Kramer vs. Kramer

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Kramer vs. Kramer
Oscar posters 79.jpg
Original film poster
Directed by Robert Benton
Produced by Richard Fischoff
Stanley R. Jaffe
Screenplay by Robert Benton
Based on Kramer vs. Kramer
by Avery Corman
Starring Dustin Hoffman
Meryl Streep
Justin Henry
Jane Alexander
Music by Paul Gemignani
Herb Harris
John Kander
Erma E. Levin
Roy B. Yokelson
Antonio Vivaldi
Cinematography Néstor Almendros
Edited by Gerald B. Greenberg
Distributed by Columbia Pictures
Release date
  • December 19, 1979 (1979-12-19)
Running time
105 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $8 million[1]
Box office $106.3 million[2]

Kramer vs. Kramer is a 1979 American family courtroom drama film written and directed by Robert Benton, based on Avery Corman's novel. The film stars Dustin Hoffman, Meryl Streep, Jane Alexander and Justin Henry. It tells the story of a couple's divorce and its impact on everyone involved, including the couple's young son.

The film upon release received critical acclaim with particular praise for the performances of its cast. The film also became a major commercial success grossing $106.3 million against a budget of $8 million, becoming the highest grossing film of 1979. The film received a leading nine nominations at the 52nd Academy Awards, winning the highest five : Best Picture, Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Leading Actor (Hoffman) and Best Supporting Actress (Streep).

Plot[edit]

Ted Kramer (Dustin Hoffman) is a workaholic advertising executive who has just been assigned a new and very important account. Ted arrives home and shares the good news with his wife Joanna (Meryl Streep) only to find that she is leaving him. Saying that she needs to find herself, she leaves Ted to raise their son Billy (Justin Henry) by himself. Ted and Billy initially resent one another as Ted no longer has time to carry his increased workload and Billy misses his mother's love and attention. After months of unrest, Ted and Billy learn to cope and gradually bond as father and son.

Ted befriends his neighbor Margaret (Jane Alexander), who had initially counseled Joanna to leave Ted if she was that unhappy. Margaret is a fellow single parent, and she and Ted become kindred spirits. One day, as the two sit in the park watching their children play, Billy falls off the jungle gym, severely cutting his face. Ted sprints several blocks through oncoming traffic carrying Billy to the hospital, where he comforts his son during treatment.

Fifteen months after she walked out, Joanna returns to New York to claim Billy, and a custody battle ensues. During the custody hearing, both Ted and Joanna are unprepared for the brutal character assassinations that their lawyers unleash on the other. Margaret is forced to testify that she had advised an unhappy Joanna to leave Ted, though she also attempts to tell Joanna on the stand that her husband has profoundly changed. Eventually, the damaging facts that Ted was fired because of his conflicting parental responsibilities which forced him to take a lower-paying job come out in court, as do the details of Billy's accident.

The court awards custody to Joanna, a decision mostly based on the assumption that a child is best raised by his mother. Ted discusses appealing the case, but his lawyer warns that Billy himself would have to take the stand in the resulting trial. Ted cannot bear the thought of submitting his child to such an ordeal, and decides not to contest custody.

On the morning that Billy is to move in with Joanna, Ted and Billy make breakfast together, mirroring the meal that Ted tried to cook the first morning after Joanna left. They share a tender hug, knowing that this is their last daily breakfast together. Joanna calls on the intercom, asking Ted to come down to the lobby. She tells Ted how much she loves and wants Billy, but she knows that his true home is with Ted, and therefore will not take custody of him. She asks Ted if she can see Billy, and Ted says that would be fine. As they are about to enter the elevator together, Ted tells Joanna that he will stay downstairs to allow Joanna to see Billy in private. After she enters the elevator, Joanna wipes tears from her face and asks her former husband "How do I look?" As the elevator doors start to close on Joanna, Ted answers, "You look terrific."

Cast[edit]

Production[edit]

Kate Jackson was originally offered the role played by Meryl Streep but was forced to turn it down. At the time, Jackson was appearing in the TV series Charlie's Angels, and producer Aaron Spelling told her that they were unable to rearrange the shooting schedule to give her time off to do the film.[3] The part was then offered to various other actresses including Faye Dunaway, Jane Fonda and Ali McGraw, all of whom turned it down.

Streep was initially cast as Phyllis (the role eventually given to JoBeth Williams), but she was able to force her way into auditioning for Joanna in front of Hoffman, Benton and Jaffe. She found the character in the novel and script unsympathetic, ("an ogre, a princess, an ass", as she called her) and insisted on approaching Joanna from a more sympathetic point of view.[4] Hoffman believed that the recent loss of her fiancé, John Cazale, only months earlier, gave Streep an emotional edge and "still-fresh pain" to draw on for the performance.[4]

Gail Strickland was first cast as Ted's neighbor Margaret, but departed after a week of filming (according to Columbia Pictures due to "artistic differences") and was replaced by Jane Alexander.[5] The truth was that Strickland was so intimidated by Hoffman while filming their scenes together that she developed a nervous stammer which made her lines unintelligible.[4] Strickland herself disputes this account, saying that she couldn't memorize the improvised lines which Hoffman gave her fast enough, which agitated him and led to her firing two days later.[4]

Cinematographer Néstor Almendros, a collaborator on numerous François Truffaut films, had been hired with the expectation that Truffaut would direct. Truffaut seriously considered it, but was too busy with his own projects and suggested screenwriter Robert Benton direct.

Hoffman-Streep Conflict[edit]

Hoffman has been widely reported in different media to have harassed Streep during the making of the movie, and the two had a contentious working relationship as a result.[4][6] In a 1979 Time magazine interview, Streep claimed that Hoffman groped her breast on their first meeting.[7] The two actors battled over their characters, with Streep wanting to portray Joanna as more sympathetic and vulnerable than she was written.[4] As a famously committed method actor,[8] Hoffman would also hurl insults and obscenities at Streep, taunting her with the name of her recently deceased fiancé, John Cazale, to draw a better performance out of her.[9] He also famously threw a wine glass against the wall without telling her (although he did inform the cameraman beforehand), which shattered and sent glass shards into her hair. Her response was: "Next time you do that, I'd appreciate you letting me know." [4]

In 2018 she confirmed what had first been reported in 2016, that Hoffman had slapped her hard without warning while filming a scene:

"This is tricky because when you’re an actor, you’re in a scene, you have to feel free. I’m sure that I have inadvertently hurt people in physical scenes. But there’s a certain amount of forgiveness in that. But this was my first movie, and it was my first take in my first movie, and he just slapped me. And you see it in the movie. It was overstepping."[10]

Reception[edit]

The film received positive reviews from critics. It holds an 88% approval rating on review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, with an average score of 7.9/10. The consensus reads: "The divorce subject isn't as shocking, but the film is still a thoughtful, well-acted drama that resists the urge to take sides or give easy answers."[11] Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film four stars, giving praise to Benton's screenplay: "His characters aren't just talking to each other, they're revealing things about themselves and can sometimes be seen in the act of learning about their own motives. That's what makes Kramer vs. Kramer such a touching film: We get the feeling at times that personalities are changing and decisions are being made even as we watch them."[12]

Cultural impact[edit]

Kramer vs. Kramer reflected a cultural shift which occurred during the 1970s, when ideas about motherhood and fatherhood were changing. The film was widely praised for the way in which it gave equal weight and importance to both Joanna and Ted's points of view.[12]

Awards and nominations[edit]

American Film Institute Lists
Award Category Recipients and nominees Result
52nd Academy Awards Best Picture Stanley R. Jaffe Won
Best Director Robert Benton Won
Best Actor Dustin Hoffman Won
Best Adapted Screenplay Robert Benton Won
Best Supporting Actor Justin Henry Nominated
Best Supporting Actress Jane Alexander Nominated
Meryl Streep Won
Best Cinematography Néstor Almendros Nominated
Best Film Editing Gerald B. Greenberg Nominated
BAFTA Awards Best Film Stanley R. Jaffe Nominated
Best Direction Robert Benton Nominated
Best Actor Dustin Hoffman Nominated
Best Actress Meryl Streep Nominated
Best Screenplay Robert Benton Nominated
Best Editing Jerry Greenberg Nominated
César Awards 1981 Best Foreign Film Robert Benton Nominated
David di Donatello Awards Best Foreign Film Won
Best Foreign Actor Dustin Hoffman Won
Special David Justin Henry Nominated
37th Golden Globe Awards Best Motion Picture – Drama Stanley R. Jaffe Won
Best Director Robert Benton Nominated
Best Motion Picture Actor - Drama Dustin Hoffman Won
Best Screenplay Robert Benton Won
Best Supporting Actor - Motion Picture Justin Henry Nominated
Best Supporting Actress - Motion Picture Jane Alexander Nominated
Meryl Streep Won
New Star of the Year – Actor Justin Henry Nominated
Japan Academy Prize Outstanding Foreign Language Film Robert Benton Won
Blue Ribbon Awards Best Foreign Language Film Won
Directors Guild of America Outstanding Directing – Feature Film Won
Hochi Film Award Best International Picture Won
Kansas City Film Critics Circle Awards 1979 Best Film Won
Best Director Won
Best Actor Dustin Hoffman Won
Best Supporting Actress Meryl Streep Won
Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards 1979 Best Film Robert Benton Won
Best Director Won
Best Actor Dustin Hoffman Won
Best Supporting Actress Meryl Streep Won
National Board of Review Awards 1979 National Board of Review: Top Ten Films Robert Benton Won
Best Supporting Actress Meryl Streep Won
National Society of Film Critics Awards 1979 Best Film Robert Benton Nominated
Best Director Won
Best Actor Dustin Hoffman Won
Best Supporting Actress Jane Alexander Nominated
Meryl Streep Won
1979 New York Film Critics Circle Awards Best Film Robert Benton Won
Best Director Nominated
Best Actor Dustin Hoffman Won
Best Supporting Actress Jane Alexander Nominated
Meryl Streep Won
Writers Guild of America Award Best Adapted Screenplay Robert Benton Won
2nd Youth in Film Awards Best Leading Young Actor in a Feature Film Justin Henry Won

Adaptation[edit]

In 2013 Kramer vs. Kramer was remade with a Mexican twist and an unexpected ending as Instructions Not Included (original Spanish title: No se aceptan devoluciones, literally No Returns Accepted.) Comedy-drama film co-written, directed by, and starring Eugenio Derbez.

In 1995, Kramer vs. Kramer was remade in India as Akele Hum Akele Tum, starring Aamir Khan and Manisha Koirala.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Oscarblogger: Kramer vs. Kramer. Retrieved April 1, 2013
  2. ^ "Kramer vs Kramer (1979)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2008-11-17. 
  3. ^ Spelling, Aaron; Graham, Jefferson (1996). A Prime-Time Life: An Autobiography. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-312-14268-4. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Michael Schulman (2016-03-29). "How Meryl Streep Battled Dustin Hoffman, Retooled Her Role, and Won Her First Oscar". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 2018-01-03. 
  5. ^ "Kramer vs. Kramer (1979)". American Film Institute. Retrieved 2018-01-04. 
  6. ^ Hunter Harris (2018-01-03). "Meryl Streep Calls Out Dustin Hoffman for Kramer vs. Kramer slap: 'It was overstepping'". Vulture. Retrieved 2018-01-03. 
  7. ^ Ruth Graham (2017-11-02). "Meryl Streep once said Dustin Hoffman groped her breast the first time they met". Slate magazine. Retrieved 2018-01-03. 
  8. ^ Michael Simkins (2016-03-31). "Method acting can go too far - just ask Dustin Hoffman". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018-01-03. 
  9. ^ Olivia Blair (2016-03-30). "Dustin Hoffman 'slapped and taunted Meryl Streep with the name of her dead boyfriend during filming', book claims". The Independent. 
  10. ^ Cara Buckley (2018-01-03). "Meryl Streep and Tom Hanks on the #MeToo Moment and 'The Post'". New York Times. Retrieved 2018-01-03. 
  11. ^ "Kramer vs. Kramer (1979)". Retrieved April 29, 2010. 
  12. ^ a b Roger Ebert (December 1, 1979). "Kramer vs. Kramer (1979)". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved April 29, 2010. 
  13. ^ AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies Nominees
  14. ^ AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) Ballot

External links[edit]