The Kraków Barbican is a barbican – a fortified outpost once connected to the city walls. It is a historic gateway leading into the Old Town of Poland; the barbican is one of the few remaining relics of the complex network of fortifications and defensive barriers that once encircled the royal city of Kraków in the south of Poland. It serves as a tourist attraction and venue for a variety of exhibitions. Today the Barbican is under the jurisdiction of The Historical Museum of the City of Kraków. Tourists may tour its interior with its displays outlining the historical development of fortifications in Kraków; the Gothic-style barbican, built around 1498, is one of only three such fortified outposts still surviving in Europe, the best preserved. It is a moated cylindrical brick structure with an inner courtyard 24.4 meters in diameter, seven turrets. Its 3-meter-thick walls hold 130 embrasures; the barbican was linked to the city walls by a covered passageway that led through St. Florian's Gate and served as a checkpoint for all who entered the city.
The Poles built the barbican fearing an attack by the Ottoman Empire after the defeat of King John I Albert at the Battle of the Cosmin Forest. The Barbican participated in the defense of Kraków in 1587 against the Siege of Kraków by Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria, in the Siege of Kraków and the Siege of Kraków, Russian troops during the Polish–Russian War of 1792; the building was threatened with demolition early in the 19th Century. However, in 1817 two senators of the Free City of Kraków, Feliks Radwanski and Jan Librowski, convinced the Senate to preserve the Barbican and other parts of the old fortifications; the Barbican was a large, circular tower with an interior open space with a diameter of 25 m. It stood four stories tall, it had seven watch towers. The walls were about 3 m at 0.5 m at the top. The Barbican's exterior gate, the Kleparz Gate, was protected by a large, semi-circular moat 2626 m wide and 6 m deep. Considered a masterpiece of medieval military engineering, the circular fortress of the Kraków's Barbakan was added to the city's fortifications along the coronation route in the late 15th century, based on Arabic rather than European defensive strategy.
On its eastern wall, a tablet commemorates the feat of a Kraków burgher, Marcin Oracewicz, during the Bar Confederation, defended the town against the Russians and shot their Colonel Panin, according to a legend, using a czamara button instead of a bullet. Planty Park, which encircles Kraków's Old Town Warsaw Barbican Marek Żukow-Karczewski, The Barbican, "KRAKÓW" Magazyn Kulturalny, Special Edition, "KRAKÓW" Magazine, Kraków, 1991, p. 58-59. Media related to Barbakan in Kraków at Wikimedia Commons How to get there? Kraków Poland: information about and photographs of Kraków's Barbican
Luis Aguayo Muriel is a Puerto Rican former professional baseball infielder and coach, who played in Major League Baseball for the Philadelphia Phillies, New York Yankees, Cleveland Indians. Aguayo was signed by the Philadelphia Phillies as an amateur free agent on December 27, 1975 at the age of 16, he made his big league debut for the Phillies on April 1980, in a win over the Expos. He entered the game in the top of 3rd inning as a pinch runner for Manny Trillo, would play second base for the remainder of the game. Although Aguayo would play with the Phillies until 1988, he only appeared in two games in the 1981 postseason, acting as a pinch runner in the series against the Dodgers. According to some metrics, Aguayo ranked 76th in the National League according to statistics in 1985. Aguayo was traded to the New York Yankees in the middle of July 1988 for minor leaguer Amalio Carreño, would sign with the Cleveland Indians after the season. Aguayo only appeared in 47 games for the Indians before being released after the 1989 season, would linger in the minor leagues until 1992, batting.255 in 80 games for the Pawtucket Red Sox.
After his playing career was over, Aguayo managed the Red Sox Class A Lowell Spinners from 1999–2000. On June 17, 2008, Aguayo was named the New York Mets third base coach. On October 23 of that season, the Mets announced that Aguayo would be reassigned within the organization and that Razor Shines would be replacing him as third base coach. Aguayo is the international field coordinator/infield instructor for the minor league staff of the St. Louis Cardinals. List of Major League Baseball players from Puerto Rico Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference, or Retrosheet Luis Aguayo at SABR
Nikita Leontyevich Salogor was a Moldavian and Soviet politician who served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Moldavia in 1942–1946. Of Romanian Ukrainian or Moldovan roots, he had a kulak mother, whom he denounced in life. Salogor's early career was in agricultural institutions of the Ukrainian SSR and the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, where he advanced politically. Following the Soviet advance into Bessarabia in 1940, he joined the leadership of the Moldavian SSR. Advanced to Junior Secretary of the PCM, he was co-opted on its Politburo in early 1941, took part in a workforce recruitement drive interpreted by historian Ion Varta as a deportation of native Romanians. Shortly after the German attack on the Soviet Union and other PCM leaders withdrew to Soviet Russia, but still sought to exercise command over Soviet partisans organizing in the lost Bessarabian territories. During this interval, Salogor was able to outmaneuver Piotr Borodin, taking up Borodin's position as First Secretary.
He returned to Soviet Moldavia following its reconquest in August 1944, involving himself in reconstructing the party structures and investigating the spread of anti-communist resistance. He managed responses to the Moldavian famine, set up the Moldavian State University. Cultivating national communism and posthumously labelled a Moldovenist, Salogor advanced an irredentist project, hoping to increase the Moldavian SSR by incorporating the whole of Romanian Moldavia, as well as the Budjak and Bukovina; these proposals threatened the Ukrainian SSR's territorial integrity, were as such vetoed by Nikita Khrushchev. Salogor lost his PCM positions shortly after, sent to work as an agricultural manager in Krasnodar Krai, he was allowed to return in 1950, when Moldavian Premier Gherasim Rudi assigned him minor positions in his cabinet. His attempt to undermine PCM leader Nicolae Coval resulted in another demotion, he was only included on the Central Committee in the 1970s, by which time he was retired and ailing.
Salogor was born on 15 August 1901, though some of his official biographies had 1902. His place of birth was Konstantinovka village, part of Kherson Governorate, Russian Empire. From 1924, areas near Konstantinovka were absorbed by the Moldavian ASSR, set up for Romanians and Moldovans in the Ukrainian SSR. Historian Lilia Crudu argues that Salogor, like his colleague Nicolae Coval, became a "Moldovan" or "Moldavian" only as a byword for his geographic origins in that area, where he received his communist training. Ethnic Romanian author Ion Costaș sees Salogor and Coval as "ideologized beyond measure" and no longer belonging to a specific ethnic culture; this is contrasted by another scholar, Igor Cașu, who notes that Salogor was an ethnic Romanian from Ukraine, a Moldovan—Cașu regards these as two complementary identities. The label of "Moldovan" appears in the nationality rubric on his political files. Though described in official records as a poor peasant with only a secondary education, it remains attested that the Salogor family had "unhealthy" social origins according to Soviet class definitions, for this reason Nikita cut off all links with his relatives.
According to his own words, he had stopped communicating with his mother in 1918, when she had remarried. Salogor moved to the Ukraine-proper in 1924, he was manager of agricultural projects in Rîbnița and Ocna Roșie Districts before being integrated into the political establishment of the Moldavian ASSR. Salogor moved there in 1930, as part of a wave of new arrivals which were meant to infuse the local political structures with stricter Stalinism, he was by a card-carrying member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which remained his only affiliation until 1940. In 1937, he graduated from the Ukrainian Academy for People's Commissars in the Food Industry and from Moscow's Stalin Academy; the same year, he was elected a Moldavian deputy to the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, and, by 1939, he was the Regional Soviet leader in Slobozia District. In late June 1940, Soviet forces occupied Bessarabia. Most of the region was merged with areas included in the Moldavian ASSR, to form the Moldavian SSR, while the Budjak in the south, Hotin County in the north, were incorporated with the Ukrainian SSR.
Salogor moved into the new republic, and, in August 1940, became Junior Secretary of the Communist Party of Moldavia, serving under Piotr Borodin. He was additionally head of the Orhei County Soviet. During the 1940–1941 one-party legislative election, he became a Telenești deputy in the Supreme Soviet. In August–November 1940, Salogor was involved in the drive to recruit Bessarabian workforce for the Soviet industry, his report on the "organized mobilization of labor for the Soviet industry" acknowledged that 59,500 people from "the former Bessarabia" were recruited, but expressed his dissatisfaction, as this fell below the planned 77,000. Salogor promised to ensure the fulfillment of quotas. Historian Ion Varta claimed that the recruitment drive was directed at ethnic Romanians since it main targets were the rural regions "with an overwhelming Romanian majority" and constituted a "premeditated po
"Highway 20 Ride" is a song recorded by American country music group Zac Brown Band, written by lead singer Zac Brown and Wyatt Durrette. The song was released in November 2009 as the fourth single from the band's 2009 album The Foundation, it is the band's third Number One on the U. S. country singles chart. Wyatt Durette was inspired to write "Highway 20 Ride" while driving along Interstate 20 between Atlanta and the Georgia/South Carolina state line in Augusta, Georgia to drop off his son, Wyatt IV, so that his mother could pick him up. Durette told Country Weekly magazine that, during one such trip, he began to think about "how would perceive as a father." After he showed some of his lyrics to Zac Brown, Brown helped. The music video was directed by Darren Doane and was released on December 22, 2009; the song received many positive reviews. Matt Bjorke of Roughstock stated that it "give country music their'new Alabama.'" Leeann Ward of Country Universe gave the song an A, referring to it as "touching and tastefully constructed" and saying that it "may turn out to be one of the best singles of 2009."
Mark Deming of Allmusic, in his review of the album, stated that the song, as well as "Free," "show the influence of the more sentimental branches of the Texas singer-songwriter tradition." Pierce Greenberg of Engine 145, in his review of the album, referred to the song as a "geographical heartbreak song." Jessica Phillips of Country Weekly magazine gave it four stars out of five, with her review calling it "honest, not syrupy" and describing Brown's "powerful vocals" as a standout. On the week ending December 19, 2009, the song became Zac Brown Band's fourth consecutive Top 40 hit on the Billboard Hot Country Songs charts, it debuted on the Hot 100 at #98 on the week ending January 30, 2010. It has since reached #40, becoming their fourth consecutive Top 40 on the Billboard Hot 100. In April 2010, the song became Zac Brown Band's third Number One single on the Hot Country Songs chart; the song reached over a million copies in the US in April 2014, as of February 2015, it has sold 1,058,000 copies
The reign of Marcus Aurelius began with his accession on 8 March 161 following the death of his adoptive father, Antoninus Pius, ended with his own death on 17 March 180. Marcus first ruled jointly with Lucius Verus, they shared the throne until Lucius' death in 169. Marcus was succeeded by his son Commodus, made co-emperor in 177. Under Marcus, Rome fought the Roman -- Parthian War of 161 -- the Marcomannic Wars; the so-called Antonine plague occurred during his reign. In the last years of his rule, Marcus composed his personal writings on Stoic philosophy known as Meditations; the major sources for the life and rule of Marcus are patchy and unreliable. The biographies contained in the Historia Augusta claim to be written by a group of authors at the turn of the 4th century, but are in fact written by a single author from the 4th century; the biographies and the biographies of subordinate emperors and usurpers consist of lies and fiction, but the earlier biographies, derived from now-lost earlier sources are much more reliable.
For Marcus Aurelius' life and rule, the biographies of Hadrian, Pius and Lucius Verus are reliable, but those of Aelius Verus and Avidius Cassius are invented. A body of correspondence between Marcus Aurelius' tutor Marcus Cornelius Fronto and various Antonine officials survives in a series of patchy manuscripts, covering the period from c. 138 to 166. Marcus' own Meditations offer a window on his inner life, but are undateable, make few specific references to worldly affairs; the main narrative source for the period is Cassius Dio, a Greek senator from Bithynian Nicaea who wrote a history of Rome from its founding to 229 in eighty books. Dio is vital for the military history of the period, but his senatorial prejudices and strong opposition to imperial expansion obscure his perspective; some other literary sources provide specific detail: the writings of the physician Galen on the habits of the Antonine elite, the orations of Aelius Aristides on the temper of the times, the constitutions preserved in the Digest and Codex Justinianus on Marcus' legal work.
Inscriptions and coin finds supplement the literary sources. At the death of Antoninus Pius, Marcus was sole ruler of the Empire; the formalities of the position would follow: The senate would soon grant him the name Augustus and the title imperator, he would soon be formally elected as Pontifex Maximus, chief priest of the official cults. Marcus made some show of resistance: the biographer of the Historia Augusta writes that he was "compelled" to take imperial power; this may have been a genuine horror imperii, "fear of imperial power". Marcus, with his preference for the philosophic life, found the imperial office unappealing, his training as a Stoic, had made the choice clear. It was his duty. Although Marcus shows no personal affection for Hadrian, he believed it his duty to enact the man's succession plans. Thus, although the senate planned to confirm Marcus Aurelius alone, he refused to take office unless Lucius, the son of Hadrian's long deceased chosen heir L. Aelius, received equal powers.
The senate accepted, granting Lucius the imperium, the tribunician power, the name Augustus. Marcus became, in Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, it was the first time. In spite of their nominal equality, Marcus held "authority", than Verus, he had been consul once more than Verus, he had shared in Pius' administration, he alone was Pontifex Maximus. It would have been clear to the public; as the biographer of the Historia Augusta wrote, "Verus obeyed Marcus...as a lieutenant obeys a proconsul or a governor obeys the emperor."Immediately after their senate confirmation, the emperors proceeded to the Castra Praetoria, the camp of the Praetorian Guard. Lucius addressed the assembled troops, which acclaimed the pair as imperatores, like every new emperor since Claudius, promised the troops a special donative; this donative, was twice the size of those past: 20,000 sesterces per capita, more to officers. In return for this bounty, equivalent to several years' pay, the troops swore an oath to protect the emperors.
The ceremony was not necessary, given that Marcus' accession had been peaceful and unopposed, but it was good insurance against military troubles. Pius' funeral ceremonies were, in the words of the biographer of the Historia Augusta, "elaborate". If his funeral followed the pattern of past funerals, his body would have been incinerated on a pyre at the Campus Martius, while his spirit would rise to the gods' home in the heavens. Marcus and Lucius nominated their father for deification. In contrast to their behavior during Pius' campaign to deify Hadrian, the senate did not oppose the emperors' wishes. A flamen, or cultic priest, was appointed to minister the cult of the deified Pius, now Divus Antoninus. Pius' remains were laid to rest in Hadrian's mausoleum, beside the remains of Marcus' children and of Hadrian himself; the temple Pius had dedicated to his wife, Diva Faustina, became the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina. It survives as the church of San Lorenzo in Miranda. In accordance with his will, Pius' fortune passed on to Faustina.
(Marcus had little need of his wife's fortune. Indeed, at his accession, he transferred part of his mother's estate to his neph
Lecce Cathedral is the cathedral of the city of Lecce in Apulia, dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Lecce; the cathedral was first built in 1144, but underwent repairs in 1230. It was rebuilt in 1659 by the architect Giuseppe Zimbalo by order of bishop Luigi Pappacoda, whose remains are kept in the altar dedicated to Saint Orontius of Lecce, the patron saint of the city; the cathedral is located in the center of the city of Lecce and sits on the southeast corner of the Piazza del Duomo. It is accessible from the piazza through two entrances, one on the north side of the building and another on the west side; the cathedral shares the piazza with other buildings, including the bell tower, the bishop's residence, the seminary. The principal entrance is found on the northern façade, considered to be a masterpiece of Baroque art. At the center is the portal, accessible by a cascading staircase. Flanking the portal are two massive columns on square bases, outside of which are niches containing statues of Saint Giusto and Saint Fortunato.
The entablature, sitting directly above the portal, is crowned by a high balustrade alternating with columns and pilasters, above which, in the center and standing within a grand and decorated arch, is a statue of Saint Orontius. The western entrance, found directly across from the archbishop’s residence, is divided by fluted pilasters into three vertical sections corresponding to the three naves of the interior. Stautes of Peter and Paul flank the entrance. Part of the right side of the façade is covered by an adjacent diocesan building; the cathedral has a Latin cross plan with three naves divided by pilasters and columns, the main altar is placed at the eastern end of the church. The central nave and the transepts are covered by a wooden ceiling with coffers created in 1685 along with paintings by Giuseppe da Brindisi which show: the Preaching of Saint Orontius, the Protection from the Plague, the Martyrdom of Saint Orontius, the Last Supper; the cathedral contains twelve side chapels, each with its own altar.
The side chapels are dedicated to: John the Baptist Nativity of Jesus which contains a 16th-century creche the martyrdom of Saint Giusto Saint Anthony of Padua the Immaculate Conception Saint Philip Romolo Neri the Crucifixion of Jesus and the Blessed Sacrament Saint Orontius of Lecce Our Lady of Sorrows Saint Giusto Saint Charles Borromeo Saint Andrew the Apostle They are pictorally rich with images by talented artists including Giuseppe da Brindisi, Oronzo Tiso, Gianserio Strafella, G. Domenico Catalano and G. A. Coppola; the main altar is made of marble and gold-plated bronze, was constructed by bishop Sersale. It was consecrated in 1757 by bishop Sozi Carafa, who commissioned the large central painting, the Assumption of Mary by Oronzo Tiso as well as the two lateral images of the Sacrifice of the Prophet Elias and the Sacrifice of Noah after the Flood; the choir stalls and bishop's chair, made of walnut, were designed by Emanuele Manieri and were commissioned by bishop Fabrizio Pignatelli in 1797.
The 12th century cathedral crypt underwent Baroque modifications in the 16th century. It has a longitudinal space that contains two Baroque chapels with paintings, crossed by a long corridor consisting of ninety-two columns with capitals decorated with human figures; the bell tower was constructed in 1661-1662 by Lecce architect Giuseppe Zimbalo at the request of bishop Luigi Pappacoda. It was built to replace the previous Norman bell tower, erected by Goffredo d'Altavilla, which crumbled at the beginning of the 17th century, it has a square shape and appears to be made up of five tapered levels, the last of, surmounted by an octagonal majolica dome, on which there is an iron statue of Sant'Oronzo. The top four floors have a single window on each side, each has a balustrade going around its perimeter. Engraved on plaques located over the mullioned windows are Latin inscriptions taken from the writings of Giovanni Lecce Camillo Palma. At a height of 72 meters, the bell tower offers views of the Adriatic Sea, on clear days the mountains of Albania are visible.
It leans due to a sunken foundation. Lecce elegia del Barocco, Michele Paone, Congedo Editore, Galatina 1999 Diocese of Lecce official website Inizio di un VirtualTour in QuickTime with written descriptions Panorama of the campanile before restoration Panorama of the cathedral entrance