Kristianstad Municipality is a municipality in Skåne County in southernmost Sweden. Its seat is located in the city Kristianstad; the present municipality was created in three steps during the last nationwide local government reform, it has the largest area of the municipalities of Skåne County. In 1967 a number of rural municipalities were merged into the City of Kristianstad. In 1971 more former units were added and the city became a unitary municipality. In 1974, the last amalgamations took place, the municipality reached its present size; the number of original entities is 35. Its size of 1,818.24 square kilometres makes it the largest municipality in Skåne County by area. There are 26 urban areas in Kristianstad Municipality. In the table, the urban areas are listed according to the size of the population as of December 31, 2010; the municipal seat is in bold characters. The municipality is twinned with: Espoo, Finland Kongsberg, Norway Koszalin, Poland Køge Municipality, Denmark Rendsburg, Germany Šiauliai, Lithuania Skagafjörður, Iceland University College of Kristianstad Kristianstad County Söderportgymnasiet Statistics Sweden Kristianstad - Official site Coat of arms
Trinity Church, Kristianstad
Trinity Church is a church building in Kristianstad, built between 1617 and 1628 by Christian IV of Denmark. He had founded the city of Kristianstad in 1614 at a time when Scania was part of the Kingdom of Denmark; the church's large size and style reveal the king's ambitions for his new city. Designed by the Flemish-Danish architect, Lorenz van Steenwinckel, the grand building is considered by many to be Scandinavia's finest Renaissance church, its extensive nave is able to accommodate congregations of up to 1,400. Like many Danish churches of the times, it is built of red brick, but this church is decorated with many sandstone statues and ornaments, including several monograms of Christian IV, testifying to his involvement. The well-preserved interior is decked with star-shaped cross vaults, supported by pillars of granite. Trinity Church has been little altered; the main addition is its 59-meter-tall tower constructed in 1865. The church is abundantly illuminated thanks to its 26 tall windows.
The entrance through the western tower opens into a six-bay nave, with wide aisles, terminating in a projecting eastern sanctuary. The vaults are covered with a cross-gabled roof, with large ornamented gables on the north and south sides; the pulpit, sculpted in Belgian and Italian marble, shows Christ and the four evangelists. The impressive canopy hanging above the pulpit weighs a ton; the Baroque organ case survives, including the case pipes, from German-born Johan Lorentz's 1630 organ, but the organ itself has been replaced. The present organ is used both for concerts and church services; the delicately carved benches are as old as the church itself
Cossacks were a group of predominantly East Slavic-speaking people who became known as members of democratic, self-governing, semi-military communities, predominantly located in Eastern and Southern Ukraine and in Southern Russia. They inhabited sparsely populated areas and islands in the lower Dnieper, Don and Ural river basins and played an important role in the historical and cultural development of both Ukraine and Russia; the origins of the first Cossacks are disputed, though the 1710 Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk claimed Khazar origin. The emergence of Cossacks is dated to the 14th or 15th centuries, when two connected groups emerged, the Zaporozhian Sich of the Dnieper and the Don Cossack Host; the Zaporizhian Sich were a vassal people of Poland–Lithuania during feudal times. Under increasing pressure from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, in the mid-17th century the Sich declared an independent Cossack Hetmanate, initiated by a rebellion under Bohdan Khmelnytsky. Afterwards, the Treaty of Pereyaslav brought most of the Cossack state under Russian rule.
The Sich with its lands became an autonomous region under the Russian-Polish protectorate. The Don Cossack Host, established by the 16th century, allied with the Tsardom of Russia. Together they began a systematic conquest and colonisation of lands in order to secure the borders on the Volga, the whole of Siberia and the Yaik and the Terek rivers. Cossack communities had developed along the latter two rivers well before the arrival of the Don Cossacks. By the 18th century Cossack hosts in the Russian Empire occupied effective buffer zones on its borders; the expansionist ambitions of the Empire relied on ensuring the loyalty of Cossacks, which caused tension given their traditional exercise of freedom, self-rule, independence. Cossacks such as Stenka Razin, Kondraty Bulavin, Ivan Mazepa and Yemelyan Pugachev led major anti-imperial wars and revolutions in the Empire in order to abolish slavery and odious bureaucracy and to maintain independence; the empire responded with ruthless executions and tortures, the destruction of the western part of the Don Cossack Host during the Bulavin Rebellion in 1707–08, the destruction of Baturyn after Mazepa's rebellion in 1708, the formal dissolution of the Lower Dnieper Zaporozhian Host in 1775, after Pugachev's Rebellion.
By the end of the 18th century Cossack nations had been transformed into a special military estate, "a military class". Similar to the knights of medieval Europe in feudal times or the tribal Roman auxiliaries, the Cossacks came to military service having to obtain charger horses and supplies at their own expense; the government provided only supplies for them. Cossack service was considered the most rigorous one; because of their military tradition, Cossack forces played an important role in Russia's wars of the 18th–20th centuries, such as the Great Northern War, the Seven Years' War, the Crimean War, Napoleonic Wars, the Caucasus War, numerous Russo-Persian Wars, numerous Russo-Turkish Wars and the First World War. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Tsarist regime used Cossacks extensively to perform police service, they served as border guards on national and internal ethnic borders. During the Russian Civil War and Kuban Cossacks were the first people to declare open war against the Bolsheviks.
By 1918 Russian Cossacks declared the complete independence and formed independent states, the Don Republic and the Kuban People's Republic. The Ukrainian State emerged. Cossack troops formed the effective core of the anti-Bolshevik White Army, Cossack republics became centers for the anti-Bolshevik White movement. With the victory of the Red Army, the Cossack lands were subjected to Decossackization and the Holodomor. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Cossacks made a systematic return to Russia. Many took an active part in post-Soviet conflicts. In Russia's 2002 Population Census, 140,028 people reported their ethnicity as Cossacks. There are Cossack organizations in Russia, Ukraine and the United States. Max Vasmer's etymological dictionary traces the name to the Old East Slavic word козакъ, kozak, a loanword from Cuman, in which cosac meant "free man", from Turkish/Turkic languages quazzaq rabble rouser, trouble maker, outcast rebel, from Tatar languages Kazak skinny bollard The ethnonym Kazakh is from the same Turkic root.
In modern Turkish it is pronounced as "Kazak". In written sources the name is first attested in Codex Cumanicus from the 13th century. In English, "Cossack" is first attested in 1590, it is not clear when new Slavic people apart from Brodnici and Berladniki started settling in the lower reaches of major rivers such as the Don and the Dnieper after the demise of the Khazar state. It is unlikely it could have happened before the 13th century, when the Mongols broke the power of the Cumans, who had assimilated the previous population on that territory, it is known that new settlers inherited a lifestyle that persisted there long before, such as those of the Turkic Cumans and the Circassian Kassaks. However, Slavic settlements in southern Ukraine started to appear early during the Cuman rule, with the earliest ones, like Oleshky, dating back to the 11th century. Early "Proto-Cossack" groups are reported to have come into existence within the present-day Ukraine in the mid-13th century as the influence of Cumans grew weaker, though some have ascribed their origins to as early as the tenth century.
Some historians suggest that the Cossack people were of mixed ethnic origins, descending from Russians, Belarusians, Turks and others who settled or passed through the vast Steppe. However some Turkologists arg
Scania known as Skåne, is the southernmost province of Sweden. Within Scania, there are 33 municipalities. Scania's largest city is Malmö, the third largest in Sweden, as well as the fifth largest in Scandinavia. To the north, Scania borders the provinces of Halland and Småland, to the northeast Blekinge, to the east and south the Baltic Sea, to the west Öresund. Since 2000, a road and railway bridge, the Øresund Bridge, bridges the sound to Denmark. Scania is part of the transnational Øresund Region. From north to south Scania covers less than 3 % of Sweden's total area; the population of over 1,320,000 represents 13% of the country's population. With 121 inh/km2 Scania is the second most densely populated province of Sweden. Scania was part of the kingdom of Denmark, up until the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658. Denmark regained control of the province during the Scanian War 1676-1679 and again in 1711. Scania was formally included in Sweden in 1720; the endonym used in Swedish and other North Germanic languages is Skåne.
The Latinized form Scania occurs in British English as an exonym. However, sometimes the endonym Skåne is used in English text, such as in tourist information sometimes as Skane with the diacritic omitted, wrong both in Swedish and English. Scania is the only Swedish province for which exonyms are still used in many languages, e.g. French Scanie and German Schonen, Polish Skania, Spanish Escania, Italian Scania, etc. For the province's modern administrative counterpart, Skåne län, the endonym Skåne is used in English. In the Alfredian translation of Orosius's and Wulfstan's travel accounts, the Old English form Sconeg appears. Frankish sources mention; the names Scania and Scandinavia are considered to have the same etymology and the southernmost tip of what is today Sweden was called Scania by the Romans and thought to be an island. The actual etymology of the word remains dubious and has long been a matter of debate among scholars; the name is derived from the Germanic root *Skaðin-awjã, which appears in Old Norse as Skáney.
According to some scholars, the Germanic stem can be reconstructed as *Skaðan- meaning "danger" or "damage". Skanör in Scania, with its long Falsterbo reef, has the same stem combined with -ör, which means "sandbanks". Between 1719 and 1996, the province was subdivided in two administrative counties, Kristianstad County and Malmöhus County, each under a governor appointed by the central government of Sweden; when the first local government acts took effect in 1863, each county got an elected county council. The counties were further divided into municipalities; the local government reform of 1952 reduced the number of municipalities, a second subdivision reform, carried out between 1968 and 1974, established today's 33 municipalities in Scania. The municipalities have municipal governments, similar to city commissions, are further divided into parishes; the parishes are entities of the Church of Sweden, but they serve as a divisioning measure for the Swedish population registration and other statistical uses.
In 1999, the county council areas were amalgamated, forming Skåne Regional Council, responsible for public healthcare, public transport and regional planning and culture. During the Danish era, the province had no coat of arms. In Sweden, every province had been represented by heraldic arms since 1560; when Charles X Gustav of Sweden died in 1660 a coat of arms had to be created for the newly acquired province, as each province was to be represented by its arms at his royal funeral. After an initiative from Baron Gustaf Bonde, the Lord High Treasurer of Sweden, the coat of arms of the City of Malmö was used as a base for the new provincial arms; the Malmö coat of arms had been granted in 1437, during the Kalmar Union, by Eric of Pomerania and contains a Pomeranian griffin's head. To distinguish it from the city's coat of arms the tinctures were changed and the official blazon for the provincial arms is, in English: Or, a griffin's head erased gules, crowned azure and armed azure, when it should be armed.
The province was divided in two administrative counties 1719–1996. Coats of arms were created for these entities using the griffin motif; the new Skåne County, operative from 1 January 1997, got a coat of arms, the same as the province's, but with reversed tinctures. When the county arms is shown with a Swedish royal crown, it represents the County Administrative Board, the regional presence of central government authority. In 1999 the two county councils were amalgamated forming Region Skåne, it is the only one of its kind using a heraldic coat of arms. It is the same as the province's and the county's, but with a golden griffin's head on a blue shield; the 33 municipalities within the county have coats of arms. The Scania Griffin has become a well-known symbol for the province and is used by commercial enterprises, it is, for instance, included in the logotypes of the automotive manufacturer Scania AB and the airline Malmö Aviation. Coat of arms: Scania was first mentioned in written texts in the 9th century.
It came under Danish king Harald Bluetooth in the middle of the 10th century. It was a region that included Blekinge and Halland, situated on the
Vä is a former town in Scania, now a village in the municipality of Kristianstad in Sweden, ca 5 km south west of the town of Kristianstad. The name stems from the old Danish word væ, meaning "cult place or holy ground". Around 1170, the Danish archbishop Eskil founded a Premonstratensian convent on the site. In 1213, the convent was burnt down and the monks moved to the convent in Bäckaskog; the church was rebuilt, is standing today still. Another convent was built in the late 14th century; the first written mentioning of Vä as a town is from the 1250s, but in the early 13th century, the place is mentioned in the Danish Census Book, by King Valdemar. The town was burnt many times. Most notable are the burnings by Karl Knutsson in 1452, Svante Sture in 1509, in 1569 by the Swedish duke Charles (later king Charles IX; the most sad and infamous burning of Væ, as well as the last, was done by the Swedish King Gustaf II Adolf in 1612. Væ was the largest settlement within 24 Danish parishes which the young Swedish king burned down more or less for his own pleasure and without meeting any resistance whatsoever.
For this, there exists an exceptional good source. The king boasted of his crimes against civilian Danes in a letter to a cousin, stored at the Swedish National Archive; the destroyed town was two years replaced by Christianstad by the Danish king Christian IV, built in 1614 on the island of Allø, today's Kristianstad. The destroyed Væ lost its privileges as a town and became a substitute for the farmers from nearby villages of Næsby and Nosaby, who had in their turn had to give up land to build Kristianstad, along with the former town of Åhus. Today, there are some remains of the former church buildings. Nordisk Familjebok Salmonsens konversationslexikon
Bender is a city within the internationally recognized borders of Moldova under de facto control of the unrecognized Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic since 1992. It is located on the western bank of the river Dniester in the historical region of Bessarabia. Together with its suburb Proteagailovca, the city forms a municipality, separate from Transnistria according to Moldovan law. Bender is located in the buffer zone established at the end of the 1992 War of Transnistria. While the Joint Control Commission has overriding powers in the city, Transnistria has de facto administrative control; the fortress of Tighina was one of the important historic fortresses of the Principality of Moldova. First mentioned in 1408 as Tyagyanyakyacha in a document in Old Slavonic, the town was known in the Middle Ages as Tighina in Moldavian sources and as Bender in Ottoman sources; the fortress and the city were called Bender for most of the time they were a rayah of the Ottomans, during most of the time they belonged to the Russian Empire.
They were known as Tighina in the Principality of Moldavia, in the early part of the Russian Empire period, during the time the city belonged to Romania. The city is part of the historical region of Bessarabia and of Bessarabia Governorate within the Russian Empire. During the Soviet period the city was known in the Moldavian SSR as Bender in Moldovan, written Бендер with the Cyrillic alphabet, as Bendery in Russian and Bendery in Ukrainian. Today the city is named Bender, but both Bender and Tighina are in use; the town was first mentioned as an important customs post in a commerce grant issued by the Moldavian voivode Alexander the Good to the merchants of Lviv on October 8, 1408. The name "Tighina" is found in documents from the second half of the 15th century; the town was the main Moldavian customs point on the commercial road linking the country to Tatar Crimea. During his reign of Moldavia, Stephen III had a small wooden fort built in the town to defend the settlement from Tatar raids.
In 1538, the Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent conquered the town from Moldavia, renamed it Bender. Its fortifications were developed into a full fortress under the same name under the supervision of the Turkish architect Koji Mimar Sinan; the Ottomans used it to keep the pressure on Moldavia. At the end of the 16th century several unsuccessful attempts to retake the fortress were made: in the summer of 1574 Prince John III the Terrible led a siege on the fortress, as did Michael the Brave in 1595 and 1600. About the same time the fortress was attacked by Zaporozhian Cossacks. In the 18th century, the fort's area was expanded and modernized by the prince of Moldavia Antioh Cantemir, who carried out these works under Ottoman supervision. In 1713, the fortress, the town, the neighboring village Varnița were the site of skirmishes between Charles XII of Sweden, who had taken refuge there with the Cossack Hetman Ivan Mazepa after his defeat in the Battle of Poltava, Turks who wished to enforce the departure of the Swedish king.
During the second half of the 18th century, the fortress fell three times to the Russians during the Russo-Turkish Wars. Along with Bessarabia, the city was annexed to the Russian Empire in 1812, remained part of the Russian Governorate of Bessarabia until 1917. Many Ukrainians and Jews settled in or around Bender, the town became predominantly Russian-speaking. By 1897, speakers of Romanian and Moldovan made up only around 7% of Bender's population, while 33.4% were Jews. Tighina was part of the Moldavian Democratic Republic in 1917–1918, after 1918, as part of Bessarabia, the city belonged to Romania, where it was the seat of Tighina County. In 1918, it was shortly controlled by the Odessa Soviet Republic, driven out by the Romanian army; the local population was critical of Romanian authorities. On Easter Day, 1919, the bridge over the Dniester River was blown up by the French Army in order to block the Bolsheviks from coming to the city. In the same year, there was a pro-Soviet uprising in Bender, attempting to attach the city to the newly founded Soviet Union.
Several hundred communist workers and Red Army members from Bessarabia, headed by Grigori Stary, seized control in Bender on May 27. However, the uprising was crushed on the same day by the Romanian army. Romania launched a policy of Romanianization and the use of Russian was now discouraged and in certain cases restricted. In Bender, Russian continued to be the city's most spoken language, being native to 53% of its residents in 1930. Although their share had doubled, Romanian-speakers made up only 15%. Along with Bessarabia, the city was occupied by the Soviet Union on June 28, 1940, following an ultimatum. In the course of World War II, it was retaken by Romania in July 1941, again by the USSR in August 1944. Most of the city's Jews were killed during the Holocaust, although Bender continued to have a significant Jewish community well until the 1990s. From 1940–41, 1944–1991 it was one of the four "republican cities", not subordinated to a district, of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, one of the 15 republics of the Soviet Union.
Since 1991, the city has been disputed between the Republic of Transnistria. Due to the city's key strategic location on the right bank of the Dniester river, 10 km from left-bank Tiraspol, Bender saw the heaviest fighting of the
Malmö is the largest city of the Swedish county of Skåne County, the third-largest city in Sweden, after Stockholm and Gothenburg, the sixth-largest city in Scandinavia, with a population of 312,012 inhabitants in 2017 out of a municipal total of 338,230. The Malmö Metropolitan Region is home to over 700,000 people, the Øresund Region, which includes Malmö, is home to 4 million people. Malmö was one of the earliest and most industrialized towns of Scandinavia, but it struggled with the adaptation to post-industrialism. Since the construction of the Øresund Bridge, Malmö has undergone a major transformation with architectural developments, it has attracted new biotech and IT companies, students through Malmö University, founded in 1998; the city contains many historic buildings and parks, is a commercial center for the western part of Scania. The earliest written mention of Malmö as a city dates from 1275, it is thought to have been founded shortly before that date, as a fortified quay or ferry berth of the Archbishop of Lund, some 20 kilometres to the north-east.
Malmö was for centuries Denmark's second-biggest city. Its original name was Malmhaug, meaning "Gravel pile" or "Ore Hill". In the 15th century, Malmö became one of Denmark's largest and most visited cities, reaching a population of 5,000 inhabitants, it became the most important city around the Øresund, with the German Hanseatic League frequenting it as a marketplace, was notable for its flourishing herring fishery. In 1437, King Eric of Pomerania granted the city's arms: argent with a griffin gules, based on Eric's arms from Pomerania; the griffin's head as a symbol of Malmö extended to the entire province of Scania from 1660. In 1434, a new citadel was constructed at the beach south of the town; this fortress, known today as Malmöhus, did not take its current form until the mid-16th century. Several other fortifications were constructed, making Malmö Sweden's most fortified city, but only Malmöhus remains. Lutheran teachings spread during the 16th century Protestant Reformation, Malmö became one of the first cities in Scandinavia to convert to this Protestant denomination.
In the 17th century, Malmö and the Scanian region came under control of Sweden following the Treaty of Roskilde with Denmark, signed in 1658. Fighting continued, however. By the dawn of the 18th century, Malmö had about 2,300 inhabitants. However, owing to the wars of Charles XII of Sweden and to bubonic plague epidemics, the population dropped to 1,500 by 1727; the population did not grow much until the modern harbor was constructed in 1775. The city started to expand and the population in 1800 was 4,000. 15 years it had increased to 6,000. In 1840, Frans Henrik Kockum founded the workshop from which the Kockums shipyard developed as one of the largest shipyards in the world; the Southern Main Line was built between 1856 and 1864. In 1870, Malmö overtook Norrköping to become Sweden's third-most populous city, by 1900 Malmö had strengthened this position with 60,000 inhabitants. Malmö continued to grow through the first half of the 20th century; the population had swiftly increased to 100,000 by 1915 and to 200,000 by 1952.
In 1914 Malmö hosted the Baltic Exhibition. The large park Pildammsparken was planted for this large event; the Russian part of the exhibition was never picked down, owing to the outbreak of World War I. On 18 and 19 December 1914, the Three Kings Meeting was held in Malmö. After a somewhat infected period, which included the dissolution of the Swedish-Norwegian Union, King Oscar II was replaced with King Håkon VII in Norway, the younger brother of the Danish King Christian X; as Oscar died in 1907, his son Gustav V became the new King of Sweden, the tensions within Scandinavia were still unclear, but during this historical meeting, the Scandinavian Kings found internal understanding, as well as a common line about remaining neutral in the ongoing war. Within sports, Malmö has been associated with football. IFK Malmö participated in the first edition of Allsvenskan 1924/25, but from the mid-1940s Malmö FF started to rise, since it has been one of the most prominent clubs within Swedish football.
They have won Allsvenskan 23 times in all between 1943/44 and 2017. By 1971, Malmö reached 265,000 inhabitants, but this was the peak which would stand for more than 30 years. By the mid-1970s Sweden experienced a recession that hit the industrial sector hard. Kockums shipyard had become a symbol of Malmö as its largest employer and, when shipbuilding ceased in 1986, confidence in the future of Malmö plummeted among politicians and the public. In addition, many middle-class families moved into one-family houses in surrounding municipalities such as Vellinge Municipality, Lomma Municipality and Staffanstorp Municipality, which profiled themselves as the suburbs of the upper-middle class. By 1985, Malmö had lost 35,000 inhabitants and was down to 229,000; the Swedish financial crises of the early 1990s exacerbated Malmö's decline as an industrial city. However, from 1994 under