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Krakowskie Przedmieście

Krakowskie Przedmieście is one of the best known and most prestigious streets of Poland's capital Warsaw, surrounded by historic palaces and manor-houses. Krakowskie Przedmieście Royal Avenue constitutes the northernmost part of Warsaw's Royal Route, links the Old Town and Royal Castle with some of the most notable institutions in Warsaw, including – proceeding southward – the Presidential Palace, Warsaw University, the Polish Academy of Sciences headquartered in the Staszic Palace; the immediate southward extension of Krakowskie Przedmieście along the Royal Route is ulica Nowy Świat. Several other Polish cities have streets named Krakowskie Przedmieście. In Lublin, it is most elegant street. Other cities include Piotrków Trybunalski, Krasnystaw, Olkusz and Wieluń. Krakowskie Przedmieście was established in the 15th century as a trade route, it is one of the oldest avenues in Warsaw and the first part of the Royal Route that connects the Royal Castle with King John III Sobieski's 17th century Wilanów Palace at the southern periphery.

In the 17th century and manor houses began springing up along what had by become the major artery of the new Polish capital. During the 18th century, the Italian painter Bernardo Bellotto, a court painter to Poland's last king, Stanisław August Poniatowski, rendered in meticulous detail the streets and architecture of Poland's capital, with its burgeoning population, strong economy, seats of learning and the arts, it was thanks to his paintings that Warsaw's historic district was rebuilt by the Polish people from its deliberate destruction by German special squads in World War II following the Warsaw Uprising in 1944. By the 19th century, Krakowskie Przedmieście had many Baroque and Classical-style churches and dwellings; the street's development continued into the 20th century with the erection of commercial buildings and hotels such as the Hotel Bristol. More the architect Krzysztof Domaradzki of the Dawos studio has given the street a new redesign, he was inspired by historical sources and Bernardo Bellotto's hyper-realistic paintings of the 18th century street to give the area a look, both old and modern.

A stone Madonna and child, the "Madonna of Passau," stands at Krakowskie Przedmieście, opposite the end of Bednarska Street. It was created by royal sculptor Józef Belotti and placed at its present site in 1683 as a votive offering for King John III Sobieski's victory over the Turks at Vienna; the statue is Warsaw's second oldest monument after Zygmunt's Column. Trębacka Street leads to the Adam Mickiewicz monument, erected in 1898 on the 100th anniversary of the birth of Poland's great poet. In 1942 the Germans destroyed the statue. Only the head and a fragment of the torso were recovered for its postwar reconstruction. In accordance with Frédéric Chopin's will, after his death his heart was removed and brought by his sister in an urn to Warsaw, where it was deposited inside a pillar of the Holy Cross Church on Krakowskie Przedmieście. Media related to Krakowskie Przedmieście in Warsaw at Wikimedia Commons Krakowskie Przedmieście Street

1968 Giro d'Italia

The 1968 Giro d'Italia was the 51st running of the Giro d'Italia, one of cycling's Grand Tour races. The Giro started in Campione d'Italia, on 20 May, with a 5.7 km stage and concluded in Naples, on 11 June, with a 235 km mass-start stage. A total of 130 riders from 13 teams entered the 22-stage race, won by Belgian Eddy Merckx of the Faema team; the second and third places were taken by Italians Vittorio Felice Gimondi, respectively. At the route's announcement on 21 March, the organizers announced twelve teams of ten would participate; each team sent a squad of ten riders. Out of the 130 riders that started this edition of the Giro d'Italia, a total of 98 riders made it to the finish in Naples where eight riders were subsequently disqualified for testing positive for drugs leaving the general classification tally at 90 riders; the starting peloton consisted of 70 Italians, 16 Belgians, 15 Frenchmen, 11 Spanish, 7 Swiss, four Germans, three Dutch, two Danes, one English, one Luxembourgian rider.

The presentation of the teams – where each team's roster and manager were introduced in front the media and local dignitaries – took place on 20 May, in the Campione d'Italia at 9:30 AM local time. The teams entering the race were: The starting peloton did include the previous year's winner Felice Gimondi. Eddy Merckx was confirmed to participate with his Faema team. Eight-time Grand Tour winner Jacques Anquetil did not participate in the race because of a dispute over pay; the race route was revealed to the public on 21 March 1968 by race director Vincenzo Torriani. The starting date of the event was moved from the 18th or 19 May to the 20th because of the general election taking place within Italy that ended on 19 May; the race was broadcast by RAI throughout Italy. L'Unita writer Gino Sala's felt the route was geared towards climbers, referencing the inclusion of Tre Cime di Lavaredo, the previous year and eliminated several riders. Former racer Cino Cinelli felt the Tre Cime di Lavaredo would be the decisive stage, while three time champion Gino Bartali felt the Spanish would benefit from the route.

The average length of the stages was 178 km. The second individual time trial, in San Marino, was seen as an important stage as it featured inclines of 5-6%. Gianni Motta commented that "I've never seen so many mountains in a row one after another." Four mountains approached or exceeded 2,000 m: Monte Grappa, Tre Cime di Lavadero, Rocca di Cambio, Blockhaus. Following the route's unveil, El Mundo Deportivo author Juan Plans Bosch wrote that the Giro would always be second to the Tour de France as it was the first premier bike race, while he felt the Giro had better "historical and geographical illustrations."To begin race festivities there was a parade through the streets of Campione d'Italia before the prologue started during the night. The race started with a 5.7 km prologue. The times from this stage were not included in the final times for the general classification, but were just done to determine the first person to wear the race leader's maglia rosa; this was the first Giro d'Italia to have a prologue to open the race.

The 130 starting riders were divided into thirteen groups of ten, with each group of ten contesting the course at the same time. The times of the fastest riders from each group were put together and the fastest of those times was the rider that would wear the first pink jersey; the route finished for the first time in Naples near Mount Vesuvius along the Mediterranean Ocean. The race's twelfth stage saw heavy rain from the start of the stage in Gorizia, which turned to snow as the race began to elevate into the Dolomites. Police lined the sides of the roads of the Tre Cime di Lavaredo as the riders passed through due to incidents that occurred on the slopes the previous year; the leading group on the road had a ten-minute advantage on Eddy Merckx. Merckx was able to traverse the ten-minute gap, win the stage, take the lead of the race. At a presentation in Campione d'Italia, Torriani announced the measures for doping controls; this was the first Giro d'Italia to administer tests in attempt to catch riders doping, To determine whether a not tests would be administered, a set of twenty-two envelopes were made with each envelope having a slip of paper inside that read either "Yes" or "No".

Following the finish of each stage one envelope was opened, if it read "No," all riders could leave immediately. If it read "Yes," riders with high placings on the stage and in the overall classification were tested; the results from these tests, would be available fifteen days after the conclusion of the race. On 15 June, the Italian Cycling Federation announced that nine riders had tested positive during the race; the riders were Gimondi, Franco Balmamion, Franco Bodrero, Raymond Delise, Peter Abt, Victor van Schil, Mariano Diaz, Joaquin Galera. Balmamion was cleared of the charges as the substance found in his urine had not been banned. Gimondi's ban was overturned on 13 July. Years author John foot wrote "Doubts remain about how much the influence of Gimondi's fame and his ability to employ expensive lawyers and experts had on his case," casting further doubt on the legitimacy of Gimondi's claims of innocence; the Tour de France organizers adopted the Giro's doping control scheme for their 1968 race.

Two different jerseys were worn during the 1969 Giro d'Italia. The leader of the general classification – calculated by adding the stage finish times of each rider – wore a pink jersey; this classification is the most

Laureano Figuerola

Laureano Figuerola y Ballester was a Spanish lawyer and politician who served as the Ministro de Hacienda y Administraciones Públicas during the Sexenio Democrático. He is best known for establishing the peseta as Spain's currency. After completing his studies In philosophy, he took a Bachelor's degree in Law in 1838 received his doctorate from the University of Barcelona in 1840, he became a substitute professor of constitutional law there and, in 1845, was promoted to Professor of Administrative Law and Political Economics. In 1853, he became a Professor of Political Law at the Central University of Madrid. Four years he became one of the first members of the Real Academia de Ciencias Morales y Políticas and, together with several associates, including José Echegaray and Segismundo Moret, was a founder of the "Sociedad Libre de Economía Política", an organization devoted to the principles of free trade. After the Revolution of 1868, Francisco Serrano y Dominguez, head of the Provisional Government, named him Ministro de Hacienda, a position he held until early the following year.

One of his most important acts was signing the ordinance establishing the peseta as the sole official currency. He headed the same ministry from late 1869 until 1870, his position in the Cortes had become difficult during his second term as minister, due to opposition from Pi y Margall and others, including businessmen in the industrial sector. Despite the support of his friend, Juan Prim, he felt, he was elected President of the Board of Directors for the Institución Libre de Enseñanza, created by Royal Decree in 1876. He was one of the first members of the Faculty Board, together with Nicolás Salmerón, Joaquín Costa and Francisco Giner de los Ríos, among others. In 1885, he was elected a Councillor for the Ayuntamiento of Madrid. From 1898 until his death, he served as President of RACMP. "Laureano Figuerola en el campo del honor" by Francisco Cabrillo. Alberto Rull Sabater: Diccionario sucinto de Ministros de Hacienda, 1991: Madrid. Instituto de Estudios Fiscales Miguel Martorell Linares and Francisco Comín: “Laureano Figuerola: el ministro de Hacienda de la Revolución Gloriosa”, in: Francisco Comín, Pablo Martín-Aceña and Rafael Vallejo: La Hacienda por sus ministros.

La etapa liberal de 1845 a 1899, Zaragoza, PUZ, 2006, pp. 299–339, ISBN 84-7733-779-9 Biography of Figuerola the Charles III University of Madrid website