A ghoonghat is a veil or headscarf, originating from the Indian subcontinent, worn by some married Hindu and Sikh women to cover their head, their face. Aanchal or pallu, the loose end of a sari is pulled over the head and face to act as a ghunghat. A dupatta is commonly used as a ghungat. Today, facial veiling by Hindu women as part of everyday attire is now limited to the Hindi Belt region of India Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Haryanaand Bihar. Facial veiling is not sanctioned in Hinduism, Jainism and Sikhism but some sections of the society from the 1st century B. C. advocated the use of the veil for married women. It has been both criticized in religious and folk literature; the word ghoongat, ghunghat or ghunghta is derived from Avagunthana meaning veil and cloak and Oguntheti to cover, veil over and hide. The ghoongat, ghunghat or ghunghta veil evolved from ancient Avagunthana in veil and cloak. Early Sanskrit literature has a wide vocabulary of terms for the veils used by women, such as avagunthana meaning cloak-veil, uttariya meaning shoulder-veil, mukha-pata meaning face-veil, sirovas-tra meaning head-veil.
In the post-Gupta period, Śūdraka, the author of Mṛcchakatika set in the fifth century BC, mentions that some females of elite groups wore a thin head-veil to conceal and beautify their coiffures. This hair-net of various colors was called as jālaka and it was used to support the hair so that they are not ruffled by the breeze. However, this female hair-dress was not used at every time, it was worn at the time of going out. He notes; this may indicate. In Mṛcchakatika, courtesan Vasantasena's mother, having received ornaments for her daughter from a wealthy suitor to keep her as his mistress, she sends Vasantasena with her maid, asks her to go in the carriage bedecked with ornaments and to put on her avagunthana veil; this instruction is taken to signify that a courtesan who has accepted a suitor, had to use a veil in public similar to married women. At the end of the play when Vasanthasena is wedded, she receives the title "Vadhūśabda" meaning "title of a bride" with the veil "vasantasenām avagunthya" meaning "a token of honorable marriage".
In the same literature, courtesans' maid servant Madanika marries her lover Sarvilaka, a thief who changes his ways. Her new husband says to her that she has achieved what is difficult to acquire: "Vadhūśabda avagunthanam" meaning "the title and veil of a bride". In the Pratimānātaka, a play by Bhāsa describes in context of the Avagunthana cloak-veil that "ladies may be seen without any blame in a religious session, in marriage festivities, during a calamity and in a forest"; the same sentiment is more generically expressed in Nāgānanda and Priyadarśikā by Harsha, where maidens were expected to wear no veil. The veil was referred to by the same term, avagunthana, in Śiśupālavadha and the Dashakumaracharita. According to commentator Sankara, the ladies of Sthanvisvara used to go about covering their faces with a veil. In Buddhist Mahayana literature, Lalitavistara Sūtra written in the 3rd century CE, young bride Yasodharā objected to observe veiling in front of respected elders; this was taken to be a sign of immodesty and willfulness, as people gossiped.
When she became aware of this, Yasodharā came before the assembled court and defended herself in a long statement: "Those whose thoughts have no cover, no shame or decorum or any virtue, those who gossip, may cover themselves with a thousand garments, yet they walk the earth naked. But those who veil their minds, control their senses, have no thought for any other except their husband, why should they veil their faces?" Yasodharā's parents-in-law were delighted with their daughter-in-law's proud statement and gave her two white garments covered with jewels. The Lalitavistara Sūtra reflects changing times around the 3rd century CE and Buddhists' attempt to counter this growing practice, as there is no mention of this entire incident in early Buddhist Theravada literature. In Valmiki's Ramayana dated between the 5th century BCE to the first century BCE, Prince Rama asks his wife Sita to unveil herself so that the gathered citizens of Ayodhya can take a look at them before they go in exile to the forest.
At the end of the epic, hearing the news of Ravana's death, his queens giving up to lamentations rush outside without their Avagunthana, in which chief queen Mandodari surrounding his corpse says "Why do you not get angry, beholding me, having put off my veil, walk out on foot by the city gate? Do you behold your wives who have thrown off their veils. Why are you not angry seeing them all come out of the city?" Thus, it is notable that royal women avoided public gaze and veiling was expected to be worn only by married women. In Abhijñānaśākuntalam by Kālidāsa, written between the 3rd and 4th century CE, when the heroine arrives at King Duhsanta's palace, seeking to take up her wifely status, the king first remarks "Kā svid avagunthanavati" meaning "who is this veiled one?" and forbears to look at her, with the words "Anirvarnaniyam parakalatram" meaning "The wife of another is not to be inspected." This indicates that Avagunthana was a sign of a respectable married woman, was a
A scarf, plural scarves, is a piece of fabric worn around the neck for warmth, sun protection, fashion, or religious reasons. They can be made in a variety of different materials such as linen or cotton, it is a common type of neckwear. Scarves have been worn since ancient times; the Statue of Ashurnasirpal II from the 9th century BC features the emperor wearing a shawl. In Ancient Rome, the garment was used to keep clean rather than warm, it was called a focale or sudarium, was used to wipe the sweat from the neck and face in hot weather. They were worn by men around their neck or tied to their belt. Historians believe that during the reign of the Chinese Emperor Cheng, scarves made of cloth were used to identify officers or the rank of Chinese warriors. In times, scarves were worn by soldiers of all ranks in Croatia around the 17th century; the only difference in the soldiers' scarves that designated a difference in rank was that the officers had silk scarves whilst the other ranks were issued with cotton scarves.
Some of the Croatian soldiers served as mercenaries with the French forces. The men's scarves were sometimes referred to as "cravats", were the precursor of the necktie; the scarf became a real fashion accessory by the early 19th century for both women. By the middle of the 20th century, scarves became one of the most essential and versatile clothing accessories for both men and women. In cold climates, a thick knitted scarf made of wool, is tied around the neck to keep warm; this is accompanied by a heavy jacket or coat. In drier, dustier warm climates, or in environments where there are many airborne contaminants, a thin headscarf, kerchief, or bandanna is worn over the eyes and nose and mouth to keep the hair clean. Over time, this custom has evolved into a fashionable item in many cultures among women; the cravat, an ancestor of the necktie and bow tie, evolved from scarves of this sort in Croatia. In India, woollen scarfs with Bandhani work use tie and dye technique used in Bhuj and Mandvi of the Kutch District of Gujarat State.
Scarves that are used to cover the lower part of face are sometimes called a cowl. Scarves can be colloquially called a neck-wrap. Scarfs can be tied in many ways including the pussy-cat bow, the square knot, the cowboy bib, the ascot knot, the loop, the necktie, the gypsy kerchief. Scarfs can be tied in various ways on the head. Several Christian denominations include a scarf known as a Stole as part of their liturgical vestments. Silk scarves were used by pilots of early aircraft in order to keep oily smoke from the exhaust out of their mouths while flying; these were worn by pilots of closed cockpit aircraft to prevent neck chafing by fighter pilots, who were turning their heads from side to side watching for enemy aircraft. Today, military flight crews wear scarves imprinted with unit insignia and emblems not for functional reasons but instead for esprit-de-corps and heritage. Students in the United Kingdom traditionally wear academic scarves with distinctive combinations of striped colours identifying their individual university or college.
Members of the Scouting movement wear a scarf-like item called a neckerchief as part of their uniform, sometimes referred to as a scarf. In some Socialist countries Young pioneers wore. Since at least the early 1900s, when the phenomenon began in Britain, coloured scarves have been traditional supporter wear for fans of association football teams across the world those in warmer climates; these scarves come in a wide variety of sizes and are made in a club's particular colours and may contain the club crest, pictures of renowned players, various slogans relating to the history of the club and its rivalry with others. At some clubs supporters will sometimes perform a'scarf wall' in which all supporters in a section of the stadium will stretch out their scarves above their heads with both hands, creating an impressive'wall' of colour; this is accompanied by the singing of a club anthem such as "You'll Never Walk Alone" at Liverpool F. C. or "Grazie Roma" at A. S. Roma; this was solely a British phenomenon, but has since spread to the rest of Europe and South America.
Some clubs supporters will perform a scarf'twirl' or'twirly' in which a group of supporters hold the scarves above their heads with one hand, twirl the scarf, creating a'blizzard' of colour. This is accompanied by a club anthem such as "Hey Jude" at Heart of Midlothian F. C. Scarf wearing is a noted feature of support for Australian rules football clubs in the Australian Football League; the scarves are in the form of alternating bars of colour with the team name or mascot written on each second bar. The craft of knitting garments such as scarves is an important trade in some countries. Hand-knitted scarves are still common as gifts as well. Printed scarves are additionally offered internationally through high fashion design houses. Among the latter are Burberry, Alexander McQueen, Cole Haan, Etro, Hermès, Nicole Miller, Emilio Pucci, Fendi, Louis Vuitton and Prada. There are three basic scarf shapes: square and rectangular; the main manufacturer of fashion scarves used today is China. The most common materials used to make fashion scarves are silk, cotton and pashmina or other cashmere wool.
A kurta is a long loose-fitting collarless shirt of a style originating in Indian subcontinent and worn in many regions of South Asia, but now modernized, worn around the world. It is a tunic, or upper body garment, plain or with embroidered decoration, such as chikan, which can be loose or tight in the torso falling either just above or somewhere below the knees of the wearer. Kurtas are worn both as casual everyday wear in cotton) and as formal attire; the word kurta is a borrowing into English from Hindustani language, there in turn from Persian. It was first used in English in the early 20th century. According to S. M. Katre, Kurta word has been attested in Buddhist Kucha scholar Li Yen's Sanskrit chinese lexicon as a word of Sanskrit origin from the 8th century AD but she is of the opinion that the word is infact of central asian origin adopted into Sanskrit language. Sculptures and paintings from Deogarh, Bagh and Sarnath depict full sleeved jama-kurta like garment. Indians wearing long fitted shirt like Kurta and baggy pants like shalwar have been depicted in 8-10th century AD ivory sculpture of an elephant chess piece from Bibliothèque nationale de France.
A traditional kurta is composed of rectangular fabric pieces with a few gusset inserts, is cut so as to leave no waste fabric. The cut is simple, although decorative treatments can be elaborate; the sleeves of a traditional kurta fall straight to the wrist. Sleeves are not cuffed, just hemmed and decorated; the front and back pieces of a simple kurta are rectangular. The chak, or side seams, are left open for 6-12 inches above the hem, which gives the wearer some ease of movement; the kurta opens in the front. The front opening is a hemmed slit in the fabric, tied or buttoned at the top; the opening may be positioned off center. A traditional kurta does not have a collar. Modern variants may feature stand-up collars of the type known to tailors and seamstresses as "mandarin" collars; these are the same sort of collars seen on achkans and Nehru jackets. Kurtas worn in the summer months are made of thin silk or cotton fabrics. A common fabric for the kurta pajama is linen, or a linen-cotton mix ideal for both summers and winters.
Kurtas are fastened with tasselled ties, cloth balls, loops, or buttons. Buttons are wood or plastic. Kurtas worn on formal occasions might feature decorative metal buttons, which are not sewn to the fabric, like cufflinks, are fastened into the cloth when needed; such buttons can be decorated with jewels and other traditional jewelers' techniques. Tailors from the Indian subcontinent command a vast repertoire of methods and modern, for decorating fabric, it is that all of them have been used, at one time or another, to decorate kurtas. However, the most common decoration is embroidery. Many light summer kurtas feature Chikan embroidery, a specialty of Lucknow, around the hems and front opening; this embroidery is executed on light, semi-transparent fabric in a matching thread. The effect is subtle. Regional styles include the Bhopali, Hyderabadi and straight-cut kurtas; the Bhopali kurta is a loose kurta with pleats at the waist, flowing like a skirt reaching midway between the knees and the ankles.
It is worn with a straight pajama. The Hyderabadi kurta is named after the former royal state of Hyderabad and is a short top which sits around the waist, with a keyhole neck opening, it was popular with the local royal households. Traditionally, the Hyderabadi kurta was of white material. Over the kurta, some versions have net material, the combination of, called jaali karga, worn by men and women; the traditional Lucknowi kurta can either be long, using as much as 12 yards of cloth. The traditional Lucknowi kurta styles have an overlapping panel. However, the term "Lucknowi kurta" now applies to the straight-cut kurta embroidered using local Chikan embroidery. Another style is the kali or kalidar kurta, similar to a frock and has many panels; the kalidar kurta is made up of several geometrical pieces. It has two rectangular central panels in the front; the kali kurta is worn by women. The straight-cut traditional kurta is known as "Panjabi" in West Bengal and Assam. Local embroidery designs give a regional outlook to the traditional kurta.
In Assam, the Panjabi is worn with a scarf using local prints. Other designs include Bengali Kantha embroidery. Sindhi kurtas the local art of bandhani; the traditional Punjabi kurta of th
Isan consists of 20 provinces in the northeastern region of Thailand. Isan is Thailand's largest region, located on the Khorat Plateau, bordered by the Mekong River to the north and east, by Cambodia to the southeast and the Sankamphaeng Range south of Nakhon Ratchasima. To the west it is separated from central Thailand by the Phetchabun Mountains. Since the beginning of the 20th century, northeastern Thailand has been known as Isan, while in official contexts the term phak tawan-ok-chiang-nuea may be used; the term "Isan" was derived from capital of Chenla. The majority Isan-speaking population of the region distinguish themselves not only from the Lao of Laos but from the central Thai by calling themselves khon Isan or Thai Isan in general. However, some refer to themselves as Lao, academics have been referring to them as Lao Isan or as Thai Lao, with the main issue with self-identification as Lao being stigma associated with the Lao identity within Thai society; the Khmer-speaking minority and the Kuy people, who live in the south of Isan, speak Austroasiatic languages and follow customs more similar to those of Cambodia than to those of the Thai and Lao, who are Tai peoples.
The main language is Isan, one of the Southwestern Tai languages related to Lao. Written with the Thai alphabet, Isan belongs to the Chiang Saeng and Lao–Phutai language groups, which along with Thai are members of the Tai languages of the Kra–Dai language family. Central Thai is spoken by everyone and is the language used in education but native in Nakhon Ratchasima Province only. Khmer, the language of Cambodia, is spoken in areas along the Cambodian border: Buriram and Sisaket; the Lao Isan people are aware of their Lao ethnic origin, but Isan has been incorporated as a territory into the modern Thai state through over one hundred years of administrative and bureaucratic reforms, educational policy, government media. Despite this, since the election of Thaksin Shinawatra as prime minister in the 2001 Thai general election, the Lao Isan identity has reemerged, the Lao Isan are now the main ethnolinguistic group involved in the pro-Thaksin "Red Shirt movement" of the United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship.
Several Thai prime ministers have come from the region. Prominent aspects of Isan culture include mor lam, an indigenous folk music, muay Thai boxing, cock fighting, celebratory processions. Isan food, in which glutinous rice and chili peppers are prominent, is distinct from central Thai cuisine, though it is now found throughout the kingdom. Sticky rice is a staple of northeastern cuisine and it accompanies most meals. Isan has a number of important Bronze Age sites, with prehistoric art in the form of cliff paintings and early evidence of rice cultivation. Iron and bronze tools such as those found at Ban Chiang may predate similar tools from Mesopotamia; the region came under the influence of the Dvaravati culture, followed by the Khmer Empire. The latter built dozens of prasats throughout Isan; the most significant are at Phanom Rung Historical Park. Preah Vihear Temple was considered to be in Isan, until the International Court of Justice in 1962 ruled that it belonged to Cambodia. After the Khmer Empire began to decline in the 13th century, Isan was dominated by the Lao kingdom of Lan Xang, established by Fa Ngum.
Due to a scarcity of information from the periods known as the dark ages of Cambodia, the plateau seems to have been depopulated. There were few if any lines of demarcation, for prior to the 19th century introduction of modern mapping, the region fell under what 20th century scholars called the "mandala system". Accordingly, in 1718 the first Lao mueang in the Chi River valley — and indeed anywhere in the interior of the Khorat Plateau — was founded at Suwannaphum District by an official in the service of King Nokasad of the Kingdom of Champasak; the region was settled by both Lao and Thai emigrants. Thailand held sway from the 17th century, carried out forced population transfers from the more populous left bank of the Mekong to the right bank in the 18th and 19th centuries; this became more severe following the Lao rebellion for complete independence of 1826–9. In the wake the Franco-Siamese War of 1893, the resulting treaty with France and the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 made the plateau a border region between Thailand and the Laos of French Indochina.
In the mid-20th century, the state-supported assimilation policy called Thaification promoted the ethnic integration of Isan into the modern conception of Thai nationality and de-emphasized the use of ethnic markers, for ethnic Laos and Khmers, as it was deemed uncivilized and to prevent ethnic discrimination among the Thai people. The national government claimed that the name "Isan" was derived from Sanskrit Īśāna, a name of Shiva they claimed referred to his rule of the northeast; this interpretation was intended to reinforce Isan's identity as the northeast of Thailand, rather than as part of the Lao kingdom, created by the French colonial discourse, as "race was an important ideological tool for French colonialists in the attempt to seize the'Laotian' and'Cambodian' portions of Siam."Before the central government introduced the Thai alphabet and language in
Bokator, or more formally, L'bokator is a Khmer martial art that includes weapons techniques. One of the oldest existing fighting systems in Cambodia, oral tradition indicates that bokator or an early form thereof was the close quarter combat system used by the armies before Angkor 1,700 years ago; the term bokator translates as "pounding a lion" from the words bok meaning "to pound" and tor meaning "lion." A common misunderstanding, is that bokator refers to all Khmer martial arts while in reality it only represents one particular style. It uses a diverse array of elbow and knee strikes, shin kicks and ground fighting; when fighting, bokator exponents still wear the uniforms of ancient Khmer armies. A krama is folded around their waist and blue and red silk cords called, sangvar day are tied around the combatants head and biceps. In the past the cords were believed to be enchanted to increase strength, although now they are just ceremonial; the art contains 341 sets which, like many other Asian martial arts, are based on the study of life in nature.
For example, there are horse, naga and crane styles each containing several techniques. Because of its visual similarity, bokator is wrongly described as a variant of modern kickboxing. Many forms are based on traditional animal styles as well as straight practical fighting techniques. Pradal serey is a more condensed fighting system which uses a few of the basic punching, elbow and kneeing techniques and is free of animal styles; the krama shows the fighter’s level of expertise. The first grade is white, followed by green, red and black, which has 10 degrees. After completing their initial training, fighters wear a black krama for at least another ten years. To attain the gold krama one must be a true master and must have done something great for bokator; this is most a time-consuming and lifelong endeavor: in the unarmed portion of the art alone there are between 8000 and 10000 different techniques, only 1000 of which must be learned to attain the black krama. Bokator is said to be the earliest systemised Khmer martial art, second in age only to the Mon-Khmer style of Yuthakun Khom.
Although there are no records to prove this, the term bokator is itself a possible indicator of its age. Pronounced "bok-ah-tau", the word comes from labokatao meaning "to pound a lion"; this refers to a story alleged to have happened 2000 years ago. According to the legend, a lion was attacking a village when a warrior, armed with only a knife, defeated the animal bare-handed, killing it with a single knee strike. Though the lion is of cultural importance to Indochina, it is treated by modern and recent literature as being outside the historical range of the Asiatic lion, which survives in western India. Instead, big cats of Southeast Asia include the Indochinese tiger. Indian culture and philosophy were the major influences in Angkor culture. All the great buildings of Angkor are inscribed in Sanskrit and are devoted to Hindu gods, notably Vishnu and Shiva. Today, bokator practitioners begin each training session by paying respect to Brahma. Religious life was dominated by Brahmins who in India practiced sword fighting and empty-hand techniques.
The concept of the lion and bokator's animal-based techniques most emerged during the reign of the Angkor kings and the concurrent influence of Indian martial arts. Bas-reliefs at the base of the entrance pillars to the Bayon, Jayavarman VII's state temple, depict various techniques of bokator. One relief shows two men appearing to grapple, another shows two fighters using their elbows. Both are standard techniques in modern kun Khmer, or pradal serey. A third depicts a man facing off against a rising cobra and a fourth shows a man fighting a large animal. Cambodia's long martial heritage may have been a factor in enabling a succession of Angkor kings to dominate Southeast Asia for more than 600 years beginning in 800 AD. At the time of the Pol Pot regime those who practiced traditional arts were either systematically exterminated by the Khmer Rouge, fled as refugees or stopped teaching and hid. After the Khmer Rouge regime, the Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia began and native martial arts were outlawed.
San Kim Sean is referred to as the father of modern bokator and is credited with reviving the art. During the Pol Pot era, San Kim Sean had to flee Cambodia under accusations by the Vietnamese of teaching hapkido and bokator and starting to form an army, an accusation of which he was innocent. Once in America he started teaching hapkido at a local YMCA in Houston and moved to Long Beach, California. After living in the United States and teaching and promoting hapkido for a while, he found that no one had heard of bokator, he left the United States in 1992 and returned home to Cambodia to give bokator back to his people and to do his best to make it known to the world. In 2001 San Kim Sean moved back to Phnom Penh and after getting permission from the new king began teaching bokator to local youth; that same year in the hopes of bringing all of the remaining living masters together he began traveling the country seeking out bokator lok kru, or instructors, who had survived the regime. The few men he found were old, ranging from sixty to ninety years of age and weary of 30 years of oppression.
After much persuasion and with government approval, the former masters relented and Sean reintroduced bokator to the Cambodian people. Contrary to popular belief, San Kim Sean is not the only surviving labokatao master. Others include Meas Sok, Meas Sarann, Ros Serey, Sorm Van Kin, Mao Khann
A kerchief known as a bandana or bandanna, is a triangular or square piece of cloth tied around the head or neck for protective or decorative purposes. The popularity of head kerchiefs may vary by culture or religion, may vary among Orthodox Jewish and Christian, Catholic and Muslim people; the neckerchief and handkerchief are related items. A bandana or bandanna is a type of large colourful kerchief, originating from the Indian subcontinent worn on the head or around the neck of a person, it is considered to be a hat. Bandanas are printed in a paisley pattern and are most used to hold hair back, either as a fashionable head accessory, or for practical purposes. Bandanas originated in India as bright coloured handkerchiefs of silk and cotton with spots in white on coloured grounds, chiefly red and blue; the silk styles were made of the finest quality yarns, were popular. Bandana prints for clothing were first produced in Glasgow from cotton yarns, are now made in many qualities; the term, at present means a fabric in printed styles, whether silk and cotton, or all cotton.
The word bandana stems from the Hindi words'bāndhnū,' or "tie-dyeing," and'bāndhnā,' "to tie." These stem from Sanskrit roots'bandhnāti,' "he ties," and Sanskrit'bandhana', "a bond." In the 18th and 19th centuries bandanas were known as bandannoes. Pañuelo or alampay in the Philippines were lace-like embroidered neck scarves worn around the shoulders over the camisa, they were traditionally made from abaca fiber. They were an intrinsic part of the traditional traje de mestiza women's attire, along with the tapis and the abaniko fans, they were worn in the 18th and 19th centuries but are used today in modern versions of the terno dress. Kerchiefs are worn as headdresses by Austronesian cultures in maritime Southeast Asia. Among Malay men it is known as tengkolok, it is worn traditional occasions, such as weddings and the pesilat. Citations References Yule, Henry, & A. C. Burnell (2013 Hobson-Jobson: The Definitive Glossary of British India.. ISBN 9780191645839 How to tie a bandanna
A khalat is a loose, long-sleeved outer silk or cotton robe common in Central Asia and northern India and worn both by men and women, although in differing styles. Richly adorned khalats have been used as honorific awards to mantle; the word khalat/khilat was used to denote the ceremony of awarding the honorific robe. Such social aspects of clothing have been known in many societies. By the 19th century in British India the word khillat had come to mean any gift of money or goods awarded by the Government of India in return for service from tributary princes and tribal leaders. Central Asian khalats can be a thin, decorative garment, or thick, full length robe, good protection from both exposure to heat and light and the cold; the word khalat is one of many borrowings to be found in Russian, where it has come to be a generic term for various robes. In Romanian the word is halat is used, meaning dressing gown, smock, camouflage cloak, etc. A similar garment is known as Chapan in Turkic; the khalat was worn by Ashkenazi Jewish men in Eastern Europe, until the early 20th century.
These were close-fitting coats with shawl collars and pockets. In Jewish communities, these were cotton garments meant for everyday wear. Kaftan Chapan Stewart Gordon, "Robes of Honour: Khilat in Pre-Colonial and Colonial India". Oxford University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-19-566322-5