Laugerie-Basse is an important Upper Paleolithic archaeological site within the territory of the French commune Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil in Dordogne. It is known for several works of art from the Magdalenian; the impressive Abri of Laugerie-Basse, named after the village, is located on the right side of the Vézère valley, about 2 kilometers upstream from Les Eyzies. It was formed at the bottom of a 45 meters high and 500 meters long scarp slope of flat-lying limestones from the Coniacian; the 15-meter-deep Abri is located 15 meters above river level. Taking advantage of the natural conditions, the houses of Laugerie-Basse were built directly into the rocks so that building a back wall and the back half of the roof was dispensable; the prehistoric site consists of two abris: the main abri and 50 meters upstream the Abri of Marseilles. Between the abris and the Vézère the D 47 runs from Périgueux to Les Eyzies. In 1863 Édouard Lartet and Henry Christy began for the first time with excavations on the main abri.
At that time a small farm with a barn and a stable was standing on the excavation area. Lartet and Christy were succeeded by the Marquis de Vibraye and his assistant Franchet and shortly thereafter by Massénat; the excavations on the main abri were rather chaotic for the next five decades. Only between 1912 and 1913 Denis Peyrony and Maury were able to proceed more systematically and make the first stratigraphy of the main abri. Maury moved on to the hiterhto disregarded Abri des Marseilles where he was active until 1920; the stratigraphy in the main abri comprises archaeological material from Magdalenian III and Magdalenian IV. There is some marginal evidence of the Azilian. In the slope waste in front of the scarp slope remains from the Neolithic and the late Bronze Age were discovered; the Abri de Marseilles offers a more detailed stratigraphic sequence: the original profile is still existing. From it one can conclude that the Magdalenians settled 14,000 years ago directly on the existing bottom of the abri.
They lived at the abri until the Magdalenian VI. A catastrophic collapse of the roof occurred and the settlement site was strewn with some huge slabs of rock and debris. Afterwards the people returned to this place, evident from traces of settlement on and between the boulders. Thereafter the Abri des Marseilles sank into oblivion until the late Neolithic. Around 2000 BC members of the Artenac culture arrived who left an enormous, in this magnitude inexplicable and charcoal layer that covered the whole abri. Further slides of the roof occurred bringing about a spectacular rock chaos with up to 10 meter high boulders. By now the main abri has been cleaned up whereas the Abri des Marseilles has only been explored. Apart from stone artefacts and other tools, all in all 600 art objects from the Magdalenian were recovered in Laugerie-Basse. In Laugerie-Basse Paul Hurault, 8th Marquis de Vibraye discovered in 1864 the "Immodest Venus" which gave its name to the genre of paleolithic Venus figurines. Shortly after that, around 1867-68, the Woman under the reindeer was discovered by Abbé Landesque.
A large part of these art objects is nowadays scattered in several museums all over the world. From the middle Magdalenian stem pierced bone rondels picturing deer; the main abri was inhabited in the middle and upper Magdalenian as well as in the Azilian, which corresponds to the time segment from 14,000 until 10,000 years BP. The Abri des Marseilles has had a longer settlement period, it had been inhabited during the entire Magdalenian and into the Neolithic which corresponds to the time segment from 17,000 until 7,000 years BP. Delluc, B..
Armenia the Republic of Armenia, is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located in Western Asia on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. Armenia is a multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia; the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD. The official date of state adoption of Christianity is 301; the ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks.
An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. During World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union.
In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment; the unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD. Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Artsakh, proclaimed in 1991; the original native Armenian name for the country was Հայք, however it is rarely used. The contemporary name Հայաստան became popular in the Middle Ages by addition of the Persian suffix -stan.. However the origins of the name Hayastan trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works of Agathangelos, Faustus of Byzantium, Ghazar Parpetsi and Sebeos.
The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region. The further origin of the name is uncertain, it is further postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina; the Ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC, he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a lineal descendant of Hayk.
The Table of Nations lists Aram as the son of Shem, to whom the Book of Jubilees attests, "And for Aram there came forth the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates to the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains of Asshur and the land of'Arara." Jubilees 8:21 apportions the Mountains of Ararat to Shem, which Jubilees 9:5 expounds to be apportioned to Aram. The historian Flavius Josephus states in his Antiquities of the Jews, "Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians. Of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia. Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the mountains of Ararat. There is evidence of an early civilisation in Armenia in the Bronze Age and earlier, dating to about 4000 BC. Archaeological surveys in 2010 and 2011 at the Areni-1 cave complex have resulted in the discovery of the world's earliest known leather shoe and wine-producing facility.
According to the story of Hayk, the legendary founder of Armenia, around 2107 BC Hayk fought against Belus, the Babylonian God of War, at Çavuştepe along the Engil river to establish the first Armenian state. This event coinc
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c
The Areni-1 cave complex is a multicomponent site, late Chalcolithic/Early Bronze Age ritual site and settlement, located near the Areni village in southern Armenia along the Arpa River. In 2010, archeologist discovered the earliest known shoe at the site. In January 2011, the earliest known winery in the world was uncovered in the cave. In 2011, the discovery of a straw skirt dating to 3,900 years BCE was reported. In 2009, the oldest humanoid brain was discovered in the cave. Areni-1 shoe Areni-1 winery
The Mladeč caves are a cave complex in the Czech Republic situated to the west of the village of Mladeč in the Litovelské Pomoraví Protected Landscape Area. The complex labyrinth of fissure corridors and caves can be found inside the calcite hill of Třesín; the underground spaces are decorated with stalactites and sinters. Its highlights include "Nature’s Temple" and the "Virgin Cave"; the islets of limestones in Mladeč Karst belong geologically to one of the belts of the Devonian rocks in the Central Moravian part of the Bohemian Massif. These caves represent a predominantly horizontal and broken labyrinth of corridors and high chimneys with remarkable modelling of walls and ceilings, with stalactite and stalagmite decoration and with numerous block cave-ins, with some steep corridors which extend below the level of the underground water, they are famous for archaeological findings. The archaeologists claim. Except for the entrance, the caves are not accessible to the public. However, the management of Mladeč caves open for the visitors.
They have a total of 1,250 metres of halls with denivelation of 30 metres. It takes visitors about 40 minutes to go through the 380 metre-long path; the minimum for the visit is a group of six visitors and there is an exhibition of photos and interesting information about the caves. These caves can be visited from April to October, they are an important archaeological site and even the oldest and most northern settlements of the Cro-Magnon people in Europe. Mladeč caves are archaeological locality. There are findings of bones of extinct Pleistocene vertebrates, a number of skeletons of people of the Early Stone Age, together with multiple objects evidencing their activities; the existence of the caves was known as early as 1826. The main cave, Mladeč Cave I, was first excavated by Josef Szombathy, who recorded his visits and excavations to the cave in his diary, a diary, the sole source of information on the early excavations at the site. Szombathy first excavated the cave on June 7, 1881; the initial excavation ended on June 12.
The first human fossil, the skull of Mladeč 1, was discovered during this excavation. Other fossils discovered during this excavation include Mladeč 2, Mladeč 3, Mladeč 7, Mladeč 12-20 and Mladeč 27. Szombathy's second excavation at the cave started on July 13, 1882 and ended on July 18, he returned again and excavated the cave from August 7–12, 1882. Mladeč 8, Mladeč 9 and Mladeč 10 were discovered during this excavation. Szombathy named the cave Fürst Johann’s Höhle in honor of Johann II, Prince of Liechtenstein, who owned the land where the cave was located. While the cave lay in the domain of the Prince of Liechtenstein, the cave partially lay in the fields of a local villager, A. Nevrlý. Thus, the parts that lay in A. Nevrlý's fields were ceded to him. In 1902, A. Nevrlý built a wall to separate the Liechtenstein entrance from the cave and began to excavate a new entrance to the cave. Along with Jan Knies, a local schoolteacher and amateur archaeologist, the two began to excavate the cave.
Mladeč 39-41 and Mladeč 88-91 were discovered by Knies. On March 22, 1904, a second cave, the Quarry Cave was discovered near the main site by quarry workers and subsequently destroyed; the workers found three human skulls, which were to have been Mladeč 5, Mladeč 6 and Mladeč 46. The discovery of human fossils was big news at the time in the Austro-Hungarian Empire and thus attracted a lot of attention; the mayor of nearby Litovel, Jan Smyčka, arrived soon after. Szombathy returned to the site on August 25. In 1911, the Museum Society in Litovel took over ownership of the caves. Szombathy's next visit to the site occurred in 1925. In the intervening years, the Museum Society in Litovel, under the supervision of Jan Smyčka, ordered the removal of large amounts of sediment from the Mladeč caves without the guidance of archaeologists, destroying a lot of valuable potential information on the cave; this was done in order to make the caves accessible for public viewing. The last significant fossil finds were discovered in 1922.
Many of the discoveries at Mladeč have been lost or destroyed over time, due to unauthorized looting and excavations, disappearances into private collections, the large destruction of artefacts stored at Mikulov Castle, set on fire by the Germans at the end of World War II. The anthropological collection from the Moravské zemské muzeum, which included a large collection of fossil artefacts from Mladeč, had been moved to Mikulov Castle during the war for safekeeping purposes. Out of the 60 human fossils from Mladeč stored at Mikulov Castle, only 5 could be recovered following the fire. Osteological and lithic artefacts were discovered at Mladeč. 40 bone points were discovered. The bone points at Mladeč have been found at other Central European sites in an Aurignacian context. None of the bone points from Mladeč have a split base, in fact have a massive base; these artefacts are referred to as Mladeč-type bone points or bone projectiles. When found at other sites with split base bone points occurring in a separate layer, the layer with Mladeč-type bone points is always found above the layer with split base bone points.
The Mladeč-type bone points appear in an Aurignacian context after 40,000 BP. 22 perforated mammalian teeth were discovered.
Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil is a former commune in the Dordogne department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. On 1 January 2019, it was merged into the new commune Les Eyzies. Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil lies in the Périgord Noir area, it is served by the Gare des Eyzies railway station. This locale is home to the Musée national de Préhistoire and the area contains several important archaeological sites, including the Font-de-Gaume, Grotte du Grand-Roc and Lascaux cave prehistoric rock dwellings. Les Eyzies-de-Tayac was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1979; the commune is located at the confluence of the Beune rivers. It is accessible by the SNCF network at the Gare des Eyzies, by the A89 motorway, exit 16 Périgueux-East and by the D710 road or by Montignac via Terrasson. In the north-west, the commune is watered by another small tributary of the Vézère, the Manaurie. In the Dordogne department, the highest temperature was recorded on 4 and 5 August 2003 at Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil, with 43°C.
In Occitan, the commune bears the name Las Aisiás de Taiac e Siruèlh. In March 1868, the geologist Louis Lartet, financed by Henry Christy, discovered the first five skeletons of Cro-Magnons, the earliest known examples of Homo sapiens sapiens, in the Cro-Magnon rock shelter at Les Eyzies-de-Tayac; these skeletons included a foetus, the skulls found were remarkably modern-looking and much rounder than the earlier Neanderthal. As at 31 December 2013, the municipality has 209 establishments, including 151 in the field of commerce, transport or services, twenty relating to the administrative sector, health or social action, eighteen in construction, thirteen in the industry, seven in agriculture, forestry or fishing. L'Homme primitif is a statue of Paul Dardé, inaugurated in 1931 and placed on a natural platform that dominates the village of Les Eyzies. Grotte du Grand Roc, cave with natural eccentric crystallisations comparable to corals; the municipality has many prehistoric archaeological sites including: The Grotte de Font-de-Gaume, the last cave with prehistoric polychrome paintings still open to visit in the region Les Combarelles - 600 pre-historic engravings of animals and symbols Grotte de la Mouthe - ornate cave of the Upper Paleolithic period La Grotte de Bernifal The deposit of La Micoque - discovery of numerous testimonies of the lithic industries of the Paleolithic Abri Chadourne, named after its owner L'abri Audi| L'abri de Cro-Magnon, the eponymous site of the Cro-Magnon man.
L'abri Pataud, a site studied under the responsibility of the National Museum of Natural History. The stratigraphic sequences comprises Upper Paleolithic levels, in particular, from bottom to top, Aurignacian and Protomagdalénien Laugerie-Basse and Laugerie-Haute - paleolithic sites L'abri du Poisson - carved in low relief at the ceiling of the vault, raised in red colour a salmon Le vallon de Gorges d'enfer Les grottes du Roc de Cazelle constitute a troglodytic site occupied from prehistoric times until 1960. Many of these sites have been classified as World Heritage sites by UNESCO as Sites préhistoriques et grottes ornées de la vallée de la Vézère; the discovery of these shelters within a restricted radius around Les Eyzies, their methodical exploration and the study of the deposits they concealed allowed prehistory to build up as a science and explains why the city claims the status of world capital of the prehistory, as the publicity leaflets recall. The National Museum of Prehistory, where many prehistoric discoveries are preserved, is located in the heart of the village.
Rich in carved flints, it is aimed at specialists. Château de Commarque, 12th century, 14th century, 15th century, classified. Château de Tayac and its dependencies, 12th century 14th century 15th century. Cro-Magnon ManThe Pioneers of Archaeology: Louis and Édouard Lartet Denis Peyrony Élie Peyrony Henri Breuil Louis Capitan Abri Pataud Font-de-Gaume Château de Commarque Communes of the Dordogne department Les Combarelles Micoquien Tourist office website National Museum of Prehistory