A palisade—sometimes called a stakewall or a paling—is a fence or wall made from iron or wooden stakes, or tree trunks and used as a defensive structure or enclosure. Palisade derives from pale, from the Latin word pālus, meaning stake a stake used to support a fence. A palisade gangs these side by side to create a fence made of pales. Typical construction consisted of small or mid-sized tree trunks aligned vertically, with no free space in between; the trunks were sharpened or pointed at the top, were driven into the ground and sometimes reinforced with additional construction. The height of a palisade ranged from around a metre to as high as 3-4 m; as a defensive structure, palisades were used in conjunction with earthworks. Palisades were an excellent option for small forts or other hastily constructed fortifications. Since they were made of wood, they could be and built from available materials, they proved to be effective protection for short-term conflicts and were an effective deterrent against small forces.
However, because they were wooden constructions they were vulnerable to fire and siege weapons. A palisade would be constructed around a castle as a temporary wall until a permanent stone wall could be erected. Both the Greeks and Romans created palisades to protect their military camps; the Roman historian Livy describes the Greek method as being inferior to that of the Romans during the Second Macedonian War. The Greek stakes were too large to be carried and were spaced too far apart; this made it easy for enemies to create a large enough gap in which to enter. In contrast, the Romans used smaller and easier to carry stakes which were placed closer together, making them more difficult to uproot. Many settlements of the native Mississippian culture of the Midwestern United States made use of palisades. A prominent example is the Cahokia Mounds site in Illinois. A wooden stockade with a series of watchtowers or bastions at regular intervals formed a 2-mile-long enclosure around Monk's Mound and the Grand Plaza.
Archaeologists found evidence of the stockade during excavation of the area and indications that it was rebuilt several times, in different locations. The stockade seems to have separated Cahokia's main ceremonial precinct from other parts of the city, as well as being a defensive structure. Other examples include the Angel Mounds Site in southern Indiana, Aztalan State Park in Wisconsin, the Kincaid Site in Illinois, the Parkin Site and the Nodena Sites in southeastern Arkansas and the Etowah Site in Georgia. Palisaded settlements were common in Colonial America, for protection against indigenous peoples and wild animals; the English settlements in Jamestown and Plymouth, were fortified towns surrounded by palisades. They were frequently used in New France. In the late nineteenth century, when milled lumber was not available or practical, many Adirondack buildings were built using a palisade architecture; the walls were made of vertical half timbers. The cracks between the vertical logs were filled with moss and sometimes covered with small sticks.
Inside, the cracks were covered with narrow wooden battens. This palisade style was much more efficient to build than the traditional horizontal log cabin since two half logs provided more surface area than one whole log and the vertical alignment meant a stronger structure for supporting loads like upper stories and roofs, it presented a more finished look inside. Examples of this architectural style can still be found in the Adirondacks, such as around Big Moose Lake. In South Africa as well as other countries, a common means to prevent crime is for residential houses to have perimeter defences such as brick walls, steel palisade fences, wooden palisade fences and electrified palisade fences; the City of Johannesburg promotes the use of palisade fencing over opaque brick, walls as criminals cannot hide as behind the fence. In its manual on safety includes guidance such as not growing vegetation alongside as this allows criminals to make an unseen breach. Palisado crown Media related to Palisade at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of palisade at Wiktionary
Curaçao is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about 65 km north of the Venezuelan coast. It is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the country was part of the Curaçao and Dependencies colony and is now formally called the Country of Curaçao. Curaçao has a population over 160,000 in an area of 444 km2 and its capital is Willemstad. Before the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles on 10 October 2010, Curaçao was administered as the "Island Territory of Curaçao", one of five island territories of the former Netherlands Antilles. In the 16th and 17th centuries, sailors on long voyages would get scurvy from lack of vitamin C. According to some accounts, Portuguese sailors who were ill were left at the island now known as Curaçao; when their ship returned, they had recovered cured from scurvy after eating fruit with vitamin C. From on the Portuguese referred to this as Ilha da Curação. Another explanation is that it is derived from the Portuguese word for heart, referring to the island as a centre in trade.
An unstressed o in Continental Portuguese is pronounced, so the Portuguese word for heart, coração, is pronounced. Spanish traders took the name over as Curaçao, followed by the Dutch. Another explanation is that Curaçao was the name by which the indigenous peoples of the island identified themselves, their autonym. Early Spanish accounts support this theory, as they refer to the indigenous peoples as Indios Curaçaos, or "healing Indians". From 1525, the island was featured on Spanish maps as Curaçote and Curasaore. By the 17th century, it appeared on most maps in Portuguese as Curazao. On a map created by Hieronymus Cock in 1562 in Antwerp, the island was referred to as Qúracao; the original inhabitants of Curaçao were Arawak people. Their ancestors had migrated to the island from the mainland of South America hundreds of years before Europeans arrived, they were believed to have migrated from the Amazon Basin. The first Europeans recorded as seeing the island were members of a Spanish expedition under the leadership of Alonso de Ojeda in 1499.
The Spaniards enslaved most of the Arawak as their labour force. They sometimes forcibly relocated the survivors to other colonies. In 1634, after the Netherlands achieved independence from Spain caused by Eighty Years' War, Dutch colonists started to occupy the island. European powers were trying to establish bases in the Caribbean; the Dutch West India Company founded the capital of Willemstad on the banks of an inlet called the Schottegat. Curaçao had been ignored by colonists; the natural harbour of Willemstad proved to be an ideal spot for trade. Commerce and shipping -- and piracy -- became. In addition, in 1662, the Dutch West India Company made Curaçao a centre for the Atlantic slave trade bringing slaves here for sale elsewhere in the Caribbean and on the mainland of South America. Sephardic Jews with ancestors from the Iberian Peninsula settled here with the Dutch and in then-Dutch Brazil. In the Franco-Dutch War, Count Jean II d'Estrées planned to attack Curaçao, his fleet – 12 men of war, three fireships, two transports, a hospital ship, 12 privateers – met with disaster, losing seven men-of-war and two other ships when they struck reefs off the Las Aves archipelago.
They had made a serious navigational error, hitting the reefs on 11 May 1678, a week after setting sail from Saint Kitts. Curaçao marked the events by a day of thanksgiving, celebrated for decades into the 18th century, to commemorate the island's escape from being invaded by the French. Although a few plantations were established on the island by the Dutch, the first profitable industry established on Curaçao was salt mining; the mineral was a lucrative export at the time and was a major factor for the island being part of international commerce. Many Dutch colonists grew affluent from the slave trade, the city built impressive colonial buildings. Curaçao architecture blends Dutch and Spanish colonial styles; the wide range of historic buildings in and around Willemstad has resulted in the capital being designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Landhouses and West African style kas di pal'i maishi are scattered all over the island; some can be visited. In 1795, a major slave revolt took place under the leaders Tula Rigaud, Louis Mercier, Bastian Karpata, Pedro Wakao.
Up to 4000 slaves on the northwest section of the island revolted. More than 1,000 slaves took part in extended gunfights. After a month, the slave owners suppressed the revolt. Curaçao's proximity to South America resulted in interaction with cultures of the coastal areas more than a century after independence of Netherlands from Spain. Architectural similarities can be seen between the 19th-century parts of Willemstad and the nearby Venezuelan city of Coro in Falcón State; the latter has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Netherlands established economic ties with Viceroyalty of New Granada, which includes present-day countries of Colombia and Venezuela. In the 19th century, Curaçaoans such as Manuel Piar and Luis Brión were prominently engaged in the wars of independen
Scouting or the Scout Movement is a movement that aims to support young people in their physical and spiritual development, that they may play constructive roles in society, with a strong focus on the outdoors and survival skills. During the first half of the twentieth century, the movement grew to encompass three major age groups for boys and, in 1910, a new organization, Girl Guides, was created for girls, it is one of several worldwide youth organizations. In 1906 and 1907 Robert Baden-Powell, a lieutenant general in the British Army, wrote a book for boys about reconnaissance and scouting. Baden-Powell wrote Scouting for Boys, based on his earlier books about military scouting, with influence and support of Frederick Russell Burnham, Ernest Thompson Seton of the Woodcraft Indians, William Alexander Smith of the Boys' Brigade, his publisher Pearson. In the summer of 1907 Baden-Powell held a camp on Brownsea Island in England to test ideas for his book; this camp and the publication of Scouting for Boys are regarded as the start of the Scout movement.
The movement employs the Scout method, a programme of informal education with an emphasis on practical outdoor activities, including camping, aquatics, hiking and sports. Another recognized movement characteristic is the Scout uniform, by intent hiding all differences of social standing in a country and making for equality, with neckerchief and campaign hat or comparable headwear. Distinctive uniform insignia include the fleur-de-lis and the trefoil, as well as badges and other patches; the two largest umbrella organizations are the World Organization of the Scout Movement, for boys-only and co-educational organizations, the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts for girls-only organizations but accepting co-educational organizations. The year 2007 marked the centenary of Scouting worldwide, member organizations planned events to celebrate the occasion. Scouting started itself, but the trigger that set it going was the 1908 publication of Scouting for Boys written by Robert Baden-Powell.
At Charterhouse, one of England's most famous public schools, Baden-Powell had an interest in the outdoors. As a military officer, Baden-Powell was stationed in British India in the 1880s where he took an interest in military scouting and in 1884 he published Reconnaissance and Scouting. In 1896, Baden-Powell was assigned to the Matabeleland region in Southern Rhodesia as Chief of Staff to Gen. Frederick Carrington during the Second Matabele War. In June 1896 he met here and began a lifelong friendship with Frederick Russell Burnham, the American-born Chief of Scouts for the British Army in Africa; this was a formative experience for Baden-Powell not only because he had the time of his life commanding reconnaissance missions into enemy territory, but because many of his Boy Scout ideas originated here. During their joint scouting patrols into the Matobo Hills, Burnham augmented Baden-Powell's woodcraft skills, inspiring him and sowing seeds for both the programme and for the code of honour published in Scouting for Boys.
Practised by frontiersmen of the American Old West and indigenous peoples of the Americas, woodcraft was little known to the British Army but well-known to the American scout Burnham. These skills formed the basis of what is now called scoutcraft, the fundamentals of Scouting. Both men recognised that wars in Africa were the British Army needed to adapt. During this time in the Matobo Hills Baden-Powell first started to wear his signature campaign hat like the one worn by Burnham, acquired his kudu horn, the Ndebele war instrument he used every morning at Brownsea Island to wake the first Boy Scouts and to call them together in training courses. Three years in South Africa during the Second Boer War, Baden-Powell was besieged in the small town of Mafikeng by a much larger Boer army; the Mafeking Cadet Corps was a group of youths that supported the troops by carrying messages, which freed the men for military duties and kept the boys occupied during the long siege. The Cadet Corps performed well, helping in the defence of the town, were one of the many factors that inspired Baden-Powell to form the Scouting movement.
Each member received a badge that illustrated spearhead. The badge's logo was similar to the fleur-de-lis shaped arrowhead that Scouting adopted as its international symbol; the Siege of Mafeking was the first time since his own childhood that Baden-Powell, a regular serving soldier, had come into the same orbit as "civilians"—women and children—and discovered for himself the usefulness of well-trained boys. In the United Kingdom, the public, through newspapers, followed Baden-Powell's struggle to hold Mafeking, when the siege was broken he had become a national hero; this rise to fame fuelled the sales of the small instruction book he had written in 1899 about military scouting and wilderness survival, Aids to Scouting, that owed much to what he had learned from discussions with Burnham. On his return to England, Baden-Powell noticed that boys showed considerable interest in Aids to Scouting, unexpectedly used by teachers and youth organizations as their first Scouting handbook, he was urged to rewrite this book for boys during an inspection of the Boys' Brigade, a large youth movement drille
Sod or turf is grass and the part of the soil beneath it held together by its roots or another piece of thin material. In British English, such material is more known as turf, the word "sod" is limited to agricultural senses. Sod is used for lawns, golf courses, sports stadiums around the world. In residential construction, it is sold to landscapers, home builders or home owners who use it to establish a lawn and avoid soil erosion. Sod can be used to repair golf course, or athletic field that has died. Sod is effective in increasing cooling, improving air and water quality, assisting in flood prevention by draining water. Scandinavia has a long history of employing sod roofing and a traditional house type is the Icelandic turf house. Following the passage of the Homestead Act by Congress in 1862, settlers in the Great Plains used sod bricks to build entire sod houses; this was effective because the prairie sod of the Great Plains was so dense and difficult to cut it earned the nickname "Nebraska marble".
Blacksmith John Deere made his fortune when he became the first to make a plow that could reliably cut the prairie sod. Different types of grass used for sod installation Sod is grown on specialist farms. For 2009, the United States Department of Agriculture reported 1,412 farms had 368,188 acres of sod in production, it is grown locally to minimize both the cost of transport and the risk of damage to the product. The farms that produce this grass may have many varieties of grass grown in one location to best suit the consumer's use and preference of appearance, it is harvested 10 to 18 months after planting, depending on the growing climate. On the farm, it undergoes fertilization, frequent mowing and subsequent vacuuming to remove the clippings, it is harvested using specialized equipment, precision cut to standardized sizes. Sod is harvested in small square or rectangular slabs, or large 4-foot-wide rolls. Mississippi State University has developed a hydroponic method of cultivating sod. For the few sod farms that export turf internationally, this soilless sod may travel both lighter and better than traditional sod.
Additionally, since the sod is not grown in soil, it does not need to be washed clean of soil down to the bare roots, so time to export is shortened. In many applications, such as erosion control and athletic fields, immediacy is a key factor. Seed may fail because of drought, it takes some weeks to form a visually appealing lawn and further time before it is robust enough for use. Turf avoids these problems, with proper care, newly laid sod is fully functional within 30 days of installation and its root system is comparable to that of a seeding lawn two or three years older. Sod reduces erosion by stabilizing the soil. Many prized cultivars only reproduce vegetatively, not sexually. Sod cultivation is the only means of producing additional plants. To grow these varieties for sale, turf farms use a technique called sprigging, where harvested sod mats are cut into slender rows and replanted in the field. Tall fescue is a cool-weather group of grasses originating in Europe used as sod, it exhibits moderate tolerance to both drought and cold, as such is popular in inland temperate environments referred to in the turf and landscaping industries as the "transition zone", where summers are too hot for most cool-weather grasses, yet winters are too cold for most warm-weather grasses.
Fescue is well-adapted to clay soils, moderately shade-tolerant, somewhat resistant to disease, yet still vulnerable to brown patch and Fusarium patch. It grows most in spring and fall, required frequent watering during summer. Due to its bunch-type growth habit, it will not spread undesirably or invade adjacent areas once sodded, yet neither will it fill in voids, periodic maintenance may be required to sustain a homogeneous surface, it has poor wear tolerance compared to Bermuda grass, making it less popular for applications such as athletic fields. Fine fescues are less popular as sod than the tall fescues; as their names suggest, they exhibit much thinner leaf blades, tolerate lower mowing heights than the tall fescues. They may be somewhat more resistant to common diseases. Otherwise, their characteristics are similar. Fine Fescues are used in mixtures with other grasses. Bermuda grass is quite used for golf courses and sports fields across the southern portions of the United States, it tolerates a range of climates in the U.
S. from hot and humid lagoons and bays of the Gulf Coast, to the arid expanses of terrain like plains and deserts in the South and lower Midwest. "Established bermuda grass is a network of shoots, rhizomes and crown tissue together that form a dense plant canopy. This dense plant canopy can be used to propagate clonal varieties by sod, plugs; the aggressive and resilient nature of Bermuda grass makes it not only an excellent turfgrass but a challenging and invasive weed in land cultivated for other purposes. Its one noted weakness is its low tolerance of shade. Given the economic importance of Bermuda grass, it has been the subject of numerous studies. Celebration Bermudagrass:'Celebration' is a dark–green, fine–textured, traffic–tolerant cultivar with high recuperative potential and drought t
Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC since 1963. The programme depicts the adventures of a Time Lord called "the Doctor", an extraterrestrial being, to all appearances human, from the planet Gallifrey; the Doctor explores the universe in a time-travelling space ship called the TARDIS. Its exterior appears as a blue British police box, a common sight in Britain in 1963 when the series first aired. Accompanied by a number of companions, the Doctor combats a variety of foes while working to save civilisations and help people in need; the show is a significant part of British popular culture, elsewhere it has gained a cult following. It has influenced generations of British television professionals, many of whom grew up watching the series; the programme ran from 1963 to 1989. There was an unsuccessful attempt to revive regular production in 1996 with a backdoor pilot, in the form of a television film titled Doctor Who; the programme was relaunched in 2005, since has been produced in-house by BBC Wales in Cardiff.
Doctor Who has spawned numerous spin-offs, including comic books, novels, audio dramas, the television series Torchwood, The Sarah Jane Adventures, K-9, Class, has been the subject of many parodies and references in popular culture. Thirteen actors have headlined the series as the Doctor; the transition from one actor to another is written into the plot of the show with the concept of regeneration into a new incarnation, a plot device in which a Time Lord "transforms" into a new body when the current one is too badly harmed to heal normally. Each actor's portrayal is unique. Together, they form a single lifetime with a single narrative; the time-travelling feature of the plot means that different incarnations of the Doctor meet. The Doctor is portrayed by Jodie Whittaker, who took on the role after Peter Capaldi's exit in the 2017 Christmas special "Twice Upon a Time". Doctor Who follows the adventures of the title character, a rogue Time Lord from the planet Gallifrey who goes by the name "the Doctor".
The Doctor fled Gallifrey in a stolen TARDIS, a time machine that travels by materialising into and dematerialising out of the time vortex. The TARDIS has a vast interior but appears smaller on the outside, is equipped with a "chameleon circuit" intended to make the machine take on the appearance of local objects as a disguise. Across time and space, the Doctor's many incarnations find events that pique their curiosity and try to prevent evil forces from harming innocent people or changing history, using only ingenuity and minimal resources, such as the versatile sonic screwdriver; the Doctor travels alone and brings one or more companions to share these adventures. These companions are humans, owing to the Doctor's fascination with planet Earth, which leads to frequent collaborations with the international military task force UNIT when the Earth is threatened; the Doctor is centuries old and, as a Time Lord, has the ability to regenerate in case of mortal damage to the body, taking on a new appearance and personality.
The Doctor has gained numerous reoccurring enemies during their travels, including the Daleks, the Cybermen, the Master, another renegade Time Lord. Doctor Who first appeared on BBC TV at 17:16:20 GMT on Saturday, 23 November 1963, it was to be each episode 25 minutes of transmission length. Discussions and plans for the programme had been in progress for a year; the head of drama Sydney Newman was responsible for developing the programme, with the first format document for the series being written by Newman along with the head of the script department Donald Wilson and staff writer C. E. Webber. Writer Anthony Coburn, story editor David Whitaker and initial producer Verity Lambert heavily contributed to the development of the series; the programme was intended to appeal to a family audience as an educational programme using time travel as a means to explore scientific ideas and famous moments in history. On 31 July 1963, Whitaker commissioned Terry Nation to write a story under the title The Mutants.
As written, the Daleks and Thals were the victims of an alien neutron bomb attack but Nation dropped the aliens and made the Daleks the aggressors. When the script was presented to Newman and Wilson it was rejected as the programme was not permitted to contain any "bug-eyed monsters". According to producer Verity Lambert. We had a bit of a crisis of confidence. Had we had anything else ready we would have made that." Nation's script became the second Doctor. The serial introduced the eponymous aliens that would become the series' most popular monsters, was responsible for the BBC's first merchandising boom; the BBC drama department's serials division produced the programme for 26 seasons, broadcast on BBC 1. Falling viewing numbers, a decline in the public perception of the show and a less-prominent transmission slot saw production suspended in 1989 by Jonathan Powell, controller of BBC 1. Although it was cancelled with the decision not to commission a planned 27th season, which would have been broadcast in 1990, the BBC affirmed, over several ye
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. Though villages are located in rural areas, the term urban village is applied to certain urban neighborhoods. Villages are permanent, with fixed dwellings. Further, the dwellings of a village are close to one another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement. In the past, villages were a usual form of community for societies that practice subsistence agriculture, for some non-agricultural societies. In Great Britain, a hamlet earned the right to be called a village. In many cultures and cities were few, with only a small proportion of the population living in them; the Industrial Revolution attracted people in larger numbers to work in factories. This enabled specialization of labor and crafts, development of many trades; the trend of urbanization continues, though not always in connection with industrialization.
Although many patterns of village life have existed, the typical village is small, consisting of 5 to 30 families. Homes were situated together for sociability and defence, land surrounding the living quarters was farmed. Traditional fishing villages were located adjacent to fishing grounds. "The soul of India lives in its villages," declared M. K. Gandhi at the beginning of 20th century. According to the 2011 census of India, 68.84% of Indians live in 640,867 different villages. The size of these villages varies considerably. 236,004 Indian villages have a population of fewer than 500, while 3,976 villages have a population of 10,000+. Most of the villages have their own temple, mosque, or church, depending on the local religious following. In Afghanistan, the village, or deh is the mid-size settlement type in Afghan society, trumping the hamlet or qala, though smaller than the town, or shār. In contrast to the qala, the deh is a bigger settlement which includes a commercial area, while the yet larger shār includes governmental buildings and services such as schools of higher education, basic health care, police stations etc.
Auyl is a Kazakh word meaning "village" in Kazakhstan. According to the 2009 census of Kazakhstan, 42.7% of Kazakhs live in 8172 different villages. To refer to this concept along with the word "auyl" used the Slavic word "selo" in Northern Kazakhstan. People's Republic of China In mainland China, villages 村 are divisions under township Zh:乡 or town Zh:镇. Republic of China In the Republic of China, villages are divisions under townships or county-controlled cities; the village is called a tsuen or cūn under a rural township and a li under an urban township or a county-controlled city. See Li. Japan South Korea In Brunei, villages are the third- and lowest-level subdivisions of Brunei below districts and mukims. A village is locally known by the Malay word kampung, they may be villages in the traditional or anthropological sense but may comprise delineated residential settlements, both rural and urban. The community of a village is headed by a village head. Communal infrastructure for the villagers may include a primary school, a religious school providing ugama or Islamic religious primary education, compulsory for the Muslim pupils in the country, a mosque, a community centre.
In Indonesia, depending on the principles they are administered, villages are called Kampung or Desa. A "Desa" is administered according to traditions and customary law, while a kelurahan is administered along more "modern" principles. Desa are located in rural areas while kelurahan are urban subdivisions. A village head is called kepala desa or lurah. Both are elected by the local community. A desa or kelurahan is the subdivision of a kecamatan, in turn the subdivision of a kabupaten or kota; the same general concept applies all over Indonesia. However, there is some variation among the vast numbers of Austronesian ethnic groups. For instance, in Bali villages have been created by grouping traditional hamlets or banjar, which constitute the basis of Balinese social life. In the Minangkabau area in West Sumatra province, traditional villages are called nagari. In some areas such as Tanah Toraja, elders take; as a general rule and kelurahan are groupings of hamlets. A kampung is defined today as a village in Indonesia.
Kampung is a term used in Malaysia, for "a Malay hamlet or village in a Malay-speaking country". In Malaysia, a kampung is determined as a locality with 10,000 or fewer people. Since historical times, every Malay village came under the leadership of a penghulu, who has the power to hear civil matters in his village. A Malay village contains a "masjid" or "surau", paddy fields and Malay houses on st
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin. Cognates are inherited from a shared parent language, but they may involve borrowings from some other language. For example, the English words dish and desk and the German word Tisch are cognates because they all come from Latin discus, which relates to their flat surfaces. Cognates may have evolved similar, different or opposite meanings, but in most cases there are some similar sounds or letters in the words; some words don't come from the same root. The word cognate derives from the Latin noun cognatus, which means "blood relative". Cognates do not need to have the same meaning, which may have changed as the languages developed separately. For example English starve and Dutch sterven or German sterben all derive from the same Proto-Germanic root, *sterbaną. Discus is from Greek δίσκος. A and separate English reflex of discus through medieval Latin desca, is desk. Cognates do not need to have similar forms: English father, French père, Armenian հայր all descend directly from Proto-Indo-European *ph₂tḗr.
Examples of cognates in Indo-European languages are the words night, noche, nacht, nicht, nat, nátt, nótt, noc, ночь, noch, ноќ, noć, нощ, nosht, ніч, nich, ноч, noch/noč, noč, noć, νύξ, nox/nocte, nakt-, natë, nueche, notte, nit, nuèch/nuèit, nakts and Naach, all meaning "night" and being derived from the Proto-Indo-European *nókʷts "night". Another Indo-European example is star, str-, tora, astre/étoile, ἀστήρ, astro/stella, aster stea, astgh, ster, Schtähn, stjerne, stjärna, stjørna, setāre, seren, estel, estela estrella and astro Spanish, estrella Asturian and Leonese and astro and estêre or stêrk, from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂stḗr "star"; the Arabic سلام salām, the Hebrew שלום shalom, the Assyrian Neo-Aramaic shlama and the Amharic selam are cognates, derived from the Proto-Semitic *šalām- "peace". Cognates may be less recognised than the above examples, authorities sometimes differ in their interpretations of the evidence; the English word milk is a cognate of German Milch, Dutch melk, Russian молоко and Bosnian, Croatian, Slovenian mleko Montenegrin mlijeko.
On the other hand, French lait, Catalan llet, Italian latte, Romanian lapte, Spanish leche and leite are less-obvious cognates of Ancient Greek γάλακτος gálaktos, a relationship, more evidently seen through the intermediate Latin lac "milk" as well as the English word lactic and other terms borrowed from Latin. All of them come from Proto-Indo-European h₂melǵ- "milk"; some cognates are semantic opposites. For instance, while the Hebrew word חוצפה chutzpah means "impudence," its Classical Arabic cognate حصافة ḥaṣāfah means "sound judgment." Cognates within a single language, or doublets, may have meanings that are or totally different. For example, English ward and guard are cognates, as are skirt. In some cases, including this one, one cognate has an ultimate source in another language related to English, but the other one is native; that happened with many loanwords, such as skirt in this example, borrowed from Old Norse during the Danelaw. Sometimes both doublets come from other languages the same one but at different times.
For example, the word chief comes from the Middle French chef, its modern pronunciation preserves the Middle French consonant sound. Such word sets can be called etymological twins, they may come in groups of higher numbers, as with, for example, the words wain, waggon/wagon, vehicle in English. A word may enter another language, develop a new form or meaning there, be re-borrowed into the original language. For example, the Greek word κίνημα became French cinéma and later returned to Greece as σινεμά. In Greek, κίνημα and σινεμά are now doublets. A less obvious English-language doublet pair is glamour. False cognates are words that people believe are related, but that linguistic examination reveals are unrelated. For example, on the basis of superficial similarities, the Latin verb habēre and German haben, both meaning'to have