Kristallnacht or the Night of Broken Glass called the November Pogrom, was a pogrom against Jews carried out by SA paramilitary forces and civilians throughout Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938. The German authorities looked on without intervening; the name Kristallnacht comes from the shards of broken glass that littered the streets after the windows of Jewish-owned stores and synagogues were smashed. Jewish homes and schools were ransacked as the attackers demolished buildings with sledgehammers; the rioters destroyed 267 synagogues throughout Germany and the Sudetenland. Over 7,000 Jewish businesses were damaged or destroyed, 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and incarcerated in concentration camps. British historian Martin Gilbert wrote that no event in the history of German Jews between 1933 and 1945 was so reported as it was happening, the accounts from foreign journalists working in Germany sent shockwaves around the world; the Times of London observed on 11 November 1938: "No foreign propagandist bent upon blackening Germany before the world could outdo the tale of burnings and beatings, of blackguardly assaults on defenceless and innocent people, which disgraced that country yesterday."The pretext for the attacks was the assassination of the Nazi German diplomat Ernst vom Rath by Herschel Grynszpan, a 17-year-old German-born Polish Jew living in Paris.
Estimates of fatalities caused by the attacks have varied. Early reports estimated. Modern analysis of German scholarly sources puts the figure much higher. Historians view Kristallnacht as a prelude to the Final Solution and the murder of six million Jews during the Holocaust. In the 1920s, most German Jews were integrated into German society as German citizens, they served in the German army and navy and contributed to every field of German business and culture. Conditions for the Jews began to change after the appointment of Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933, the Enabling Act assumption of power by Hitler after the Reichstag fire of 27 February 1933. From its inception, Hitler's régime moved to introduce anti-Jewish policies. Nazi propaganda alienated 500,000 Jews in Germany, who accounted for only 0.86% of the overall population, as an enemy within who were responsible for Germany's defeat in the First World War and for its subsequent economic disasters, such as the 1920s hyperinflation and Wall Street Crash Great Depression.
Beginning in 1933, the German government enacted a series of anti-Jewish laws restricting the rights of German Jews to earn a living, to enjoy full citizenship and to gain education, including the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service of 7 April 1933, which forbade Jews to work in the civil service. The subsequent 1935 Nuremberg Laws stripped German Jews of their citizenship and forbade Jews to marry non-Jewish Germans; these laws resulted in the exclusion of Jews from German political life. Many sought asylum abroad; the international Évian Conference on 6 July 1938 addressed the issue of Jewish and Gypsy immigration to other countries. By the time the conference took place, more than 250,000 Jews had fled Germany and Austria, annexed by Germany in March 1938; as the number of Jews and Gypsies wanting to leave increased, the restrictions against them grew, with many countries tightening their rules for admission. By 1938, Germany "had entered a new radical phase in anti-Semitic activity".
Some historians believe that the Nazi government had been contemplating a planned outbreak of violence against the Jews and were waiting for an appropriate provocation. In a 1997 interview, the German historian Hans Mommsen claimed that a major motive for the pogrom was the desire of the Gauleiters of the NSDAP to seize Jewish property and businesses. Mommsen stated: The need for money by the party organization stemmed from the fact that Franz Xaver Schwarz, the party treasurer, kept the local and regional organizations of the party short of money. In the fall of 1938, the increased pressure on Jewish property nourished the party's ambition since Hjalmar Schacht had been ousted as Reich minister for economics. This, was only one aspect of the origin of the November 1938 pogrom; the Polish government threatened to extradite all Jews who were Polish citizens but would stay in Germany, thus creating a burden of responsibility on the German side. The immediate reaction by the Gestapo was to push the Polish Jews—16,000 persons—over the borderline, but this measure failed due to the stubbornness of the Polish customs officers.
The loss of prestige as a result of this abortive operation called for some sort of compensation. Thus, the overreaction to Herschel Grynszpan's attempt against the diplomat Ernst vom Rath came into being and led to the November pogrom; the background of the pogrom was signified by a sharp cleavage of interests between the different agencies of party and state. While the Nazi party was interested in improving its financial strength on the regional and local level by taking over Jewish property, Hermann Göring, in charge of the Four-Year Plan, hoped t
Barenaked Ladies, is the Barenaked Ladies' third indie tape release, after Buck Naked in 1989 with just Ed Robertson and Steven Page Barenaked Lunch in 1990, with bassist Jim Creeggan and percussionist Andy Creeggan. It was recorded in 1991 at Wellesley Sound by Walter Sobczak in Toronto, it was recorded as a demo for the band's performance at South by Southwest. The Yellow Tape did well, becoming the first indie tape to achieve platinum status in Canada. Although self-titled, it is referred to as The Yellow Tape due to its yellow cover, it was re-released by Cheree Records in CD and vinyl record formats as Barenaked Ladies in the United Kingdom. The UK release dropped the track "Fight the Power." Early copies of the tape include an error in the J-card notes: drummer Tyler Stewart's name is misspelled as "Steward." It includes a different address for the band's management. In 1995, the band's Shoe Box E. P. single featured this recording of "If I Had $1000000," listed as "Yellow Tape Version," indicating the band themselves refer to this release by its common name.
All tracks are written except where noted. Andy Creeggan - congas, vocals Jim Creeggan - double bass, vocals Steven Page - vocals, guitar Ed Robertson - guitar, vocals Tyler Stewart - drumsProductionBarenaked Ladies - production Gary Fishman - engineering Walter Sobezak - engineering
Pierre Simon Jaillot is a French sculptor of ivory objects born in Avignon-lès-Saint-Claude in 1631, died on September 23, 1681 in Paris. He is the brother of the geographer Alexis-Hubert Jaillot, he was a member of the Academy of Saint - Luc, he was received at the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture on 28 May 1661 by presenting an ivory sculpture: A Christ dying on the cross. Of a violent character, he insulted the painter Charles Le Brun and his protector Pierre Seguier, which merited him to be excluded from the academy, his reception piece was offered at the Petites - maisons hospital. He died in Quai des Augustins, he was buried, religious service in Saint-André-des-Arcs On September 24, 1681, he was buried in a religious service in Saint-André-des-Arcs. Localized London and Albert Museum, Figures of a Crucifixion, ivory, 1664. Paris, musée du Louvre, Saint Sébastien, ivory, 0,32 m, 1662, pre-empted on October 11, 2014 in an auction in Dijon. Not located Chermizy-Ailles, Crucifix, 0.48, 1664, disappeared on an uncertain date.
Paris, church of the Chartreuse de Vauvert, two bronze angels, installed in 1704 2. Paris, Hôpital des Petites-Maisons. Private collection and Saint Jean, ivory dated 1670 exhibited in Florence in 2013 by the antiquarian Alessandro Cesati of Milan during the XXVIII Internazionale Biennale dell'Antiquariato di Palazzo Corsini Louis Petit de Bachaumont, Secret Memoirs to Serve to the History of the Republic of Letters in France since 1762, Vol 34, Paris, p. 347. Émile Bellier of Chavignerie, Episode existence of an artist, "Monitor the arts", n o 284, 3 December 1862, p. 2-3. Anatole de Montaiglon, Minutes of the Académie Royale, 1648-1793, Paris 1878, p. 13. Malcolm Baker, "Baroque Ivory Carving in France and England", "National Art Collections Review", 1984, p. 106-108. Christian Theuerkauff, "Kleinplastik des Barock: Werke von Jean Gaulette, Michel Mollart und anderen Französischen Zeitgenossen", "Kunst und Antiquitäten", I / 1985, p. 46-53. Majorie Trusted, Baroque & Later Ivories, Victoria & Albert Museum, London, 2013, cat.
Vincent John Velasquez is an American professional baseball pitcher for the Philadelphia Phillies of Major League Baseball. He played in MLB for the Houston Astros, who drafted him in the second round of the 2010 Major League Baseball draft. Velasquez made his MLB debut with the Astros in 2015, was traded to the Phillies before the 2016 season. Velasquez was born in California, he attended Garey High School in Pomona, where he played shortstop as a switch-hitter and pitched on the baseball team, graduating in 2010. Velasquez was a three-time All-Mt. Baldy League First-Team infielder, in his junior season he was 6-1 as a pitcher with a 1.89 earned run average, batted.608 with 14 doubles, 29 runs batted in, 18 stolen bases. Velasquez was drafted by the Houston Astros in the second round of the 2010 Major League Baseball draft out of Garey High School, signed for a $655,800 signing bonus, he made his professional debut for the Rookie League Greeneville Astros. In eight games he went 2–2 with a 3.07 ERA and 25 strikeouts in 29 1⁄3 innings pitched.
Following the 2010 season, Baseball America ranked him the 11th-best prospect in the Appalachian League. Prior to the 2011 season, he underwent Tommy John surgery, he returned in 2012 to pitch nine games for the Class A Short Season Tri-City ValleyCats. In 45 2⁄3 innings, he was 4–1 with a 3.35 ERA, 51 strikeouts, averaging 12.1 strikeouts per 9 innings. Following the 2012 season, Baseball America named him the 14th-best prospect in the New York-Penn League. Velasquez started the 2013 season for the Class A Quad Cities River Bandits, he led the Midwest League in strikeouts/9 innings pitched, tied for 2nd in strikeouts, tied for 8th in wins, as he was 9–4 with a 3.19 ERA in 110 innings. During the season, he was promoted to the Class A-Advanced Lancaster JetHawks, he finished with a combined record of 9–6 with a 3.54 ERA, 142 strikeouts over 124 2⁄3 innings, averaging 10.3 strikeouts per 9 innings. Prior to the 2014 season, he was ranked by Fangraphs as the 67th-best prospect, by ESPN as the 82nd-best prospect, in baseball, was ranked as a top prospect in the Astros system by Baseball America, Baseball Prospectus, ESPN.
Velasquez returned to Lancaster to start the season, pitched for the Gulf Coast League Astros. He was named California League Pitcher of the Week on both April 14, 2014, August 18, 2014. Between the two teams, he was 7–5 with a 3.52 ERA, as he had 91 strikeouts in 64 innings, averaging 12.8 strikeouts per 9 innings. On November 20, the Astros added Velasquez to their 40-man roster to protect him from the Rule 5 draft. Velasquez began the 2015 season ranked by Baseball America as the fourth-best Houston prospect, by Baseball Prospectus as the # 75 minor leaguer, by major league baseball as the # 86 minor leaguer, he pitched for the Class AA Corpus Christi Hooks, was named a 2015 Texas League All Star. For the season in the minors, he was 4–0 with a 1.91 ERA, had 45 strikeouts in 33 innings, averaging 12.3 strikeouts per 9 innings. On June 10, 2015, Velasquez was promoted to the Major Leagues for the first time. On July 1, he made his Major League debut, he earned a no decision going 6 1⁄3 innings, giving up 5 hits, four runs, a walk, inducing seven strikeouts against the Kansas City Royals at Minute Maid Park.
For the 2015 season, with the Astros he was 1–1 with a 4.37 ERA, with 58 strikeouts in 55 2⁄3 innings, averaged 9.4 strikeouts per 9 innings. On December 12, 2015, the Astros traded Velasquez, Mark Appel, Brett Oberholtzer, Tom Eshelman, Harold Arauz to the Philadelphia Phillies for Ken Giles and Jonathan Arauz. Velasquez registered 16 strikeouts in a complete game shutout against the San Diego Padres on April 14, 2016, giving up only three hits and no walks in the process. Through his first 9 starts, Velasquez sported an ERA of 2.75, but afterward he struggled the rest of the season while missing a couple of weeks due to right biceps strain. Overall, he finished 8 -- 6 with an ERA of 4.12 with 152 strikeouts in 131 innings. His average of 10.44 strikeouts/9 innings pitched made him the second Phillies starter to make at least 20 starts and finish the season at or above 10 strikeouts/9 innings pitched, with the other being Curt Schilling in 1997–98, he was 6th in the NL in strikeout ratio of all pitchers with 120 innings pitched.
His 2017 season was cut short due to a right middle finger injury, with Velasquez making only 15 starts with a record of 2–7 and a 5.13 ERA, 68 strikeouts in 72 innings. He battled inconsistency. At the plate, he batted.250. Velasquez began the 2018 season with a 5–8 record before being placed on the disabled list on July 2 with a right forearm contusion after being hit by a line drive. For the 2018 season, he was 9–12 with a 4.85 ERA and 161 strikeouts in 146 2⁄3 innings, was 7th in the National League in wild pitches, with 9. His 9.9 strikeouts per 9 innings pitched were 8th in the NL of all pitchers with 140 or more innings pitched, the 6th-highest rate of any Phillies pitcher in franchise history. He held right-handed batters to a.211/.298/.308 slash line, was the only pitcher in major league baseball to face at least 300 right-handed batters and allow only three home runs or fewer. In January 2019 he agreed to a one-year, $2.249 million contract with the Phillies. On May 11, he was placed on the injured list.
The Hertfordshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the Territorial Army, part of the British Army. Originating in units of Rifle Volunteers formed in 1859, the regiment served in the Second Anglo-Boer War and the First and Second World Wars before losing its separate identity in 1961, its lineage is continued today by the Royal Anglian Regiment. The origins of the regiment lay in the Rifle Volunteer Corps of the nineteenth century; these units were raised across Britain during a period of heightened Anglo-French tension resulting from the Second Italian War of Independence on the Continent. In Hertfordshire the newly formed companies of rifle volunteers were grouped into two separate administrative battalions of the Hertfordshire Rifle Volunteers. In 1880 these units were rearranged in two battalion-sized units titled 1st and 2nd Hertfordshire Rifle Volunteer Corps; the following year, as a result of the Childers Reforms, the county lost its regular regiment. Thus, the two Hertfordshire Rifle Corps were nominated to be attached to the neighbouring Bedfordshire Regiment, whose recruiting district included Hertfordshire.
In 1887 the two units were re-titled as the 1st and 2nd Volunteer Battalions, The Bedfordshire Regiment. Although the volunteer battalions saw no active service as units, during the Second Boer War the two battalions raised three volunteer Active Service Companies to serve in South Africa, all of which were attached to 2nd battalion the Bedfordshire Regiment. In total 279 men volunteered to serve in the campaign. In 1908 the British Army's reserve forces were reorganised as part of the Haldane Reforms; the Volunteer Force was merged with the Yeomanry to create a new Territorial Force, organised into 14 infantry divisions for mobilisation in the event of war. The two Hertfordshire Volunteer Battalions were amalgamated to become the Hertfordshire Battalion, The Bedfordshire Regiment with its headquarters at Port Hill in Hertford; the following year the battalion was constituted separately and titled 1st Battalion, The Hertfordshire Regiment, though it remained associated with the regular Bedfordshire Regiment, existing in lieu of a second Bedfordshire territorial battalion.
During the First World War, the Territorial Force was expanded and the Hertfordshire Regiment gained an additional three battalions. The original battalion was renumbered 1/1st, while three second line duplicates were formed, numbered 2/1st, 3/1st and 4/1st respectively; the 1/1st Hertfordshires was the only battalion to serve abroad, the remainder fulfilling recruit training and home-defence functions. 1/1st BattalionOn the outbreak of war, the battalion was embodied at Hertford under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Brand. It joined the British Expeditionary Force in France on 6 November 1914, serving in the trenches during the closing stages of the First Ypres; that month the battalion joined the 4th Brigade of the 2nd Division. Due to this attachment, it acquired the nickname the Hertfordshire Guards, adopted many Guards’ peculiarities, including the numbering of its companies. In January 1915 Lieutenant Colonel Croft took command and the following month the battalion supported the 1st Irish Guards and 3rd Coldstream Guards in their seizure of the Brickstacks position at Cuinchy.
In May it was again in action during the Battle of Festubert, consolidating the advance of the Irish Guards under heavy shellfire. On 19 August 1915 it was moved to the 6th Brigade within the same division, in time for the Battle of Loos. On 27 September the battalion, alongside 1st King's, was due to assault the enemy lines beside Cuinchy; the attack however, was cancelled due to the failure of the gas released as its preliminary to impact the enemy. Much of the following winter was spent in the Artois, rotating between service in the trenches and the reserve. In February 1916 Croft was appointed to command a brigade and Lieutenant Colonel Page DSO took over the battalion, which during the same month was moved to the 118th Brigade of 39th Division. Subsequently, the battalion was involved in the Battle of the Somme. On 14 October 1916 it supported the 1/1st Cambridgeshire Regiment and 4th/5th Black Watch in the capture of the Schwaben Redoubt. In the final stage of the campaign, the Battle of the Ancre, the Hertfordshires achieved a notable success.
On the morning of 13 November, their advance covered by mist and a heavy artillery barrage, the battalion seized the whole of the Hansa Line. It advanced to a depth of 1,600 yards, achieved all of its objectives and captured 250 prisoners and nine machine-guns; the position was held until relief the following night. The cost of this action in casualties numbered 150 men; the battalion spent the first half of 1917 holding the line near Ypres. In July it began training for the Third Battle of Ypres. On the opening day, 31 July 1917, 39th Division mounted an advance towards Pilckem Ridge; the 1/1st Hertfordshires were employed in the third phase of the operation. Advancing over the Steenbeek towards the Langemarck Line, the battalion suffered heavy casualties from enemy machine-gun fire. On reaching the enemy wire it was found to have been undamaged by the artillery bombardment and the battalion was forced to fall back under heavy fire and strong German counterattacks; every officer was a casualty, eleven of whom including the commanding officer were killed, while the other ranks suffered 459 casualties.
Subsequently, Lieutenant Colonel Phillips took command and drafts of men were received to rebuild the battalion. During the remaining months of the year it continued to play a peripheral role in the fighting at Ypres. In early 1918 the battalion was transferred to 116th Brigade in the same division, th
Eucalyptus neglecta known as Omeo gum, is a species of small tree, endemic to a small area of Victoria, Australia. Older plants have rough, fibrous bark on the trunk, otherwise smooth grey to brownish bark, a crown of lance-shaped, egg-shaped or oblong leaves arranged in opposite pairs, flower buds in groups of between seven and fifteen, white flowers and cup-shaped or conical fruit. Eucalyptus neglecta is a tree, sometimes a mallee that grows to a height of 6–7 m and forms a lignotuber, it has smooth grey to brownish bark, but older specimens have fibrous grey to brown bark on the trunk. The crown of the tree is composed of sessile, juvenile leaves that are arranged in opposite pairs, with some intermediate and adult leaves. Juvenile leaves are greyish green, broadly elliptic to round, up to 110 mm long and 70 mm wide. Adult leaves are lance-shaped, the same shade of green on both sides, 80–150 mm long and 25–35 mm wide on a petiole up to 23 mm long; the flower buds are arranged in leaf axils in groups of between seven and fifteen on an unbranched peduncle up to 5 mm long, the individual buds sessile.
Mature buds are oval. Flowering occurs between November and February and the flowers are white; the fruit is a woody, cup-shaped or conical capsule 3–4 mm long and 4–7 mm wide with the valves near rim level. Eucalyptus neglecta was first formally described in 1904 by Joseph Maiden in The Victorian Naturalist from specimens collected near Omeo by Alfred William Howitt; the specific epithet is from the Latin neglectus meaning "neglected" because the species was not recognised as distinct at first. Omeo gum grows on river flats along creeks in the Victorian high country, including near Omeo and Bright. Although rare, it is recognised because of the unusual foliage in its crown. List of Eucalyptus species