click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Krasnoyarsk

Krasnoyarsk is a city and the administrative center of Krasnoyarsk Krai, located on the Yenisei River. It is the third-largest city in Siberia after Novosibirsk and Omsk, with a population of 1,035,528 as of the 2010 Census. Krasnoyarsk is an important junction of the Trans-Siberian Railway and one of Russia's largest producers of aluminium; the city is known for its nature landscapes. The total area of the city, including suburbs and the river, is 348 square kilometers; the Yenisei River flows from west to east through the city. Due to the Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric dam 32 kilometers upstream, the Yenisei never freezes in winter and never exceeds +14 °C in summer through the city. Near the city center, its elevation is 136 meters above sea level. There are several islands in the river, the largest of which are Tatyshev and Otdyha Isles, used for recreation. To the south and west, Krasnoyarsk is surrounded by forested mountains averaging 410 meters in height above river level; the most prominent of them are Nikolayevskaya Sopka, Karaulnaya Gora, Chornaya Sopka, the latter being an extinct volcano.

The gigantic rock cliffs of the Stolby Nature Reserve rise from the mountains of the southern bank of the Yenisei, the western hills form the Gremyachaya Griva crest extending westwards up to the Sobakina River, the north is plain, except for the Drokinskaya Sopka hill, with forests to the northwest and agricultural fields to the north and east. The major rivers in and near Krasnoyarsk are the Yenisei, Mana and Kacha Rivers, the latter flowing throughout the historical center of the city. Due to the nature of the terrain, a few natural lakes exist in the vicinity of Krasnoyarsk; the forests close to the city are pine and birch. The moss-covered fir and Siberian pine replaces other wood in the mountains westward of the Karaulnaya River, in about 15 kilometers to the west from the city, the forests to the south are pine and aspen; the city was founded on August 19, 1628 as a Russian border fort when a group of service class people from Yeniseysk led by Andrey Dubenskoy arrived at the confluence of the Kacha and Yenisei Rivers and constructed fortifications intended to protect the frontier from attacks of native peoples who lived along the Yenisei and its tributaries.

Along with Kansk to the east, it represented the southern limit of Russian expansion in the Yenisei basin during the seventeenth century. In the letter to Tsar Michael I the Cossacks reported:... The town of trunks we have constructed and around the place of fort, we the servants of thee, our Lord, have embedded posts and fastened them with double bindings and the place of fort have strengthened mightily... The fort was named Krasny Yar after the Yarin name of the place it was built, Kyzyl Char, translated as Krasny Yar. An intensive growth of Krasnoyarsk began with the arrival of the Siberian Route in 1735 to 1741 which connected the nearby towns of Achinsk and Kansk with Krasnoyarsk and with the rest of Russia. In 1749, a meteorite with a mass of about 700 kilograms was found 230 km south of Krasnoyarsk, it was excavated by Peter Simon Pallas in 1772 and transported to Krasnoyarsk and subsequently to Saint Petersburg. The Krasnoyarsk meteorite is important because it was the first pallasite studied and the first meteorite etched.

The name Krasnoyarsk was given in 1822 when the village of Krasny Yar was granted town status and became the administrative center of Yeniseysk Governorate. In the 19th century, Krasnoyarsk was the center of the Siberian Cossack movement. By the end of the 19th century, Krasnoyarsk had several manufacturing facilities and railroad workshops and an engine-house. Growth continued with the discovery of gold and the arrival of a railroad in 1895. In the Russian Empire, Krasnoyarsk was one of the places. For example, eight Decembrists were deported from St. Petersburg to Krasnoyarsk after the failure of the revolt. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, during the periods of centralized planning numerous large plants and factories were constructed in Krasnoyarsk: Sibtyazhmash, the dock yard, the paper factory, the hydroelectric power station, the river port. In 1934, Krasnoyarsk Krai, was formed, with Krasnoyarsk as its administrative center. During Stalinist times, Krasnoyarsk was a major center of the gulag system.

The most important labor camp was the Kraslag or Krasnoyarsky ITL with the two units located in Kansk and Reshyoty. In the city of Krasnoyarsk itself, the Yeniseylag or Yeniseysky ITL labor camp was prominent as well during World War II. During World War II, dozens of factories were evacuated from Ukraine and Western Russia to Krasnoyarsk and nearby towns, stimulating the industrial growth of the city. After the war additional large plants were constructed: the aluminum plant, the metallurgic plant, the plant of base metals and many others. In the late 1970s, the Soviet Union began constructing a phased array radar station at Abalakova, near Krasnoyarsk, which violated the ABM Treaty. Beginning in 1983, the United States demanded its removal, until the Soviet Union admitted the radar station was a violation in 1989. Equipment was removed from the site and by 1992 it was declared to be

Ralph Appelbaum Associates

Ralph Appelbaum Associates is one of the world's longest-established and largest museum exhibition design firms with offices in New York City, Beijing, Berlin and Dubai. The firm was founded in 1978 by Ralph Appelbaum, a graduate of Pratt Institute and former Peace Corps volunteer. Appelbaum directs RAA's undertakings, retains daily involvement in selected commissions; the New York Times reported in 1999 that the firm was composed of "architects, editors, model builders, childhood specialists, one poet, one painter and one astrophysicist."The company's best-known project is the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D. C., the United States' official memorial to the Holocaust. Established in 1993, the museum has been described as a "turning point in museology". Ralph Appelbaum Associates website

The Courtship of Eddie's Father

The Courtship of Eddie's Father is an American sitcom based on the 1963 movie of the same name, based on a novel by Mark Toby. The series is about a widower, Tom Corbett, a magazine publisher, his young son, Eddie. Eddie believes his father should marry, manipulates situations surrounding the women his father is interested in; the series debuted on September 17, 1969, was last broadcast on March 1, 1972. Bixby received an Emmy nomination for the show; the show centered on Tom Corbett, a handsome, thirty-something magazine publisher and widower from Los Angeles. Following the death of his wife Helen, Tom is left to raise his mischievous, freckle-faced son, six-year-old Eddie. Eddie wants a new mother, so to that end, he cleverly manipulates his father's relationships with women, sometimes trying to set his father up to fall for women Eddie knows and likes first; the father-son duo's domestic arrangements are managed, with great discretion, by their Japanese housekeeper, Mrs. Livingston, her sage advice adds to the comedic mix in situations where she looks after Eddie, sometimes helps him further his schemes to marry off his father and find a new mother.

Mrs. Livingston addresses her employer, Tom, as "Mr. Eddie's Father", which hints at who she considers to be the more important member of the pair under her care. Characters from Tom Corbett's office included Tina Rickles, as his secretary, Norman Tinker, as the magazine's photographer and token radical. Norman served as Eddie's honorary uncle. Bill Bixby and Brandon Cruz are the only two actors. Bill Bixby as Tom Corbett – A widower and a magazine editor Brandon Cruz as Eddie Corbett – Tom's son Miyoshi Umeki as Mrs. Livingston – Tom's and Eddie's housekeeper Kristina Holland as Tina Rickles – Tom's secretary James Komack as Norman Tinker – Tom's partner at a magazine company During its three-season run, many familiar or up-and-coming actors who guest-starred on the show went on to become successful stars, including: Jodie Foster, Sally Struthers, Bruce Kirby, Pat Harrington Jr. Diana Muldaur, Willie Aames, Warren Berlinger, Suzanne Pleshette, Yvonne Craig, Cicely Tyson, Richard X. Slattery, Tippi Hedren, Trisha Noble, John Fiedler, Alan Oppenheimer, Lou Jacobi, Will Geer, Bill Dana, Jerry Stiller, Anne Meara, Ronny Graham, Lori Saunders, Ann Prentiss, Ron Ely, Carol Lawrence, George Takei.

Future Happy Days stars Pat Morita and Erin Moran made guest appearances. Established stars made cameo appearances, such as Eve McVeagh as a grumpy neighbor named Lorraine Karn, Sammy Davis Jr. as an insurance man, Bixby's then-wife Brenda Benet as Tom's girlfriend. Comedy producer James Komack served as the executive producer of the show. In 1970, Bill Bixby made his debut as a director; the television show's theme song, "Best Friend", was written and performed by Harry Nilsson, was played over opening credits showing Bixby and Cruz in various happy moments. The song has been used since that time as an iconic indication of father-son bonding. An edited version of Nilsson's "Best Friend" was used as the theme song for the 2006 MTV series Rob & Big; the show was cancelled in 1972, when Bixby had a falling out with James Komack over the show's direction. Many of the episodes focused on Norman and Eddie rather than on the relationship between Tom and Eddie. Years after the show was cancelled, it became popular as reruns in syndication.

Warner Bros. has released all three seasons of The Courtship of Eddie's Father on DVD in Region 1 via their Warner Archive Collection. These are Manufacture-on-Demand releases, available via Amazon.com. As early as 1999, Entertainment Weekly reported plans for Nicolas Cage to star in and produce a feature film remake of the series. In a 2011 interview, Brandon Cruz believed Cage was no longer interested in the project because Cage's son Weston, who would have played Eddie, had grown too old for the part. In 2003, filming began on a new television pilot which starred Ken Marino and Josh Hutcherson, but it was not picked up by a network; the child star of the previous series, Brandon Cruz, played a supporting role. The Courtship of Eddie's Father at TV.com The Courtship of Eddie's Father on IMDb The Courtship of Eddie's Father theme song, by Harry Nilsson

Mary Knight Benson

Mary Knight Benson and her husband William Ralganal Benson were a married Pomo couple who excelled in traditional basket making. Their work is collectible, renowned for the fine craftsmanship, curated in major museums. Mary Knight Benson was born to a Central Pomo speaker and master basket weaver; the Pomo tribe were a group of indigenous people of California who traditionally resided in the coastal region of Northern California above San Francisco. When she met William Benson, she was a master basket maker herself. William, a speaker of the Eastern Pomo language and a master basket weaver was skilled in many other aspects of Pomo culture; the couple lived most of their lives on Pomo tribal territory near Ukiah, California where William was an elder, band chief, tribal historian. As a couple, they became renowned for their basket making; the Bensons may have been the first California Indians who supported themselves by crafting and selling their baskets to collectors and museums. Beginning with the Spanish mission period on California, the Pomo, like other tribes, suffered drastic declines in population, severe cultural destruction, the loss of homeland.

As such, they began working as laborers on ranches that occupied their traditional lands. However, a market for genuine, traditional baskets lasted until the 1930's. William and Mary Benson took advantage of this commercial opportunity. While Pomo men did not traditionally make the kind of fine baskets demanded by the market, William adapted his skill to the fine work done by women, he was one of the few men. Mary developed her skills which grew to an astounding level and was noted for focusing on perfection, she produced baskets that reflected her skillful weaving technique, astute material selection, remarkably straight lines, complicated diagonals, complex patterns. Mary and William enjoyed significant success in their artist career of weaving Pomo baskets, they traveled and developed relationships with collectors and art dealers. The couple demonstrated their weaving skills at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in Saint Louis in 1904, they jointly wove a basket that won the fair's highest award.

Baskets made by William and his wife Mary are curated in museums such as the Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of the American Indian, the Field Museum of Natural History and are known as some of the finest woven

History of Bolivia

After the fall of Tiwanaku Empire, the many Aymara Lake Titicaca were conquered by the Inca Empire. Prior to the Spanish conquest, the Andean province of Qullasuyu was a part of the Inca empire, while the northern and eastern lowlands were inhabited by independent nomadic tribes. Spanish conquistadors, arriving from Cuzco and Asunción took control of the region in the 16th century. During most of the Spanish colonial rule, Bolivia was known as Upper Peru and administered by the Royal Audiencia of Charcas. After the 1st call for independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Bolivian Republic, named for the Liberator Simón Bolívar, on August 6, 1825. Since Bolivia has endured regular periods of political and economic instability, including the loss of various provinces to its neighbors, such as Acre, parts of the Gran Chaco and its Pacific coast, making it a land-locked country. Cultures of indigenous peoples in Bolivia developed in the high altitude settings of altiplano with low oxygen levels, poor soils and extreme weather patterns.

The better suited lowlands were sparsely inhabited by hunter-gatherer societies while much of the pre-Columbian population was concentrated in altiplano valleys of Cochabamba and Chuquisaca. Potato was domesticated near lake Titicaca between 8000 and 5000 BC, quinoa some 3000–4000 years ago and production of copper began in 2000 BC. Llama and vicuña were domesticated and used for transport and clothing. Aymara people arrived in the region some 2000 years ago settling in Western Bolivia, Southern Peru and Northern Chile. Present-day Aymaras associate themselves with the advanced culture of Tiwanaku, which after 600 became an important regional power. According to early estimates, at its maximum extent, the city covered 6.5 square kilometers, had between 15,000 - 30,000 inhabitants. However, satellite imaging was used to map the extent of "flooded-raised fields" across the three primary valleys of Tiwanaku, arriving at population-carrying capacity estimates of anywhere between 285,000 and 1,482,000 people.

William H. Isbell states that "Tiahuanaco underwent a dramatic transformation between AD 600 and 700 that established new monumental standards for civic architecture and increased the resident population." Tiwanaku gained its power through the trade it implemented between all of the cities within its empire. After 950 a dramatic shift in climate occurred and there was a significant drop in precipitation for the Titicaca Basin. Tiwanaku disappeared around AD 1150 because food production collapses and could no longer sustain the large population; the land was not inhabited for many years after that. Between 1438 and 1527 the Inca empire embarked on a mass expansion, acquiring much of what is now western Bolivia under their 9th emperor, Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, whose reign lasted from 1438 to 1471. Pachacuti Yupanqui was succeeded by his son, Topa Inca Yupanqui whose reign increased the Incan territory and lasted from 1471 to 1493. During the 15th century, the Incas conquered the region of Lake Titicaca and western Bolivia became a part of the Inca territory as province of Qullasuyu.

Francisco Pizarro, Diego de Almagro, Hernando de Luque led the Spanish discovery and conquest of the Inca empire. They first sailed south in 1524 along the Pacific coast from Panama to confirm the existence of a legendary land of gold called "Biru"; because the expanding Inca Empire was internally weak, the conquest was remarkably easy. After the Inca Emperor Huayna Capac died in 1527, his sons Huascar and Atahualpa fought over the succession. Although Atahualpa defeated his brother, he had not yet consolidated his power when the conquistadors arrived. Atahualpa did not attempt to defeat Pizarro when he arrived on the coast in 1532 because the Incan ruler was convinced that those who commanded the mountains controlled the coast. Atahualpa’s refusal to accept the permanent Spanish presence and to convert to Christianity led to the bloody Battle of Cajamarca on November 16, 1532. Pizarro killed Atahualpa's 12-man honor guard and took the Inca captive at the so-called ransom room. One year the Inca capital of Cuzco fell and was refounded as a new Spanish settlement.

Despite Pizarro's quick victory, Inca rebellions soon began and continued periodically throughout the colonial period. In 1537 Manco Inca, whom the Spanish had established as a puppet emperor, rebelled against the new rulers and restored a "neo-Inca" state; this state continued to challenge Spanish authority after the Spanish suppressed the revolt and beheaded Túpac Amaru in the public square of Cuzco in 1572. Revolts in the Bolivian highlands were organized by the elders of the community and remained local in nature, except for the great rebellion of Túpac Amaru II. During the first two decades of Spanish rule, the settlement of the Bolivian highlands — now known as Upper Peru or Real Audiencia of Charcas — was delayed by a civil war between the forces of Pizarro and Diego de Almagro; the two conquistadors had divided the Incan territory, with the north under the control of Pizarro and the south under that of Almagro. Fighting broke out in 1537. Pizarro defeated and executed Almagro in 1538, but was himself assassinated three years by former supporters of Almagro.

Pizarro's brother Gonzalo assumed control of Upper Peru but soon became embroiled in a rebellion against the Spanish crown. Only with the execution of Gonzalo Pizarro in 1548 did the Spanish crown succeed in reasserting its authority; the conquest and colonial rule were traumatic

After Death

After Death is an Italian zombie film. The film is set on a remote island where a voodoo curse that raises the dead from their graves to feast on the flesh of the living; when a boat containing a group of explorers which includes a young girl who experienced the zombie uprising years earlier, makes an emergency docking on the island, the crew find that their only hope for survival is a protective idol given to the young girl by her mother years ago. Researchers at a remote jungle island outpost discover the natives are practicing voodoo and black magic. After killing the local priest, a voodoo curse begins to raise the dead to feed on the living in retribution; the researchers on the island are killed by the newly risen zombies, except for Jenny, the daughter of a scientist couple. She escapes, protected by an enchanted necklace charm given to her by her mother shortly before her death, she returns years as an adult with a group of mercenaries to try to uncover what happened to her parents. Shortly after arriving at the island their boat's engine dies.

Meanwhile, elsewhere on the island a trio of hikers - Chuck and Maddis'Mad' - discover a cave, the same cave leading to the underground temple where the original curse was created. After accidentally reviving the curse, the dead once again return to kill any who trespass on their island. David is eaten by the zombies and Mad is killed before he can escape the tunnels; the mercenaries encounter their first zombie. Taking shelter in the remains of the old research facilities medical quarters, they are soon joined by Chuck, the only surviving hiker. Arming themselves with weapons left behind by the long dead research team, they make their stand as the dead once again rise. Rod is bitten by a zombie and turns into one and kills Louise. A zombified David kills Dan before Chuck reluctantly kills him. Tommy stays behind and blows up the facility with himself and the zombies in it while Jenny and Chuck flee, the only survivors remaining, they stumble upon the cave once again, where the zombies attack. Chuck is killed, Jenny becomes an advanced zombie.

The ending is unclear. Jeff Stryker as Chuck Candice Daly as Jenny Massimo Vanni as David, Chuck's friend Jim Gaines as Dan Don Wilson as Tommy Adrianne Josephs as Louise, Rod's girlfriend Jim Moss as Mad Nick Nicholson as Rod James Sampson as The Voodoo Priest Fausto Lombardi as Head Scientist Alberto Dell'Acqua as Scientist who shoots The Voodoo Priest Ottaviano Dell'Acqua as 3rd Scientist Claudio Fragasso as The Narrator Romano Puppo as Zombie Leader Luciano Pigozzi as Doctor Maurizio Cerantola as The Balladeer Director Claudio Fragasso's wife, Rosella Drudi did not receive credit for the story for Zombi 3, but is credited as the sole author of the screenplay credit for After Death; the film stars Jeff Stryker, better known for his roles in both straight and gay pornography films. The film was his first non-pornography role; the remaining majority of the cast were English-speaking performers, but their voices were dubbed in post-production. The film was predominantly shot on location in the Philippines, with the earliest scenes in the film shot in studios in Rome.

Fragasso stated the film was made under duress during shooting in the Philippines, where he remained awake through the entire two-week shoot of the film. Fragasso referred to After Death as the "last gasp" of the Italian zombie gore film. After Death passed Italian censorship on April 13, 1989; the film was distributed by Variety Film in Italy. After Death was retitled Zombie 4 by its Japanese video distributors, but the title never appears on any print of the film, it was released under the title Zombie Flesh Eaters 3. In a retrospective review in Video Watchdog, After Death was described as having a "rousing opening sequence" but the story was critiqued for being "superficial and by-the-numbers by the subgenre standards" and having an "incoherent ending". In his book Horror and Science Fiction Film IV, Donald C Willis described the film as "flat" and "elementary" and commented that it was an imitation of the films of George A. Romero. Glenn Kay commented in the book Zombies: The Ultimate Guide that the film was "so atrocious and nonsensical that one finds it impossible to believe it has any connection to Romero's zombie classic."

After Death on IMDb After Death at AllMovie