Krafla

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Krafla
A girl is standing near the steaming Krafla volcanic area.jpg
A girl is standing near the steaming Krafla volcanic area at Hverir
Highest point
Elevation650 m (2,130 ft)
Coordinates65°44′0″N 16°47′0″W / 65.73333°N 16.78333°W / 65.73333; -16.78333Coordinates: 65°44′0″N 16°47′0″W / 65.73333°N 16.78333°W / 65.73333; -16.78333
Geography
Krafla is located in Iceland
Krafla
Krafla
Location in Iceland
LocationIceland
Geology
Mountain typeCaldera
Last eruptionSeptember 1984

Krafla is a caldera of about 10 km in diameter with a 90 km long fissure zone, in the north of Iceland in the Mývatn region. Its highest peak reaches up to 818 m and it is 2 km in depth. There have been 29 reported eruptions in recorded history.

Overview[edit]

Krafla includes the crater Víti, one of two well-known craters by this name in Iceland (the other is in Askja); the Icelandic word "víti" means "hell". In former times, people often believed hell to be under volcanoes. Víti has a green lake inside of it.

South of the Krafla area, but not actually within the caldera is Námafjall, a mountain, beneath which is Hverir, a geothermal area with boiling mudpools and steaming fumaroles.

The Mývatn fires occurred between 1724–1729, when many of the fissure vents opened up; the lava fountains could be seen in the south of the island and a lava flow destroyed three farms near the village of Reykjahlíð, although nobody was harmed.

Between 1975 and 1984 there was a volcanic episode within the Krafla volcano, it involved nine volcanic eruptions and fifteen uplift and subsidence events. This interrupted some of the Krafla drillfields. During these events a large magma chamber emerged; this has been identified by analysing the seismic activity.

Since 1977 the Krafla area has been the source of the geothermal energy used by a 60 MWe power station. A survey undertaken in 2006 indicated very high temperatures at depths of between 3 and 5 kilometres and these favourable conditions have led to the development of the first well from the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP), that found magma only 2.1 km deep.[1]

Photogallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.iddp.is/ Iceland Deep Drilling Project

External links[edit]