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Kraków Ghetto

The Kraków Ghetto was one of five major metropolitan Jewish Ghettos created by Nazi Germany in the new General Government territory during the German occupation of Poland in World War II. It was established for the purpose of exploitation and persecution of local Polish Jews, as well as the staging area for separating the "able workers" from those who would be deemed unworthy of life; the Ghetto was liquidated between June 1942 and March 1943, with most of its inhabitants sent to their deaths at Bełżec extermination camp as well as Płaszów slave-labor camp, Auschwitz concentration camp, 60 kilometres rail distance. Before the German-Soviet invasion of 1939, Kraków was an influential centre for the 60,000–80,000 Polish Jews who had lived there since the 13th century. Persecution of the Jewish population of Kraków began after the German troops entered the city on 6 September 1939 in the course of the German aggression of Poland. Jews were ordered to report for forced labour beginning in September 1939.

In November, all Jews twelve years or older were required to wear identifying armbands. Throughout Kraków, synagogues were closed and all their relics and valuables confiscated by the Nazi authorities. Kraków was made the capital of the General Government, by May 1940 the German occupation authority headed by the Governor-General Hans Frank announced that Kraków should become the “racially cleanest" city in the General Government. Massive deportations of Jews from the city ensued. Of the more than 68,000 Jews in Kraków at the time of the German invasion, only 15,000 workers and their families were permitted to remain. All other Jews were ordered out of the city, to be resettled into surrounding rural areas of the General Government. In April 1940, Hans Frank proposed the removal of 50,000 Jews from the city of Kraków. Frank's reasoning for removing Jews from the Jewish quarter was that the area "...will be cleansed and it will be possible to establish pure German neighborhoods..." within Kraków.

From May 1940 to 15 August 1940, a voluntary expulsion program was enacted. Jews that chose to leave Kraków were allowed to take all of their belongings and relocate throughout the General-Government. By 15 August 1940, 23,000 Jews had left Kraków. After this date, mandatory expulsions were enforced. On 25 November 1940, the Order for the Deportation of Jews from the Municipal District of Kraków was announced; this order declared that no more Jews were allowed into the city of Kraków, Jews residing in Kraków required a special permit, locations outside of Kraków that Jews were forced to move to were chosen by authorities. Jews forced to leave were only allowed to bring along 25 kg of their belongings when they left. By 4 December 1940, 43,000 Jews were removed from Kraków, both voluntarily and involuntarily. Jews that were still residing in Kraków at this time were deemed "...economically useful..." and they had to obtain a residence permit that "...had to be renewed each month."The following year, on 3 March 1941, the establishment of the Kraków Ghetto was ordered by Otto Wächter.

The ghetto was to be set up in the Podgórze District of Kraków. Podgórze was chosen as the site of the ghetto instead of the traditional Jewish quarter, because Hans Frank believed Kazimierz was more significant to the history of Kraków. Podgórze was a suburb of Kraków at the time. Wächter claimed that formation of the ghetto was necessary for public order; the Kraków ghetto was established on 20 March 1941. When relocating to the ghetto, Jews were only allowed to bring 25 kg of their belongings; the rest of their possessions were taken by the German Trust Office. All non-Jewish residents of the area were required to relocate in other districts by 20 March 1941; the ghetto was guarded by the German police, the Polish police, the Jewish police, but the only police force inside the ghetto was the Jewish police. With the formation of the ghetto, the OD had an office established at Józefińska Street 37 in Podgórze. In April 1941, the ghetto was enclosed by a wall made of barbed stone. Jewish monuments and tombstones from the cemetery."

The ghetto wall was constructed using Jewish forced labor. The ghetto was accessible by three entrances: one near the Podgórze Market, Limanowskiego Street, the Plac Zgody; the Kraków Ghetto was a closed ghetto meaning that it was physically closed off from the surrounding area and access was restricted. Within other German-occupied areas, open ghettos and destruction ghettos existed. Movement in and out of the ghetto was restricted and Jews working outside of the ghetto had to have the proper documentation. Jews had to "...obtain the appropriate stamps for the Kennkarten..." from the Labor Office. The ghetto was populated by 16,000 Jews when it was first formed. Before the ghetto was cordoned off, it was home to around 3,500 residents; the ghetto consisted of 320 buildings. To accommodate the density, apartments within the ghetto were divided on a 2m² per person basis or by a standard of three people to one window; the Jewish Council was responsible for determining the new housing assignments. Within the Kraków ghetto, Yiddish was the official language, not Polish.

On 1 December 1939, an order was announced mandating that all Jews within the General Government wear an armband identifying them as Jewish. The white armbands with the blue Star of David were still required once Jews were moved into the ghetto. On 15 October 1941, the Third Decree of the General Governor's was en

Adams axle

The Adams axle is a form of radial axle for rail locomotives that enable them to negotiate curves more easily. It was invented by William Bridges Adams and patented in 1865; the invention uses axle boxes that slide on an arc in shaped horn blocks, so allowing the axle to slide out to either side. This is similar to the movement of a Bissell truck, but with the notional centre point of the curve being where the pivot of the truck would be; this design, using slide bearings, is more expensive than one employing a shaft, but takes up less space. In 1865 the Society of Engineers, made direct comparison between the radial axle, invented by William Bridges Adams, a bogie design with an india-rubber central bearing invented by William Adams: during trials on the North London Railway the laterally sprung bogie was thought superior to the radial axle, but when William Adams moved from the NLR to the London and South Western Railway he adopted the design of his rival William Bridges Adams. Notwithstanding the 1865 comparative trials of the two inventors' products, there is some confusion over the inventor of the axle.

Lexicon der Eisenbahn cites William Adams as the inventor. Lateral motion device Luttermöller axle Theodor Düring: Schnellzug-Dampflokomotiven der deutschen Länderbahnen 1907-1922 Frankh, Stuttgart 1972, ISBN 3-440-03795-9 Adams Axle

Galop Island

Galop Island is an uninhabited island in the Saint Lawrence River located in St. Lawrence County, northeast of Ogdensburg, New York; the 675-acre island is owned by the New York Power Authority and managed by the New York State Office of Parks and Historic Preservation as the undeveloped Galop Island State Park. Galop Island has been known by a variety of names, including Isle Aux Galloup, Gallou Island, Butternut Island, Dillingham Island, Dixon Island, Lalone Island, Lotus Island, Round Island, Sears Island, Tick Island, Twin Island; the island contains a mixture of open areas and mature forests. It is a known wintering area for bald eagles. A nearby area of the Saint Lawrence River, known as the Galop Island Pools, remains free of ice during the winter due to strong river currents and turbulence; the 1,800 acres of open water is utilized by eagles and other migratory birds as a winter food source. The availability of open water during the winter is limited within the region. 1,000 acres of shallow bays along the river channel south of the island include spawning habitat for muskellunge, causing the area to be a regionally important sport fishing destination.

The large, shallow bays with variable water velocities found offshore from Galop Island are rare within the region. The bays additionally support migratory waterfowl during the spring and fall, additional fish species, including brown bullhead, smallmouth bass, yellow perch, are abundant. List of New York state parks

Larisa Novoseltseva

Larisa Novoseltseva is a Russian singer-songwriter, performer of Russian and Ukrainian folk songs and romances, creator of project Return of the Silver Age. She is author of music and performer of songs and ballads on poems by more than forty Russian poets of the Silver Age, such as Osip Mandelstam, Nikolay Gumilev, Boris Pasternak,Marina Tsvetaeva, Maksimilian Voloshin, Konstantin Balmont, Alexander Vertinsky and many others, including Bella Akhmadulina who, according to Novoseltseva, can be viewed as the last poet of Silver Age based on her poetic language and style. Novoseltseva published more than 20 music albums, she performs solo using guitar or piano for the accompaniment. More she appears with violinist Michael CzerwinskiNovoseltseva considers music "the missing dimension of poetry". Together with her husband, Sergei Novoseltsev, she runs the non-commercial educational project "Return of Silver Age". During the project she created more than 200 songs and 50 solo concerts, published 18 music albums, organized club "Koktebel" that runs regular meetings to discuss Russian poetry, made more than 150 appearances at events and gatherings in libraries, art houses and clubs.

Stated goal of the project is educating public about Russian poetry of the Silver Age, after a 70-year ban or neglect during the Soviet period, improving everyday Russian language using poetry. Going after light, poetry by Osip Mandelshtam Do not leave me, my friend, Russian romance La Romance'25 - Vol 1 and Vol 2 - songs on poetry by different authors Candle, poetry by Akhmadulina and Tsvetaeva Songs of Russian emigration: part 1, Tsvetaeva and Teffi Maria Petrovykh, Songs on poems by Bella Akhmadulina Silver Age Lullabies LaRomance, her official website LaRomance on YouTube Her official page at Vkontakte Her page at Synthesis of Poetry and Music website, dedicated to Russian Romance

Band offset

Band offset describes the relative alignment of the energy bands at a semiconductor heterojunction. At semiconductor heterojunctions, energy bands of two different materials come together, leading to an interaction. Both band structures are positioned discontinuously from each other, causing them to align close to the interface; this is done to ensure that the Fermi energy level stays continuous throughout the two semiconductors. This alignment is caused by the discontinuous band structures of the semiconductors when compared to each other and the interaction of the two surfaces at the interface; this relative alignment of the energy bands at such semiconductor heterojunctions is called the Band offset. The band offsets can be determined by both intrinsic properties, that is, determined by properties of the bulk materials, as well as non-intrinsic properties, specific properties of the interface. Depending on the type of the interface, the offsets can be accurately considered intrinsic, or be able to be modified by manipulating the interfacial structure.

Isovalent heterojunctions are insensitive to manipulation of the interfacial structure, whilst heterovalent heterojunctions can be influenced in their band offsets by the geometry, the orientation, the bonds of the interface and the charge transfer between the heterovalent bonds. The band offsets those at heterovalent heterojunctions depend on the distribution of interface charge; the band offsets are determined by two kinds of factors for the interface, the band discontinuities and the built-in potential. These discontinuities are caused by the difference in band gaps of the semiconductors and are distributed between two band discontinuities, the valence-band discontinuity, the conduction-band discontinuity; the built-in potential is caused by the bands which bend close at the interface due to a charge imbalance between the two semiconductors, can be described by Poisson's equation. The behaviour of semiconductor heterojunctions depend on the alignment of the energy bands at the interface and thus on the band offsets.

The interfaces of such heterojunctions can be categorized in three types: straddling gap, staggered gap, broken gap. These representations do not take into account the band bending, a reasonable assumption if you only look at the interface itself, as band bending exerts its influence on a length scale of hundreds of angström. For a more accurate picture of the situation at hand, the inclusion of band bending is important. Two kinds of experimental techniques are used to describe band offsets; the first is an older technique, the first technique to probe the heterojunction built-in potential and band discontinuities. This methods are called transport methods; these methods consist of either capacitance-voltage or current-voltage techniques. These older techniques were used to extract the built-in potential by assuming a square-root dependence for the capacitance C on Φ bi - qV, with Φ bi the built-in potential, q the electron charge, V the applied voltage. If band extrema away from the interface, as well as the distance between the Fermi level, are known parameters, known a priori from bulk doping, it becomes possible to obtain the conduction band offset and the valence band offset.

This square root dependence corresponds to an ideally abrupt transition at the interface and it may or may not be a good approximation of the real junction behaviour. The second kind of technique consists of optical methods. Photon absorption is used as the conduction band and valence band discontinuities define quantum wells for the electrons and the holes. Optical techniques can be used to probe the direct transitions between sub-bands within the quantum wells, with a few parameters known, such as the geometry of the structure and the effective mass, the transition energy measured experimentally can be used to probe the well depth. Band offset values are estimated using the optical response as a function of certain geometrical parameters or the intensity of an applied magnetic field. Light scattering could be used to determine the size of the well depth. Prediction of the band alignment is at face value dependent on the heterojunction type, as well as whether or not the heterojunction in question is heterovalent or isovalent.

However, quantifying this alignment proved a difficult task for a long time. Anderson's rule is used to construct energy band diagrams at heterojunctions between two semiconductors, it states that during the construction of an energy band diagram, the vacuum levels of the semiconductors on either side of the heterojunction should be equal. Anderson's rule states that when we construct the heterojunction, we need to have both semiconductors on an equal vacuum energy level; this ensures that the energy bands of both the semiconductors are being held to the same reference point, from which ΔEc and ΔEv, the conduction band offset and valence band offset can be calculated. By having the same reference point for both semiconductors, ΔEc becomes equal to the built-in potential, Vbi = Φ1 - Φ2, the behaviour of the bands at the interface can be predicted as can be seen at the picture above. Anderson's rule fails to predict real band offsets; this is due to the fact that Anderson's model implies that the materials are assumed to behave the same as if they were separated by a large vacuum distance, however at these heterojunctions consisting of solids filling the space, there is no vacuum, the use of the electron affinities at vacuum leads to wrong results.

Anderson's rule ignores actual chemical bonding effects that occur on small vacuum se

Danny Elliott (footballer)

Daniel Elliott is an English footballer who plays as a forward for National League North side Chester. A former youth-team player at Nottingham Forest and Aston Villa, he played college soccer is the United States with Hofstra Pride and represented North Carolina FC U23 and the Long Island Rough Riders, he joined Spanish club San Cristóbal in October 2018 and signed with English Football League side Port Vale in January 2019. Released by Port Vale in May 2019, he signed with Chester two months later, he was loaned out to Alfreton Town in January 2020. Born in Nottingham, Elliott attended West Bridgford School, he earned a BA in economics from Hofstra University in May 2018. Elliott began his career with the youth teams of Aston Villa, he played college soccer for the Hofstra Pride between 2014 and 2017. He spent time with North Carolina FC U23, the Long Island Rough Riders, he made his PDL debut for the Rough Riders on 24 June 2018, in a 1–0 defeat at Reading United. He made a further five appearances, scoring one goal in 3–2 victory over Evergreen at the Hofstra University Soccer Stadium.

He signed for Spanish Tercera División club San Cristóbal in October 2018. He left the club in January 2019 to trial with English League Two club Port Vale; the trial was successful and that month he signed for Port Vale until the end of the 2018–19 season. He made his debut in the English Football League on 19 January, coming on for Ricky Miller as a 75th-minute substitute in a 1–0 win at Crawley Town. After the match, Port Vale manager Neil Aspin said. We have put him on today but if we had more strikers he wouldn't be thrown in the deep end". After three months playing reserve team football, he returned to the first-team to impress new manager John Askey as a substitute against Stevenage on 19 April; however Askey confirmed. Elliott joined National League North club Chester on a one year deal in July 2019, following a successful trial spell in which he scored against Wigan Athletic in a pre-season friendly at the Deva Stadium, he moved on loan to league rivals Alfreton Town in January 2020. He scored a hat-trick on his debut for the "Reds" in a 6–1 victory over Gloucester City at North Street on 28 January.

He ended the loan spell with five goals from five games and was put back into the first-team following his return to the Deva Stadium. As of 1 March 2020