Frunzenskaya (Moscow Metro)
Frunzenskaya is a Metro station on the Sokolnicheskaya Line in Moscow, Russia. The station was opened on 1 May 1957 as the first stage of the extension of the Frunzenskiy radius; as the radius follows the bend of the Moskva river, the whole segment had to be built deep. The station closed on 2 January 2016 for renovation, expected to last 14 months; the renovations were completed ahead of schedule with the station reopening on December 29, 2016. The renovations included the installation of four new escalators to replace the three, in place. Metro authorities projected that the new escalators would reduce energy consumption by 40% and increase the capacity by one-third; the station is symbolic as being one of the last in Moscow to be built in Stalinist style which dominated the Metro Architecture since the mid-1940s, afterwards the station designs show evidence of more vivid decorations that were meant to be installed yet designs were simplified. Frunzenskaya still stands out and architects Robert Pogrebnoi and Yuriy Zenkivich applied a pylon design with cream marbled vaults and tops of pylons, decorated with metallic shields containing a five-sided star.
The bottom of Pylons are a form of a thicker red marble base. Suspended from the ceiling are massive eight-horned chandeliers; the floor is covered with black and red granite on floors and the walls are faced with white ceramic tiles. In the far end of the station, in front of a red-marbled semicircle is a bust to Mikhail Frunze, a famous military commander in the Russian Civil War for whom the station is named; the station's massive vestibule is situated on the Komsomolskiy Avenue and Kholzunov side-street was demolished and built into the Moscow's Palace of Youth building in the 1984, presently receives a daily passenger traffic of 47,410. Behind the station is a junction for a branch to the Koltsevaya Line used for transfers
An aerial lift known as a cable car, is a means of cable transport in which cabins, gondolas or open chairs are hauled above the ground by means of one or more cables. Aerial lift systems are employed in mountainous territory where roads are difficult to build and use, have seen extensive use in mining. Aerial lift systems are easy to move, are and have been used to cross rivers and ravines. In more recent times, the cost-effectiveness and flexibility of aerial lifts has seen an increase of gondola lift being integrated into urban public transport systems; the following abbreviations are used in the trade and in the industry: A cable car or an aerial tramway, aerial tram is a type of cable car which uses one or two stationary ropes for support while a third moving rope provides propulsion. The grip of an aerial tramway can not be decoupled. Aerial trams used for urban transport include Portland Aerial Tram. A gondola lift is a type of cable car, supported and propelled by cables from above, it consists of a loop of steel cable, strung between two stations, sometimes over intermediate supporting towers.
The cable is driven by a bullwheel in a terminal, connected to an engine or electric motor. They are considered continuous systems since they feature a haul rope which continuously moves and circulates around two terminal stations. Depending on the combination of cables used for support and/or haulage and the type of grip, the capacity and functionality of a gondola lift will differ dramatically; because of the proliferation of such systems in the Alpine regions of Europe, the French language name of Télécabine is used in an English language context. Gondola lifts are used for urban transportation. Examples include the Singapore Cable Car, Ngong Ping Skyrail, Metrocable, Mi Teleférico, Emirates Air Line. Gondola lifts should not be confused with aerial tramways as the latter operates with fixed grips and shuttles back and forth between two end terminals. A ropeway conveyor or material ropeway is a subtype of gondola lift, from which containers for goods rather than passenger cars are suspended.
Ropeway conveyors are found around large mining concerns, can be of considerable length. The COMILOG Cableway, which ran from Moanda in Gabon to Mbinda in the Republic of the Congo, was over 75 km in length; the Norsjö aerial tramway in Sweden had a length of 96 kilometers. A funitel is a type of cable car used to transport skiers, although at least one is used to transport finished cars between different areas of a factory, it differs from a standard gondola through the use of two overhead arms, attached to two parallel overhead cables, providing more stability in high winds. The name funitel is a blend of the French words telepherique; when used to transport skiers, funitels are a fast way to get to a higher altitude. However, because skis or snowboard have to be taken off and held during the trip, because of the absence of seats, funitels can sometimes be uncomfortable for long trips, in the same way other large gondolas can be. Funitels combine a short time between successive cabins with a high capacity per cabin.
A Funifor is a type of a haul rope loop per cabin. The Funifor design is patented by Doppelmayr Garaventa Group. Two reversible cabins run on parallel tracks; the drives of the two cabins are not interconnected. At the top of each track, the haul rope for that track loops back to the bottom instead of looping over to serve the other track as occurs with a normal aerial tramway; this feature allows for single cabin operation. The independent drive allows for evacuations to occur by means of a bridge connected between the two adjacent cabins; the main advantage of the Funifor system is its stability in high wind conditions owing to the horizontal distance between the two guide ropes comprising each track. In developing countries with rough terrain, simple hand-powered cable-cars may be used for crossing rivers. Examples include the tuin used in Nepal. An elevated passenger ropeway, or chairlift, is a type of cable car, which consists of a continuously circulating steel cable loop strung between two end terminals and over intermediate towers, carrying a series of chairs.
They are the primary onhill transport at most ski areas, but are found at amusement parks, various tourist attractions, in urban transport. Depending on carrier size and loading efficiency, a passenger ropeway can move up 4000 people per hour, the fastest lifts achieve operating speeds of up to 12 m/s; the two-person double chair, which for many years was the workhorse of the ski industry, can move 1200 people per hour at rope speeds of up to 2.5 m/s. The four person detachable chairlift can transport 2400 people per hour with an average rope speed of 5 m/s; some bi and tri cable elevated-ropeways and reversible tramways achieve much greater operating speeds. Fixed-grip lifts are shorter than detachable-grip lifts due to rope load. A detachable chairlift or high-speed chairlift is a type of passenger cable car
Bulvar Rokossovskogo (Moscow Central Circle)
Bulvar Rokossovskogo is a station on the Moscow Central Circle of the Moscow Metro. Prior to opening, the station's named; the station offers out-of-station transfers to Bulvar Rokossovskogo of the Sokolnicheskaya Line. Media related to Bulvar Rokossovskogo Moscow Central Circle platform at Wikimedia Commons Бульвар Рокоссовского mkzd.ru
Turgenevskaya is a station on the Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya Line of the Moscow Metro. It was named after Turgenevskaya Square; the station was designed by Yu. Vdovin, I. Petukhova and opened on 5 January 1972. Turgenevskaya has simple white marble pylons which follow the curve of the station tube and a ceiling composed of reinforced plastic panels. Metal cornices run the length of the station along the base of the ceiling; the walls, which are faced with white and black marble, are decorated with chased brass panels by Kh. Rysin and D. Bodniek. From this station, passengers can transfer to Sokolnicheskaya Line at Chistye Prudy station and to Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya Line at Sretensky Bulvar station
Cherkizovskaya is a Moscow Metro station in the Preobrazhenskoye District, Eastern Administrative Okrug, Moscow. It is on the Sokolnicheskaya Line, between Preobrazhenskaya Ploshchad and Ulitsa Podbelskogo stations. Cherkizovskaya was the work of architects V. Cheremin and A. Vigdorov; the station is named after the former village of Cherkizovo, a district of Moscow nowadays. The design of the station is a single vault, with a platform free of pillars; the outer walls are faced with panels of corrugated metal. Both ends of the platform are decorated with stained-glass panels above the exit stairs; the station's vestibule is located at Okruzhnoy Proyezd near the intersection with Bolshaya Cherkizovskaya Street. Lokomotiv Stadium is situated nearby
Lubyanka (Moscow Metro)
Lubyanka is a station on the Sokolnicheskaya Line of the Moscow Metro, located under Lubyanka Square. The facility called Dzerzhinskaya station, opened in 1935 as part of the first stage of the metro; the station was named Dzerzhinskaya after Dzerzhinsky Square, but it was changed on 5 November 1990 after the square's original name, was restored. There is still a bust of Felix Dzerzhinsky in the station vestibule. Construction work on the station began in December 1933, the engineers were faced with difficult soil conditions from the outset; the area under Lubyanka square is made of Jurassic clay, beneath which are layers of quicksand and Carboniferous clay. The Metro station was planned to rest on top of the Carboniferous clay, thought to be firm enough to support its weight, it was discovered, that the clay was much softer than anticipated due to the proximity of an underground channel of the Neglinnaya River and tended to swell when exposed to air. This meant that the tunnels had to be built one section at a time quickly, in order to allow the concrete to set before the pressure exerted by the expanding clay increased to the point where the wooden forms could no longer contain it.
Nikolai Ladovsky's initial design had to be modified in order to cope with these problems. In order to minimize the amount of excavation required, the planned full-length central hall was abandoned in favour of a short passage at the end of the station connecting the two platform tubes, similar to many London Underground stations; this simplified the construction of the station while still allowing the planned hall to be built in the future. After the design change, the station's construction was plagued by difficulties. Quicksand from between the two layers of clay began to seep into the construction site immediately, due to the unexpected softness of the Carboniferous clay the station began to sink; the builders of the station were able to surmount these problems and Lubyanka was opened as planned on May 15, 1935. The heroic efforts of the Metro builders are memorialized in a sculptural composition in the vestibule on Nikolskaya street. In 1965 it was revealed that Lubyanka was to become a transfer point to the planned Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya Line, making it clear that the station would need to be completed.
Technology had advanced to the point where the building of the central hall, deemed impossible in the 1930s, could be accomplished, though this project still took more than seven years to complete. The first phase of the station's expansion was the construction of a second entrance at the northern end, completed in 1968; the construction of the northern half of the central hall was simplified by using the new technique of soil freezing, but this could not be used on the southern half. Workers were forced to go back to the original method of building one tunnel segment at a time before the expansion of the clay could crush them. Once the central hall was finished passages to the platforms were blown through using explosives. In 1972 the station was reopened; the reconstruction of the station was an engineering triumph, but it was much less impressive aesthetically with blocky white marble pylons and white tiled walls replacing the strikingly patterned dark marble used in the old station. Though the old section of the central hall still exists, the overall effect has been lost.
The architects of the expansion were Nina Alexandrovna Aleshin and A. F. Strelkov. In 1975, escalators were added in the centre of the platform for the transfer to the new Kuznetsky Most station; the station has numerous entrances, but only two vestibules. The original western vestibule is subterranean and its entrance pavilion is built into the ground floor of a building that stands at the start of the Nikolskaya Street on one side and Malyy Cherkassky side street on the other; the distinctive facade, facing the Lubyanka square, with twin arches was designed by architect Iosif Loveyko, to remind the public of the historic Vladimir gates of the Kitay-gorod wall, demolished a few years prior. In 1957 a subway was built connecting the vestibule and the new Detsky Mir shop, under the Teatralny drive; the original 3 N-type escalators were replaced in 1997 by ET-3M type, during which the vestibule underwent renovation. The second entrance was opened in 1968, due to the landscape and the axis of the station platform to vestibule is done via two escalators and an interim mezzanine station that rotates the passenger traffic by 180 degrees.
The large incline from platform to the mezzanine retains the three LT-4 21.4 metre high escalators. The 7 metre high smaller incline to the subterranean vestibule had three LP-6I escalators, but as this model proved troublesome after long use, it was prematurely replaced throughout the Metro during the 1990s. Lubyanka's turn came in 1995 and three ET-5Ms now soldier in their place. Building of the vestibule included a reconstruction of the whole square, that feature a long subway under the square's square's eastern and southern perimeter: two entrances on the corner of the FSB headquarters and a service drive along its western facade, two on the corner of FSB's computing centre, a further two to the small garden before the Polytechnical Museum the containing the Solovetsky Stone memorial and a final two right in front of the original entrance. From the new subway, a small passageway was added linking the old vestibule underground, it is thus possible to circumvent the whole square underground and walk from one vest
Bulvar Rokossovskogo (Sokolnicheskaya line)
Bulvar Rokossovskogo Ulitsa Podbelskogo, is a Moscow Metro station in the Bogorodskoye District, Eastern Administrative Okrug, Russia. It is on the Sokolnicheskaya line; the station was opened in 1990. Riders may make an out-of-station transfer to Bulvar Rokossovskogo on the Moscow Central Circle line; the station was named "Ulitsa Podbelskogo" for Podbelskogo Street, named for the Bolshevik revolutionary Vadim Podbelsky. After the street was renamed in 1991 to Ivanteyevskaya Street, the station's name was unchanged until 2014. On 10 April 2014 Moscow City Commission on Names recommended renaming the station to "Bulvar Marshala Rokossovskogo", for Rokossovsky Boulevard, named for Soviet Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky. On 8 July, the station was renamed to "Bulvar Rokossovskogo". Rather than continuing the straight path of the Sokolnicheskaya line to the northeast, Bulvar Rokossovskogo was built to the northwest of Cherkizovskaya, forming a right angle with the rest of the line; this would allow Bulvar Rokossovskogo to become part of a planned second ring line around the city, at which time the Sokolnicheskaya line could be further extended in its original direction.
Beyond Bulvar Rokossovskogo are reversal sidings which are planned to become part of the future "Big Ring" line. A junction between Bulvar Rokossovskogo and Cherkizovskaya is used by southbound trains entering and leaving the Cherkizovo depot, since the depot is directly connected only to the southbound tunnel. Bulvar Rokossovskogo is a shallow column tri-vault station; the station was designed by architects Nina Aleshin and Natalya K. Samoilova and applied the following theme: ferroconcrete pillars faced with white marble.