Kramer vs. Kramer is a 1979 American legal drama film written and directed by Robert Benton, based on Avery Corman's novel; the film stars Meryl Streep, Jane Alexander and Justin Henry. It tells the story of a couple's divorce, its impact on their young son, the subsequent evolution of their relationship and views on parenting; the film explores the psychology and fallout of divorce and touches upon prevailing or emerging social issues such as gender roles, women's rights, fathers' rights, work–life balance, single parents. Kramer vs. Kramer was theatrically released on December 1979, by Columbia Pictures, it was a major critical and commercial success, grossing $106.3 million on an $8 million budget, becoming the highest-grossing film of 1979 and receiving a leading nine Oscar nominations at the 52nd Academy Awards, winning five: Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actor, Best Supporting Actress, Best Adapted Screenplay. Ted Kramer is a workaholic advertising executive who has just been assigned a new and important account.
Ted arrives home and shares the good news with his wife Joanna only to find. She leaves Ted to raise their son Billy by himself. Ted and Billy resent one another as Ted no longer has time to carry his increased workload, Billy misses his mother's love and attention. After months of unrest and Billy learn to cope and bond as father and son. Ted befriends his neighbor Margaret, who had counseled Joanna to leave Ted if she was that unhappy. Margaret is a fellow single parent, she and Ted become kindred spirits. One day, as the two sit in the park watching their children play, Billy falls off the jungle gym cutting his face. Ted sprints several blocks through oncoming traffic carrying Billy to the hospital, where he comforts his son during treatment. Fifteen months after she walked out, Joanna returns to New York to claim Billy, a custody battle ensues. During the custody hearing, both Ted and Joanna are unprepared for the brutal character assassinations that their lawyers unleash on the other. Margaret is forced to testify that she had advised an unhappy Joanna to leave Ted, though she attempts to tell Joanna on the stand that her husband has profoundly changed.
The damaging facts that Ted was fired because of his conflicting parental responsibilities which forced him to take a lower-paying job come out in court, as do the details of Billy's accident. His original salary was noted as "$33,000 a year", whereas he was forced to admit that his new salary was only "$28,200", after Joanna has told the court that her "present salary" as a sportswear designer is "$31,000 a year"; the court awards custody to Joanna, a decision based on the tender years doctrine. Devastated, Ted discusses appealing the case, but his lawyer warns that Billy himself would have to take the stand in the resulting trial. Ted cannot bear the thought of submitting his child to such an ordeal, decides not to contest custody. On the morning that Billy is to move in with Joanna and Billy make breakfast together, mirroring the meal that Ted tried to cook the first morning after Joanna left, they share a tender hug. Joanna calls on the intercom; when he arrives she tells Ted how much she loves and wants Billy, but she knows that his true home is with Ted, therefore will not take custody of him.
She asks Ted if she can go up and see Billy, Ted says that would be fine. As they are about to enter the elevator together, Ted tells Joanna that he will stay downstairs to allow Joanna to see Billy in private. After she enters the elevator, Joanna wipes tears from her face and asks her former husband "How do I look?" As the elevator doors start to close on Joanna, Ted answers, "Terrific." Dustin Hoffman as Ted Kramer Meryl Streep as Joanna Kramer Justin Henry as Billy Kramer Jane Alexander as Margaret Phelps Petra King as Petie Phelps Melissa Morell as Kim Phelps Howard Duff as John Shaunessy George Coe as Jim O'Connor JoBeth Williams as Phyllis Bernard Howland Chamberlain as Judge Atkins Dan Tyra as Court Clerk Kate Jackson was offered the role played by Meryl Streep but was forced to turn it down. At the time, Jackson was appearing in the TV series Charlie's Angels, producer Aaron Spelling told her that they were unable to rearrange the shooting schedule to give her time off to do the film.
The part was offered to various other actresses including Faye Dunaway, Jane Fonda and Ali MacGraw, all of whom turned it down. Streep was cast as Phyllis, but she was able to force her way into auditioning for Joanna in front of Hoffman and Jaffe, she found the character in the novel and script unsympathetic and insisted on approaching Joanna from a more sympathetic point of view. Hoffman believed that the recent loss of her fiancé, John Cazale, only months earlier, gave Streep an emotional edge and "still-fresh pain" to draw on for the performance. Streep was only contracted to work 12 days on the film. Gail Strickland was first cast as Ted's neighbor Margaret, but departed after a week of filming and was replaced by Jane Alexander; the truth was that Strickland was so intimidated by Hoffman while filming their scenes together that she developed a nervous stammer which made her lines unintelligible. Strickland herself disputes this account, saying that she couldn't memorize the improvised lines that Hoffman gave her, which agitated him and led to her firing two days later
HMS Hind was a 10-gun two-masted Hind-class sloop of the Royal Navy, designed by Joseph Allin and built by Philemon Perry at Blackwall on the Thames River and launched on 19 April 1744. She was lost, presumed to have foundered, off Louisbourg, Nova Scotia in September 1747. Colledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. McLaughlan, Ian; the Sloop of War 1650-1763. Seaforth Publishing, 2014. ISBN 978-1-84832-187-8. Rif Winfield. British Warships in the Age of Sail, 1714-1792: Design, Construction and Fates. Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84415-700-6
The Couchepaganiche East River is a tributary of the Couchepaganiche River, flowing in the municipality of Métabetchouan–Lac-à-la-Croix, in the Lac-Saint-Jean-Est Regional County Municipality, in the administrative region of Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean, in the province of Quebec, in Canada. The lower part of the Couchepaganiche East River valley is served indirectly by the route 169 which runs along the southeast shore of lac Saint-Jean; this valley is served by some secondary forest roads for forestry and recreational tourism activities. Forestry and agriculture are the main economic activities in this valley; the surface of the Couchepaganiche East River is frozen from the beginning of December to the end of March, however the safe circulation on the ice is made from mid-December to mid-March. The main watersheds adjacent to the Couchepaganiche East River are: north side: Couchepaganiche River, Lac Saint-Jean; the Couchepaganiche East river originates from an unidentified lake in a forest area, located south of the Montagne des Trois Round peaks.
This source is located at: 5.8 km north-west of lac de la Belle Rivière. From its source, the Couchepaganiche East river flows over 14.3 km with a drop of 267 m in forest and agricultural zone, according to the following segments: 1.2 km north across a swamp area to a bend in the south of the Three Peaks Mountain. The Couchepaganiche East river flows into a bend on the south bank of the Couchepaganiche River, just north of the 3rd range West road; this confluence is located at: 4.6 km south-east of the confluence of the Couchepaganiche River and Lac Saint-Jean. From the mouth of the Couchepaganiche River East, the current follows the course of the Couchepaganiche River on 6.8 km to the northwest, crosses Lake Saint-Jean north on 17.6 km take the course of the Saguenay River via La Petite Décharge on 172.3 km until Tadoussac where it merges with the Saint Lawrence estuary. This river was designated "Baillargeon river", "Petit Bras" and "Couchepaganiche stream"; this toponym is linked to the main river “Rivière Couchepaganiche”.
The toponym “Rivière Couchepaganiche Est” was formalized on December 5, 1968 at the Place Names Bank of the Commission de toponymie du Québec. Lac-Saint-Jean-Est Regional County Municipality Métabetchouan–Lac-à-la-Croix, a municipality Couchepaganiche River Lac Saint-Jean, a body of water Saguenay River, a stream List of rivers of Quebec