Laguna Beach: The Real Orange County
Laguna Beach: The Real Orange County is an American reality television series that aired on MTV from September 28, 2004 until November 15, 2006. The series aired for three seasons and was focused on the personal lives of several students attending Laguna Beach High School, its premise was originated with Liz Gateley. The series was narrated by Lauren Conrad as she completed her senior year of high school, it additionally placed emphasis on her classmates Lo Bosworth, Stephen Colletti, Morgan Olsen, Trey Phillips, Christina Schuller, juniors Kristin Cavallari and Talan Torriero. The second season was narrated by Cavallari, saw the additions of Taylor Cole, Alex Murrel, Jessica Smith, Jason Wahler. Upon its conclusion, all cast members departed from the series and were replaced by a group of current students; the third season was narrated by Tessa Keller, showcased Cameron Brinkman, Breanna Conrad, Lexie Contursi, Raquel Donatelli, Cami Edwards, Kelan Hurley, Chase Johnson, Kyndra Mayo. Laguna Beach: The Real Orange County received moderately favorable reviews from critics, has been recognized as a "guilty pleasure" by several media outlets.
However, the series was criticized for tending towards a narrative format more seen in scripted genres including soap operas, appearing to fabricate much of its storyline. The show has produced several spin-offs, most notably The Hills, which chronicled Lauren Conrad's personal and professional life after moving to Los Angeles to pursue a career in the fashion industry; the first two seasons of Laguna Beach were released on DVD. Created by Liz Gateley in 2004, Laguna Beach was planned to document a group of students' on-campus lives as they completed their secondary education at Laguna Beach High School. However, after an incident during the halftime show of Super Bowl XXXVIII exposed the breast of performer Janet Jackson, the school board questioned if the network, who produced the event, held the care necessary to operate in an academic setting. Subsequently, their contract was ended jeopardizing the feasibility of the series' concept. Laguna Beach chronicles the lives of several students attending Laguna Beach High School.
Every installment commences with a voice-over narrative from series leads Lauren Conrad, Kristin Cavallari, Tessa Keller foreshadowing the theme of the episode. Each season concludes with a finale involving a major event such as a progressing relationship or a personnel departure. Most installments revolve around the students' everyday lives, but the show puts emphasis on their personal, rather than academic, lives. Throughout its run, the series was led by seven and nine primary cast members, who were credited by their first names, its original main cast members were Conrad, Cavallari, Lo Bosworth, Stephen Colletti, Morgan Olsen, Trey Phillips, Christina Schuller, Talan Torriero. The second season saw the additions of Taylor Cole, Alex Murrel, Jessica Smith, Jason Wahler. By the conclusion of the season, all students had graduated high school, departed the series before production of the third season began. Consequentially, the program was revamped to showcase an new group of current students.
In its series premiere, Laguna Beach first introduces Lauren Conrad, who with friends Lo Bosworth, Stephen Colletti, Morgan Olsen, Trey Phillips, Christina Schuller was completing her senior year at Laguna Beach High School. Younger students Kristin Cavallari and Talan Torriero were shown to be finishing their junior year; the first season highlighted the love triangle involving rivals Conrad and Cavallari and their shared love interest Colletti. The latter two began a turbulent romantic relationship. Meanwhile, the close friendship between Bosworth and Conrad provided both with a stabilizing influence, similar to the bond between Olsen and Schuller. Phillips, an advocate for youth community involvement, coordinated a fashion show benefiting the Active Young America organization. Upon the seniors' graduation nearing the season finale, they prepared to leave Laguna Beach as they began their college studies. By the beginning of the second season, Cavallari became the series' narrator and focal point.
She and her friends Jessica Smith and Alex Hooser were involved in a conflict with Alex Murrel and Taylor Cole, though they appeared to have reconciled as the season progressed. Despite preferring to remain single during her senior year, Cavallari wished to continue her friendship with Colletti, though the latter faced difficulty coming to terms with their changed dynamic. Shortly after, Torriero developed romantic feelings for both Cavallari and Cole, though both women were uninterested in beginning a relationship with him. Meanwhile, Jason Wahler dated Smith and Conrad in separate periods during production, though his womanizing tendencies placed a strain on each failed relationship; the season concluded as the graduated students prepared to leave for college. Additionally, Conrad was offered and accepted a role on a spin-off series titled, The Hills in which, she moved to Los Angeles to pursue a career in the fashion industry. During the third season, Tessa Keller is established as the series' new narrator and lead position, involved in a turbulent relationship with Derek LeBon.
She and her friend Rocky Donatelli are feuding with Kyndra Mayo, Cami Edwards, Nikki Dowers. Keller remains close with Chase Johnson, after Donatelli reconciles with her former best friend Breanna Conrad, she becomes estranged from Keller. Johnson and his band Op
Stephen Colletti is an American actor and television personality. He portrayed Chase Adams on The CW drama series One Tree Hill, and appeared for two seasons on the MTV reality television series Laguna Beach: The Real Orange County. Colletti was born in Newport Beach, the youngest child of Lorilee and Bruce Colletti. Colletti has an older brother John, an older sister Lauren; as a teen, Stephen attended Laguna Beach High School in California. He attended San Francisco State University. In 2004, MTV commissioned a planned reality television series Laguna Beach: The Real Orange County which followed the lives of wealthy teens and Colletti was asked to appear on the show; the series premiered in September 2004. Colletti returned for the second season with the remainder of the cast from the first season. In 2006, the New York Times described his role in the series as "still fighting to acquire some charm to animate his idol looks". Colletti did not return for the show's third season. Upon graduating high school, he attended San Francisco State University for a year before returning to Los Angeles to pursue an acting career.
In 2007 Colletti appeared as himself in an episode of another MTV Reality Television series The Hills. Colletti had a temporary stint as an MTV VJ for MTV's Total Request Live. In February 2009 Colletti portrayed the role of the love interest in the music video "White Horse" by Taylor Swift. Swift says that he was selected for the role because "the guy in the video is supposed to look sweet and someone who just looks like he would never lie to you."In January 2007, it was announced that Colletti was cast in a major recurring role during the fourth season of The CW teen drama series One Tree Hill. Colletti portrayed the role of Chase Adams, a high school student who plans to save himself until marriage. Over the course of the following seasons Colletti maintained a major recurring role. In November 2010, Colletti was confirmed to have been upgraded as a core series regular for the series eighth season. In May 2011, The CW renewed the series for its ninth and final season, during which Colletti maintained his regular status.
The series finale "One Tree Hill" aired on April 4, 2012. Colletti and fellow One Tree Hill castmate James Lafferty are working on the first season of their original comedy Everyone is Doing Great, they have filmed the pilot, shown internationally at festivals, on August 11, 2018 they reached their crowdfunding campaign goal in order to fund the rest of season one. In the show, Colletti plays the role of Seth Stewart, serves as a writer and producer. 2005, nominated for Teen Choice Award for'Choice TV Reality/Variety Star - Male' for Laguna Beach: The Real Orange County Stephen Colletti on IMDb
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals is an American animal rights organization based in Norfolk and led by Ingrid Newkirk, its international president. A nonprofit corporation with nearly 400 employees, it claims that it has 6.5 million members and supporters, in addition to claiming that it is the "largest animal rights group in the world." Its slogan is "Animals are not ours to eat, experiment on, use for entertainment, or abuse in any other way."Founded in March 1980 by Ingrid Newkirk and fellow animal rights activist Alex Pacheco, the organization first caught the public's attention in the summer of 1981 during what became known as the Silver Spring monkeys case, a publicized dispute about experiments conducted on 17 macaque monkeys inside the Institute of Behavioral Research in Silver Spring, Maryland. The case lasted 10 years, involved the only police raid on an animal laboratory in the United States, triggered an amendment in 1985 to that country's Animal Welfare Act, established PETA as an internationally known organization.
Today, it focuses on four core issues—opposition to factory farming, fur farming, animal testing, the use of animals in entertainment. It campaigns for a vegan lifestyle and against eating meat, the killing of animals regarded as pests, the keeping of chained backyard dogs, cock fighting, dog fighting, bullfighting; the group is the focus of controversy, both inside and outside the animal rights movement and around the world. Newkirk, Pacheco, are seen as the leading exporters of animal rights to the more traditional animal-protection groups in the United States, but sections of the movement nonetheless say that PETA is not radical enough—law professor Gary Francione lists the group among what he calls "the new welfarists," arguing that its work with industries to achieve reform, which continues in the tradition of Henry Spira, makes it an animal welfare group, not an animal rights group. Newkirk told Salon in 2001 that PETA works toward the ideal but tries in the meantime to provide carrot-and-stick incentives.
There has been criticism from feminists within the movement about the use of scantily clad women in PETA's anti-fur campaigns and others, but as Norm Phelps notes, "Newkirk has been consistent in her response. No one, is being exploited. Everyone... is an uncoerced volunteer. Sexual attraction is a fact of life, if it can advance the animals' cause, she makes no apologies for using it." Phelps notes that some activists believe that the group's media stunts trivialize animal rights, but he qualifies this by saying, "t's hard to argue with success and PETA is far and away the most successful cutting-edge animal rights organization in the world." Newkirk's view is that PETA has a duty to be "press sluts." She argues, "It is our obligation. We would be worthless if we were just polite and didn't make any waves." Newkirk was born in England in 1949, raised in Hertfordshire and New Delhi, where her father—a navigational engineer—was stationed. Newkirk, now an atheist, was educated in the only British girl there.
She moved to the United States as a teenager, first studying to become a stockbroker, but after taking some abandoned kittens to an animal shelter in 1969 and being appalled by the conditions that she found there, she chose a career in animal protection instead. She became an animal-protection officer for Montgomery County and the District of Columbia's first woman poundmaster. By 1976, she was head of the animal disease control division of D. C.'s Commission on Public Health and in 1980, was among those named as "Washingtonians of the Year." She told Michael Specter of The New Yorker that working for the shelters left her shocked at the way the animals were treated: I went to the front office all the time, I would say, "John is kicking the dogs and putting them into freezers." Or I would say, "They are stepping on the animals, crushing them like grapes, they don't care." In the end, I would go to work early, before anyone got there, I would just kill the animals myself. Because I couldn't stand to let them go through that.
I must have killed a thousand of them, sometimes dozens every day. Some of those people would take pleasure in making them suffer. Driving home every night, I would cry just thinking about it, and I just felt, to my bones, this cannot be right. In 1980, she divorced Steve Newkirk, whom she had married when she was 19, the same year met Alex Pacheco, a political science major at George Washington University. Pacheco had studied for the priesthood worked as a crew member of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society's first ship, he volunteered at the shelter where she worked, they fell in love and began living together, although as Kathy Snow Guillermo writes, they were different—Newkirk was older and more practical, whereas Pacheco could look after himself. Newkirk read Peter Singer's influential book, Animal Liberation, in March 1980, she persuaded Pacheco to join her in forming People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, at that point just "five people in a basement," as Newkirk described it, they were students and members of the local vegetarian society, but the group included a friend of Pacheco's from the U.
K. Kim Stallwood, a British activist who went on to become the national organizer of the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection. Pacheco was reluctant at first. "It just didn't sound great to me," he told The Los Angeles Times in 1992. "I had been active in Europe... and I thought there were just too many formalities. I thought, but she made a convincing case that Washington needed a vehicle for animals because the current organizations were too conservative." The g
Spencer William Pratt is an American television personality. In 2007, he began dating Heidi Montag, a primary cast member of the reality television series The Hills. Subsequently, he came to prominence after being cast in the series, their relationship ended Montag's friendship with fellow cast member Lauren Conrad. The ensuing feud among the three became the central focus of the series, was carried through each subsequent season; the couple, collectively nicknamed "Speidi", married in April 2009. That year, they made controversial appearances on the second season of the American version of I'm a Celebrity... Get Me Out of Here! In 2013, he and Montag competed as a single entity on the eleventh series of the British version of Celebrity Big Brother, returned to compete as a single entity on the nineteenth series in 2017. Pratt appeared on Wife Swap and The Spyson Hour, a weekly segment on the reality TV podcast Rob Has a Podcast. Pratt was born August 1983 in Los Angeles, California, he is the elder sibling of Stephanie a television personality.
Pratt first appeared on television in 2005 in the short-lived reality series The Princes of Malibu. As creator and executive producer of the series, Pratt acted in the role of "manager/publicist/agent/stylist" for series' star Brody Jenner. In 2006, MTV developed the reality television series The Hills as the spin-off of Laguna Beach: The Real Orange County, it chronicled the lives of Lauren Conrad, who appeared on its predecessor, her housemate Heidi Montag, friends Audrina Patridge and Whitney Port. In 2007, Pratt began dating and moved into an apartment with Montag, which led to the deterioration of her friendship with Conrad. During the third season, Conrad ended her friendship with Montag after she suspected that Pratt was responsible for rumors of a sex tape involving her and her former boyfriend Jason Wahler. After Conrad established companionships with Jenner and Frankie Delgado, he severed ties with both men.— In August, Montag entered the music industry and began recording her debut studio album.
That month, the song "Body Language" was leaked on the internet, featured a rapped verse from Pratt. He directed the music video for Montag's first promotional single "Higher"; that year and Pratt appeared on the second season of the American version of I'm a Celebrity... Get Me Out of Here! in support of the "Feed the Children" foundation. They quit after Montag was hospitalized with a gastric ulcer and created controversy after alleging that they were subject to torture during production. After leaving the series and Pratt became notorious for their antics and antagonistic roles, notably during an interview with Al Roker of Today, were described as "everything that's wrong with America". In May 2010, Pratt and Montag made their final appearance on The Hills halfway through the sixth and final season. In 2009, Spencer and Heidi appeared at the as themselves. In July, Montag filed for divorce from Pratt. However, they called it off in September after confessing that the action was intended to boost Montag's ailing career.
In November, they renewed their vows in California. Pratt was arrested and jailed in Costa Rica on September 11, 2010, while attempting to board an aircraft with hunting weapons, he was subsequently banned from re-entering the country. Pratt's work on The Hills earned him the title of "Greatest Reality TV Villain" on Yahoo!'s fan-voted poll in 2015. Other nominees for this award included Juan Pablo Galavis, Omarosa Manigault, Will Kirby, Russell Hantz. In January 2013, Montag and Pratt competed as housemates on the eleventh series of the British version of Celebrity Big Brother, where they notably developed a minor feud with singer and television personality Rylan Clark, they were named the runners-up. On February 18, Channel 5 aired a one-off television special discussing Montag and Pratt's rise to prominence, titled Speidi: Scandal, Secrets & Surgery!. TV Guide included him in its 2013 list of "The 60 Nastiest Villains of All Time."The couple appeared in the E! Documentary special After Shock: Heidi & Spencer.
Pratt and Montag were houseguests on We TV's Marriage Boot Camp, as they worked out their differences about having children. While there, the couple met and became friends with Survivor winner Tyson Apostol and his girlfriend Rachel Foulger; when Marriage Boot Camp aired on television and Apostol began hosting The Spyson Hour, a weekly podcast to recap the show, alongside Rob Cesternino of Rob Has a Podcast. After the season finished airing, Pratt and Cesternino continued The Spyson Hour, discussing Pratt's reality TV history and zany current events. Pratt left the show in October 2015. In 2017 Pratt re-entered the Celebrity Big Brother with his wife. On day 18 the couple were eternally nominated by James Cosmo, which they did not have a good reaction to, they were saved in an eight-person eviction on day 22 however, they were evicted on day 25 against Kim Woodburn, Jessica Cunningham, Bianca Gascoigne and Jedward. Pratt and Montag were reunited with their rival, Rylan Clark-Neal, on Big Brother's Bit on the Side that night.
Pratt developed a widespread fanbase on Snapchat by posting stories showing his family, daily life and his passion for hummingbirds! His popularity led to him being nominated in January 2018 for Snapchatter of the Year at the 10th Annual Shorty Awards winning the category. At the 2018 MTV Video Music Awards, MTV announced a reboot of The Hills entitled The Hills: New Beginnings, slated to premiere in 2019
Twelfth grade, senior year, or grade 12 is the final year of secondary school in most of North America. In other regions it is equivalently referred to as class 12 or Year 13. In most countries students graduate at age 18; some countries have a thirteenth grade. Twelfth grade is the last year of high school. In Australia, the twelfth grade is referred to as Year 12. In New South Wales, students are 16 or 17 years old when they enter Year 12 and 17–18 years during graduation. A majority of students in Year 12 work towards getting an ATAR or OP, which will allow them access to courses at university. In South Australia, this is achieved by completing the SACE. In New South Wales, when completing the, students are required to satisfactorily complete at least 10 units of study in ATAR courses which must include: eight units from Category A courses two units of English three Board Developed courses of two units or greater four subjectsSome Year 12s may receive a Year 12 Jersey. Schools choose the design and writing which are printed or stitched onto the jersey.
Sometimes the last two digits of the year they are graduating are printed on the back along with a personalised nickname. The front may show the school emblem and the student's name, stitched in. Many schools conduct end of year "formals", they are held from any time between graduation in September to November. Australian private schools conduct Year 12 balls in January or February of Year 12 instead of an end of year formal. In Belgium, the 12th grade is called 6de middelbaar or laatste jaar in Dutch, rétho or 6e année in French. In the General Education, this year guides and prepares students for their first year in University by recalling everything learned during the past six years of secondary school. In the Skills Education, this year prepares the students for the professional life with an Intership in the chosen domain. In Brazil, the 12th grade is called terceiro ano do ensino médio informally called terceiro colegial, meaning third grade of high school, it is attended by 17–18 years old students.
During this grade, most students apply to what is called Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio, the Brazilian equivalent of the SATs in the US, vestibular, the individual entrance examination particular to each university. As in many countries, Grade 12 students attend Graduation, which involves a formal official ceremony, a party where students and friends are invited and another party just for the students. In Bulgaria the twelfth grade is the last year of high-school. Twelfth-grade students tend to be 18–19 years old. Students are preparing to take the Matriculation exam in the end of their 2nd semester. In Canada, the twelfth grade is referred to as Grade 12. Students enter their Grade 12 year when they are 16 or 17 years old. If they are 16 years old, they will be turning 17 by December 31 of that year. In many Canadian high schools, student during their year, hold a series of fundraisers, grade-class trips, other social events. Grade 12 Canadian students attend Graduation which involves an official ceremony and a dinner dance.
Ontario had Grade 13, renamed Ontario Academic Credit, before being phased out, leaving Grade 12 as the final year. Grades 12 and 13 were similar to sixth form in England. Quebec is the lone province that does not have Grade 12. Thus, when a student is in Grade 12 in Ontario, for instance, the student in Quebec is in his first year of college. Newfoundland and Labrador did not introduce Grade 12 until 1983. In Denmark, the twelfth grade is the 3rd G, the final year of secondary school. G is equivalent to gymnasium; this is not compulsory. Students are 18-19 or older when they finish secondary school; the age of graduation is caused by the fact that Danish children first start school at 6. The reason that many students will be at the age of 20 when they graduate is because some people choose to have one-year gap between the 9th grade and gymnasium's 1st G, where students go to special art- or sport-oriented boarding schools or become exchange students all over the world; this is optional though. The twelfth grade is the third and last year of High School or secondary school The students graduate from High School the year they turn 19.
The twelfth grade is shorter than the previous ones because the twelfth graders lessons end in February and they go on to take their final exams shortly afterwards. Compulsory education ends after the ninth grade, so the upper grades are optional; the equivalent grade in this country is Terminale, it is the third and last year of lycée, equivalent to High-School, upon completion of which students sit for a test, the Baccalauréat. French-language schools that teach the French government curriculum use the same system of grades as their counterparts in France; this is not compulsory, as education is only
Fashion design is the art of applying design and natural beauty to clothing and its accessories. It is influenced by cultural and social attitudes, has varied over time and place. Fashion designers work in a number of ways in designing clothing and accessories such as bracelets and necklaces; because of the time required to bring a garment onto the market, designers must at times anticipate changes to consumer tastes. Designers interpret them for their audience, their specific designs are used by manufacturers. This is the essence of a designer’s role. Fashion designers attempt to design clothes, they consider, to wear a garment and the situations in which it will be worn, they work within a wide range of materials, colors and styles. Though most clothing worn for everyday wear falls within a narrow range of conventional styles, unusual garments are sought for special occasions such as evening wear or party dresses; some clothes are made for an individual, as in the case of haute couture or bespoke tailoring.
Today, most clothing is designed for the mass market casual and every-day wear are called ready to wear. Fashion designers may work full-time for one fashion house, as'in-house designers', which owns the designs, or they work alone or as part of a team. Freelance designers work for themselves, selling their designs to fashion houses, directly to shops, or to clothing manufacturers; the garments bear the buyer's label. Some fashion designers set up their own labels; some fashion designers design for individual clients. Other high-end fashion designers cater to high-end fashion department stores; these designers create original garments, as well as those. Most fashion designers, work for apparel manufacturers, creating designs of men's, women's, children's fashions for the mass market. Large designer brands which have a'name' as their brand such as Abercrombie & Fitch, Justice, or Juicy are to be designed by a team of individual designers under the direction of a design director. Fashion designers work in different ways.
Some sketch their ideas on paper. When a designer is satisfied with the fit of the toile, he or she will consult a professional pattern maker who makes the finished, working version of the pattern out of card or via a computerized system. A sample garment is made up and tested on a model to make sure it is an operational outfit. Fashion design is considered to have started in the 19th century with Charles Frederick Worth, the first designer to have his label sewn into the garments that he created. Before the former draper set up his maison couture in Paris, clothing design and creation was handled by anonymous seamstresses, high fashion descended from that worn at royal courts. Worth's success was such that he was able to dictate to his customers what they should wear, instead of following their lead as earlier dressmakers had done; the term couturier was in fact first created in order to describe him. While all articles of clothing from any time period are studied by academics as costume design, only clothing created after 1858 is considered as fashion design.
It was during this period that many design houses began to hire artists to sketch or paint designs for garments. The images were shown to clients, much cheaper than producing an actual sample garment in the workroom. If the client liked their design, they ordered it and the resulting garment made money for the house. Thus, the tradition of designers sketching out garment designs instead of presenting completed garments on models to customers began as an economy; the garments produced by clothing manufacturers fall into three main categories, although these may be split up into additional, more specific categories Until the 1950s, fashion clothing was predominately designed and manufactured on a made-to-measure or haute couture basis, with each garment being created for a specific client. A couture garment is made to order for an individual customer, is made from high-quality, expensive fabric, sewn with extreme attention to detail and finish using time-consuming, hand-executed techniques. Look and fit take priority over the cost of materials and the time it takes to make.
Due to the high cost of each garment, haute couture makes little direct profit for the fashion houses, but is important for prestige and publicity. Ready-to-wear, or prêt-à-porter, clothes are a cross between haute mass market, they are not made for individual customers, but great care is taken in the choice and cut of the fabric. Clothes are made in small quantities to guarantee exclusivity, so they are rather expensive. Ready-to-wear collections are presented by fashion houses each season during a period known as Fashion Week; this occurs twice a year. The main seasons of Fashion Week include: spring/summer, fall/winter, resort and bridal. Half-way garments are an alternative to "off-the-peg", or prêt-à-porter fashion. Half-way garments are intentionally unfinished pieces of clothing that encourages co-design between the "primary designer" of the garment, what would be considered, the passive "cons