nam Wan Tunnels, the latter of which leads to the Stonecutters Bridge.
Route 8 Tsing Ma Control Area Transport in Hong Kong Google Maps of Lantau Link