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Krefeld

Krefeld spelled Crefeld until 1929, is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located northwest of Düsseldorf, its centre lying just a few kilometres to the west of the river Rhine; because of its economic past, Krefeld is referred to as the "Velvet and Silk City". It is accessed by the autobahns A57 and A44. Krefeld's residents speak Hochdeutsch, or standard German, but the native dialect is a Low German variety, sometimes locally called Krefelder Plattdeutsch, Krieewelsch Platt, Plattdeutsch, or sometimes Platt; the Uerdingen line isogloss, separating general dialectical areas in Germany and neighboring Germanic-speaking countries, runs through and is named after Krefeld's Uerdingen district an independent municipality. Records first mention Krefeld in 1105 under the name of Krinvelde. In February 1598, wife of Adolf van Nieuwenaar, last Countess of Limburg and Moers, gave the County of Moers, which included Krefeld, to Maurice, Prince of Orange. After her death in 1600, John William of Cleves took possession of these lands, but Maurice defended his heritage in 1601.

Krefeld and Moers would remain under the jurisdiction of the House of Orange and the Dutch Republic during the Dutch Golden Age. The growth of the town began in that century because Krefeld was one of few towns spared the horrors of the Thirty Years' War; the town of Uerdingen, incorporated into Krefeld in the 20th century, was less fortunate ceasing to exist, destroyed at the hands of troops from Hesse during the Thirty Years' War. After the death of William III of Orange in 1702, Krefeld passed to the Kingdom of Prussia; the Battle of Krefeld occurred nearby in 1758 during the Seven Years' War. Krefeld and Uerdingen were included within the Prussian Province of Jülich-Cleves-Berg in 1815. In 1872 Krefeld became an independent city within Rhenish Prussia. In 1918 during the First World War the Belgian Army used it as a base during the occupation of the Rhineland. In 1929 Krefeld and Uerdingen merged to form Krefeld-Uerdingen. From 1607 Mennonites arrived in Krefeld, as in nearby Gronau, from neighboring Roman Catholic territories where they were persecuted.

They sought refuge in the lands of the more tolerant House of Orange-Nassau, at the time rulers of Krefeld. The Quaker Evangelists received a sympathetic audience among the larger of the German-Mennonite congregations around Krefeld, Gronau and Altona, Hamburg. In 1683 a group of thirteen Mennonite families left Krefeld to re-settle in Pennsylvania in order to enjoy religious freedom, they crossed the Atlantic on the ship Concord, founded the settlement of Germantown, invited by William Penn, thus beginning the Pennsylvania Dutch ethnic identity. The most important Mennonite family of Krefeld were the silk merchants and silk weaving industrialists Von der Leyen who, by 1763, employed half of Krefeld's population of 6,082 in their factories, their residence, built from 1791, is the current City Hall. Jews were listed as citizens of Krefeld from 1617. In 1764 a synagogue was erected, by 1812, under French rule, the town included 196 Jewish families, with three Jewish-owned banks. Under Napoleon, the town became the capital for the surrounding Jewish communities including over 5000 Jews, by 1897 they comprised 1.8% of the population.

In 1846 a Jewish representative was voted onto the town's municipal council, while rising antisemitism was noted during these elections. A reform synagogue was built in 1876. A Jewish school existed in the town, with more than 200 students around 1900. In November 1938 during Kristallnacht, the two synagogues were attacked. In 1941 following an order from Hitler to deport the German Jews to the east, Jews from the town were sent to the area around Riga and murdered there. In 1945, the U. S. Army occupied the city and placed Henry Kissinger an Army private and Secretary of State of the United States, in charge of the city administration. In 2008 a new synagogue and Jewish cultural center were erected on the location of one of the demolished synagogues. Around 1100 Jews were reported to live around Krefeld at the time. On 11 December 1941, during World War II, a detailed report on the transport of Jews from Krefeld and its surroundings listed 1007 Jews from Krefeld and Duisburg, were deported to the Šķirotava Railway Station near Riga to become Jungfernhof concentration camp.

They were transported in freezing conditions with no drinking water for more than two days. Upon arrival they were shot in the Rumbula forest massacre. On 21 June 1943 British bombs destroyed many buildings in the east part of the city. On 3 March 1945 US troops entered Krefeld, among them the U. S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. During the Cold War, the city was host to the 16th Signal Regiment of the United Kingdom's Royal Corps of Signals stationed at Bradbury Barracks; the town became part of the new state of North Rhine-Westphalia after World War II. Linn Castle Botanisch

Murrumba Homestead Grounds

Murrumba Homestead Grounds is a heritage-listed site at 38 Armstrong Street, Moreton Bay Region, Australia. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 16 February 2009; the Murrumba Homestead Grounds, established by Tom Petrie in the 1860s, are situated at Petrie on a low rise known locally as Murrumba Hill, within the grounds of Our Lady of the Way Primary School and Parish Church. Murrumba Homestead was demolished in the early 1950s, but many early plantings associated with the occupation of this site by Tom Petrie and his family, survive – principally Bunya and Kauri pines and a large Weeping fig at the crest of the rise; these constitute one of the most extensive early private garden plantings in Queensland. The Murrumba run was established in late 1859 by Thomas Petrie, third son of Andrew Petrie – the first non-convict, non-military European settler in Queensland, who arrived at the Moreton Bay penal colony with his family in 1837 when Tom was six years old; as a child, Tom was allowed to mix with children of the local Turrbal people and learned their customs and languages, making many friends among them.

He travelled with the Turrbal, in the mid-1840s attended a triennial Bunya festival in the Blackall Range. His ability to converse with Aboriginal people made Tom well known in Brisbane, where he was sought out by explorers, local business men, government bureaucrats and Queensland governors alike, for his knowledge of the area and its indigenous inhabitants and to assist in locating commercially exploitable timbers and in marking roads. Tom did not follow his father and older brother John Petrie into the construction business, but chose a life on the land. In 1857 he married Elizabeth Campbell, sister of Brisbane timber and hardware merchant James Campbell. Looking for good grazing land in the vicinity of Brisbane, Petrie sought advice on a suitable area from his friend Dalaipi, a distinguished elder of the North Pine clan. Dalaipi recommended land at the mouth of the Pine River and promised to protect Petrie, his household and his cattle; the assistance offered to Petrie was a mark of the regard in which he was held by Aboriginal people and made it possible for him to live in a place considered unsafe for European settlers.

Several violent incidents had occurred in the district, including spearings of Europeans and Aboriginal deaths at the hands of the Native Police. The area recommended by Dalaipi had been taken up in the 1840s by Captain Griffin as the Redbank section of the Whiteside pastoral run. Mrs Jane Griffin was willing to sell Petrie the lease to ten square-mile sections, reputedly because the frontier violence made it impossible for her to work the land effectively; the area she ceded to Petrie extended from Sideling Creek in the west to Redcliffe Point in the east, was bounded on the south by the North Pine and Pine rivers. Petrie named his run Murrumba, meaning "a good place". Most of the land was open woodland of gum, ironbark and bloodwood – the product of centuries of regular firing by Aborigines – with vine scrub restricted to small pockets in low-lying areas. With the help of a small group of Dalaipi's people Petrie cleared two acres and built a hut and stockyard near Yebri Creek, below Murrumba Hill.

From 1860 Tom Petrie became involved in the timber industry. Since the 1840s his family had exploited the Hoop pine that gave the Pine River its name, at Murrumba Creek a rafting ground was established, where pines cut from the Pine River district were rafted to Brisbane via Sandgate. In 1860, with the assistance of Aboriginal friends, Tom Petrie accompanied Brisbane sawmill proprietor William Pettigrew to Tin Can Bay, the Mary River and Fraser Island in search of commercially exploitable timbers, paving the way for the exploitation of the giant Kauri pine. Petrie explored the North Coast between the Blackall Range and the sea, looking for stands of valuable red cedar and reporting on the commercial value of other indigenous timbers. Working with William Pettigrew and employing Aboriginal labour, he extracted considerable quantities of cedar and hardwoods from the Maroochy area to build up capital to develop Murrumba; the Bunya pine of the Blackall Ranges he did not exploit after the new Queensland colonial government in 1860 rescinded New South Wales Governor George Gipps' 1842 legislation prohibiting the issuing of occupation or timber licenses on Bunya lands in the North Coast district as far as the Maroochy River and west to the Great Dividing Range.

Like his father Andrew, instrumental in the declaration of this reserve, Tom Petrie understood that the Bunya pines and the ranges in which they were found were sacred to Aboriginal people. To facilitate his timber operations Tom Petrie marked out several early northern roads, including a track between the Pine River and Bald Hills and a trail from Murrumba to Maroochydore, which became the Gympie Road, he blazed a track from North Pine to Humpybong. Petrie held the ten square miles. Early in 1861 the government survey office identified an area of 28,000 acres bounded on the south by the North Pine and Pine rivers, to the east by Moreton Bay, to the north by Deception Bay, as potential farming land; this was proclaimed on 31 May 1862 as the Redcliffe Agricultural Reserve. The square-mile pastoral leases over this area – including Murrumba – were withdrawn and the land re-surveyed as small farm allotments available for purchase

History of the bicycle

Vehicles for human transport that have two wheels and require balancing by the rider date back to the early 19th century. The first means of transport making use of two wheels arranged consecutively, thus the archetype of the bicycle, was the German draisine dating back to 1817; the term bicycle was coined in France in the 1860s, the descriptive title "penny farthing", used to describe an "Ordinary Bicycle", is a 19th-century term. A stone carving of a person driving a bicycle can be found on the eastern side of the Gandhimathi Amman Shrine, at Panchavarnaswamy Temple Uraiyur, the Temple dates back to 7th century AD, although the carving was added in early twentieth century renovations. There unverified claims for the invention of the bicycle. A sketch from around 1500 AD is attributed to Gian Giacomo Caprotti, a pupil of Leonardo da Vinci, but it was described by Hans-Erhard Lessing in 1998 as a purposeful fraud. However, the authenticity of the bicycle sketch is still vigorously maintained by followers of Prof. Augusto Marinoni, a lexicographer and philologist, entrusted by the Commissione Vinciana of Rome with the transcription of Leonardo's Codex Atlanticus.

And unverified, is the contention that a certain "Comte de Sivrac" developed a célérifère in 1792, demonstrating it at the Palais-Royal in France. The célérifère had two wheels set on a rigid wooden frame and no steering, directional control being limited to that attainable by leaning. A rider was said to have sat astride the machine and pushed it along using alternate feet, it is now thought that the two-wheeled célérifère never existed and it was instead a misinterpretation by the well-known French journalist Louis Baudry de Saunier in 1891. The first verifiable claim for a used bicycle belongs to German Baron Karl von Drais, a civil servant to the Grand Duke of Baden in Germany. Drais invented his Laufmaschine in 1817, called Draisine or draisienne by the press. Karl von Drais patented this design in 1818, the first commercially successful two-wheeled, human-propelled machine called a velocipede, nicknamed hobby-horse or dandy horse, it was manufactured in Germany and France. Hans-Erhard Lessing found from circumstantial evidence that Drais' interest in finding an alternative to the horse was the starvation and death of horses caused by crop failure in 1816, the Year Without a Summer.

On his first reported ride from Mannheim on June 12, 1817, he covered 13 km in less than an hour. Constructed entirely of wood, the draisine weighed 22 kg, had brass bushings within the wheel bearings, iron shod wheels, a rear-wheel brake and 152 mm of trail of the front-wheel for a self-centering caster effect; this design was welcomed by mechanically minded men daring to balance, several thousand copies were built and used in Western Europe and in North America. Its popularity faded when due to increasing numbers of accidents, some city authorities began to prohibit its use. However, in 1866 Paris a Chinese visitor named; the concept was picked up by a number of British cartwrights. New names were introduced when Johnson patented his machine “pedestrian curricle” or “velocipede,” but the public preferred nicknames like “hobby-horse,” after the children's toy or, worse still, “dandyhorse,” after the foppish men who rode them. Johnson's machine was an improvement on Drais's, being notably more elegant: his wooden frame had a serpentine shape instead of Drais's straight one, allowing the use of larger wheels without raising the rider's seat.

During the summer of 1819, the "hobby-horse", thanks in part to Johnson's marketing skills and better patent protection, became the craze and fashion in London society. The dandies, the Corinthians of the Regency, adopted it, therefore the poet John Keats referred to it as "the nothing" of the day. Riders wore out their boots rapidly, the fashion ended within the year, after riders on pavements were fined two pounds. Drais' velocipede provided the basis for further developments: in fact, it was a draisine which inspired a French metalworker around 1863 to add rotary cranks and pedals to the front-wheel hub, to create the first pedal-operated "bicycle" as we today understand the word. Though technically not part of two-wheel history, the intervening decades of the 1820s–1850s witnessed many developments concerning human-powered vehicles using technologies similar to the draisine if the idea of a workable two-wheel design, requiring the rider to balance, had been dismissed; these new machines had three wheels or four and came in a wide variety of designs, using pedals and hand-cranks, but these designs suffered from high weight and high rolling resistance.

However, Willard Sawyer in Dover manufactured a range of treadle-operated 4-wheel vehicles and exported them worldwide in the 1850s. The first mechanically propelled two-wheel vehicle is believed by some to have been built by Kirkpatrick Macmillan, a Scottish blacksmith, in 1839. A nephew claimed that his uncle developed a rear-wheel drive design using mid-mounted treadles connected by rods to a rear crank, similar to the transmission of a steam locomotive. Proponents associate him with the first recorded instance of a bicycling traffic offence, when a Glasgow newspaper reported in 1842 an a