Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure. Forensic scientists collect and analyze scientific evidence during the course of an investigation. While some forensic scientists travel to the scene of the crime to collect the evidence themselves, others occupy a laboratory role, performing analysis on objects brought to them by other individuals. In addition to their laboratory role, forensic scientists testify as expert witnesses in both criminal and civil cases and can work for either the prosecution or the defense. While any field could technically be forensic, certain sections have developed over time to encompass the majority of forensically related cases. Forensic science is a combination of two different Latin words: science; the former, relates to a discussion or examination performed in public. Because trials in the ancient world were held in public, it carries a strong judicial connotation.
The second is science, derived from the Latin word for ‘knowledge’ and is today tied to the scientific method, a systematic way of acquiring knowledge. Taken together forensic science can be seen as the use of the scientific methods and processes in crime solving; the word forensic comes from the Latin term forensis, meaning "of or before the forum". The history of the term originates from Roman times, during which a criminal charge meant presenting the case before a group of public individuals in the forum. Both the person accused of the crime and the accuser would give speeches based on their sides of the story; the case would be decided in favor of the individual with delivery. This origin is the source of the two modern usages of the word forensic – as a form of legal evidence and as a category of public presentation. In modern use, the term forensics in the place of forensic science can be considered correct, as the term forensic is a synonym for legal or related to courts. However, the term is now so associated with the scientific field that many dictionaries include the meaning that equates the word forensics with forensic science.
The ancient world lacked standardized forensic practices, which aided criminals in escaping punishment. Criminal investigations and trials relied on forced confessions and witness testimony. However, ancient sources do contain several accounts of techniques that foreshadow concepts in forensic science that were developed centuries later; the first written account of using medicine and entomology to solve criminal cases is attributed to the book of Xi Yuan Lu, written in China by Song Ci in 1248, a director of justice and supervision, during the Song dynasty. Gunhegarancha Kardankal authored by Dr. Vasudha Apte in Marathi provides information about 130 different methods of forensic investigations in detail. Song Ci ruled regulation about autopsy report for court, how to protect the evidence in the examining process, the reason why workers must show examination to public impartiality, he concluded methods on how to make antiseptic and to reappear the hidden injury from dead bodies and bones. At that time, the book had given methods to distinguish pretending suicide.
In one of Song Ci's accounts, the case of a person murdered with a sickle was solved by an investigator who instructed everyone to bring his sickle to one location. Flies, attracted by the smell of blood gathered on a single sickle. In light of this, the murderer confessed. For example, the book described how to distinguish between a drowning and strangulation, along with other evidence from examining corpses on determining if a death was caused by murder, suicide or an accident. Methods from around the world involved saliva and examination of the mouth and tongue to determine innocence or guilt, as a precursor to the Polygraph test. In ancient India, some suspects were made to spit it back out. In ancient China, those accused of a crime would have rice powder placed in their mouths. In ancient middle-eastern cultures, the accused were made to lick hot metal rods briefly, it is thought that these tests had some validity since a guilty person would produce less saliva and thus have a drier mouth.
In 16th-century Europe, medical practitioners in army and university settings began to gather information on the cause and manner of death. Ambroise Paré, a French army surgeon, systematically studied the effects of violent death on internal organs. Two Italian surgeons, Fortunato Fidelis and Paolo Zacchia, laid the foundation of modern pathology by studying changes that occurred in the structure of the body as the result of disease. In the late 18th century, writings on these topics began to appear; these included A Treatise on Forensic Medicine and Public Health by the French physician Francois Immanuele Fodéré and The Complete System of Police Medicine by the German medical expert Johann Peter Frank. As the rational values of the Enlightenment era increasingly
Paula Maxine Patton is an American actress. Patton made her feature film debut in the 2005 comedy Hitch, she had starring roles in the films Déjà Vu, Mission: Impossible – Ghost Protocol, 2 Guns, Warcraft. Patton was born in Los Angeles, California, to Joyce, a school teacher, Charles Patton, a lawyer, her mother is white and her father is African-American. She graduated from Alexander Hamilton High School, started college at University of California, transferring to University of Southern California's Film School after her first year. Shortly after completing her studies, she won a three-month assignment making documentaries for PBS. Patton provided additional vocals for Usher on his 2004 album Confessions, she provided the female vocal counterpart on the song "Can U Handle It?", co-written by Robin Thicke, whom she would marry. Patton has song-writing credits on multiple Robin Thicke albums under the name "Max", derived from her middle name. Patton made her film debut with a small part in the 2005 romantic comedy film Hitch, which starred Will Smith and Eva Mendes.
In the same year, she followed that with a small part in the drama film London. In 2006, she appeared alongside OutKast members Andre Benjamin and Big Boi in the musical film Idlewild written and directed by Bryan Barber. Patton's big break came in 2006 when she landed the pivotal female lead role of Claire Kuchever in the science fiction thriller Déjà Vu opposite Denzel Washington; the film received mixed reviews from critics, but was a box office hit, grossing over US$180 million worldwide. She appeared in her then-husband Robin Thicke's "Lost Without You" video in 2006. In 2008, Patton played television reporter Kate Madison in the comedy-drama Swing Vote with Kevin Costner and Amy Carson, the wife of Ben in the supernatural horror film Mirrors. In Lee Daniels' critically acclaimed drama film Precious, she played Ms. Blu Rain, a teacher at the alternative high school in Harlem, New York, who teaches and mentors disadvantaged students, including the titular character, Claireece Precious Jones.
She co-starred as Queen Latifah's character's godsister in the romantic comedy Just Wright. In late 2010, it was announced that Patton would succeed Sharon Stone as the new full-time assistant district attorney on the NBC legal drama series, Law & Order: Special Victims Unit. However, Patton landed the lead female role in action film Mission: Impossible – Ghost Protocol and her role on Law & Order: Special Victims Unit was reduced to one episode, she was replaced by Melissa Sagemiller. Mission: Impossible was released on December 16, 2011 and was a critical and commercial success, grossing $700 million worldwide. In 2011, Patton played the leading role in the comedy film Jumping the Broom. In 2013, Patton co-starred with Denzel Washington and Mark Wahlberg in the action comedy film 2 Guns, starred in the leading role in the romantic comedy film Baggage Claim; the film received negative reviews from critics. On February 24, 2015, it was announced that Patton was cast as lead character in the ABC crime drama pilot Runner.
It was not picked up to series. In 2016, Patton starred in the romantic comedy The Perfect Match, alongside Terrence Jenkins, appeared opposite Adam Sandler in direct-to-Netflix comedy film The Do-Over, starred as Garona Halforcen in the Warcraft film adaptation, released in June. In January 2017, Patton was cast in the lead role of the ABC drama series Somewhere Between, which premiered on July 24, she plays a mother who travels back in time to prevent her daughter's death. In 1991, at the age of 16, Patton met recording artist Robin Thicke, 14, at an under-21 hip-hop club called Balistyx on the Sunset Strip in Los Angeles, when Thicke asked her to dance. According to Thicke, he sang Stevie Wonder's "Jungle Fever" to her; the couple began dating in 1993 and married on June 11, 2005. Patton gave birth to their son, Julian Fuego, on April 7, 2010, they announced their separation on February 24, 2014 after 21 years together and nine years of marriage. On October 8, 2014, Patton filed for divorce and joint custody of their son.
The divorce was finalized on March 20, 2015. In January 2017, a judge denied Patton's request to limit Thicke's custody after she accused him of child abuse; that month, Patton was granted sole custody and a restraining order that included their son Julian and her mother Joyce Patton against Thicke after she accused him of domestic violence and drug and alcohol addiction. In court documents Patton detailed numerous abusive incidents and stated, "Given Robin's history of hitting me with a closed fist, pushing me onto the ground and kicking me, I had no doubt he was capable of hitting Julian after having used cocaine, alcohol or whatever other substances with which he is presently involved." Patton and Thicke reached a custody agreement in August 2017. Paula Patton on IMDb Paula Patton on Facebook Paula Patton on Twitter
Smallville is an American television series developed by writer-producers Alfred Gough and Miles Millar, based on the DC Comics character Superman created by Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster. The series broadcast by The WB, premiered on October 16, 2001. After Smallville's fifth season, The WB and UPN merged to form The CW, the series' United States broadcaster. Smallville, which ended its tenth and final season on May 13, 2011, follows Clark Kent in the fictional town of Smallville, before he becomes known as Superman; the first four seasons focus on his friends in high school. After season five Smallville ventures into adult settings focusing on his career at the Daily Planet and introducing other DC comic-book superheroes and villains. Before the series' production, Bruce Wayne, chronicling the young protagonist's journey toward Batman, was proposed first. Although that series failed to generate interest, it inspired Smallville. Series developers Gough and Millar pitched their "no tights, no flights" rule to the president of Warner Bros.
Television, reducing Superman to the bare essentials and examining what led Clark Kent to become the Man of Steel. After seven seasons with the show and Millar departed with little explanation. Smallville was filmed in and around Vancouver, British Columbia, with local businesses and buildings substituting for Smallville locations. Most of the music for the first six seasons was composed by Mark Snow, who incorporated elements of John Williams' musical score from the Superman film series. In season seven, Louis Febre became the series' primary composer. Smallville was positively received when it began. Former Superman star Christopher Reeve expressed approval for the series, making two guest appearances before his death; the pilot episode set a ratings record with 8.4 million viewers. Over ten seasons the series averaged about 4.34 million viewers per episode, with season two the highest-rated at 6.3 million. By the end of its run, Smallville passed Stargate SG-1 as the longest-running North American science-fiction series by episode count.
Since its first season, the series received accolades ranging from Emmys to Teen Choice Awards. Smallville spawned a series of young-adult novels, a DC Comics bimonthly comic book, soundtrack recordings and series-related merchandise. All ten seasons are available on DVD in regions 1, 2 and 4. In April 2012, it continued in comic-book form with a storyline resuming shortly after the series finale, which ended in 2015; the regular cast is introduced in season one, with storylines involving a villain deriving power from kryptonite exposure. The one-episode villains were a plot device developed by Millar. Smallville's first season dealt with Clark Kent's coming to terms with his alien origin and the revelation that his arrival on Earth was connected to the death of Lana Lang's parents. After the first season the series had fewer villain-of-the-week episodes, focusing instead on individual-character story arcs and exploring Clark's origins. Major storylines include Clark's discovery of his Kryptonian heritage and Lex Luthor's escalating conflict with his father, Lionel.
The disembodied voice of Clark's biological father, Jor-El, is introduced. In a fourth-season arc Clark, instructed by Jor-El, searches for three Kryptonian stones which contain the knowledge of the universe and form his Fortress of Solitude. Clark battles Brainiac in his attempts to release the Kryptonian criminal General Zod, must capture other escaped Phantom Zone criminals, his cousin Kara arrives, Lex Luthor discovers Clark's secret. The eighth season introduces Davis Bloome, Tess Mercer replaces the departing Lex Luthor. Justin Hartley becomes a series regular as Oliver Queen after being a recurring guest in season six. In the ninth season Major Zod and other members of Zod's military group are revived by Tess Mercer, their efforts to regain their powers are the season's central conflict; the final season revolves around Clark's attempts to lose his doubts and fears and become the hero he is meant to be, while confronting his biggest challenges: the coming of Darkseid and the return of Lex Luthor.
Tom Welling as Clark Kent, a young man with superhuman abilities who tries to find his place in life after discovering that he is an alien and uses his powers to help those in danger. Clark's season-one problems include his inability to share his secret and his desire for a normal life. After months of scouting, Welling was cast as Clark. David Nutter had to convince Welling's manager that the role would not hurt the actor's film career in order to get Welling to read the pilot script. After reading the script, Welling agreed to audition for the role of Clark Kent. Kristin Kreuk as Lana Lang, the girl next door. Grieving the loss of her parents, she feels connected to Clark. Kreuk was the first to be cast. Although she left the series after the seventh season, she returned for five episodes in season eight as a guest star. Michael Rosenbaum as Lex Luthor, a billionaire's son sent to Smallville to run the local fertilizer plant. After Clark saves his life, they become fast friends; as the series progresses, Lex's friendship with Clark crumbles until they consider themselves enemies.
The role was difficult to cast.
Clark Kent (Smallville)
Clark Kent is a fictional character on the television series Smallville. The character of Clark Kent, first created for comic books by Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster in 1938 as the alternate identity of Superman, was adapted to television in 2001 by Alfred Gough and Miles Millar; this is the fourth time. Clark Kent has been played continually by Tom Welling, with various other actors portraying Clark as a child; the character has appeared in various literature based on the Smallville series, all of which are independent of the television episodes. As of 2011, Smallville's Clark Kent has appeared in eighteen young adult novels. In the series, Clark Kent attempts to live the life of a normal human being, struggles with keeping the secret of his alien heritage from his friends, he has an on-again, off-again relationship with Lana Lang through the first seven seasons, the trials of which are based on his lack of honesty about his secret. In contrast to previous incarnations of the character, this Clark Kent starts out best friends with Lex Luthor, whom he meets after saving the latter's life.
The pair's friendship deteriorates into hatred for one another. In Smallville, Clark's powers appear over time, as he is not aware of all of them at the start of the show; when developing Smallville's version of Clark Kent, the producers decided to strip him down to the "bare essence" of Superman. In the series, he has been seen by critics, intentionally portrayed by the filmmakers, as a symbolic representation of Jesus Christ. Tom Welling has been nominated for multiple Teen Choice and Saturn Awards for his portrayal of Clark Kent since the show's first season. Clark Kent first appears in the pilot episode of Smallville as a teen with superhuman abilities that he uses to help others. Clark is adopted by Jonathan and Martha Kent as an infant, when he crash lands on Earth on the day of the Smallville meteor shower in 1989. Twelve years trying to find his place in life after being told he is an alien by his adoptive father, Clark saves the life of Lex Luthor, the son of billionaire Lionel Luthor, the pair become quick friends.
During season one, Clark struggles with the burden of keeping his powers a secret from those close to him. In particular, he is afraid to open up to Lana Lang for fear that she would not accept him if she learned of his supernatural abilities. In the season two episode "Rosetta", Clark learns of his Kryptonian heritage, including his native language, his birth name, his birth father's Jor-El plan for him to rule the world. Fearful that he will not be able to control his own destiny, Clark runs away to Metropolis in the season two finale, leaving behind Lana, with whom he had started to develop a romantic relationship. In the season three premiere, three months Clark is brought home by Jonathan, who has agreed to allow Jor-El to take Clark at an undetermined time in the future. In the season three finale, a girl calling herself Kara arrives at the Kent farm and claims to be from Krypton. After Kara predicts that Clark's friends are destined to leave or betray him, Clark decides to leave Smallville for good.
When Jonathan attempts to intervene, Jor-El threatens to kill him. To save his adoptive father's life, Clark agrees to go through with his decision to leave. In the season four premiere, Clark returns to Smallville, he has been "reprogrammed" by Jor-El to seek out the three stones of knowledge so he may fulfill his destiny. He meets Lois Lane, investigating the supposed death of her cousin, Clark's best friend, Chloe Sullivan. Clark, with help from his mother, regains control over his mind and consciously refuses to look for the stones. In the season four finale, a "great evil" is awakened in space after Clark defies Jor-El's instructions and fails to obtain the three stones of knowledge. With a new meteor shower hitting Smallville, Clark finds the remaining stones and is transported to the Arctic, where the three stones create the Fortress of Solitude. In the season five premiere, Clark interrupts his training to return to Smallville, but when he fails to return to the Fortress before the Sun sets, he is stripped of his powers.
In the episode "Hidden", Clark begins an honest relationship with Lana, but is killed trying to save the town from a resident who hopes to kill all of the "... meteor freaks". Jor-El resurrects Clark, but warns him that someone he loves will have to take his place. Clark worries about. In the episode "Reckoning", Lana is killed. Unwilling to accept this, Clark turns back time to save her; as a result, it is Clark's adoptive father that becomes the sacrifice when he suffers a fatal heart attack. In the season five finale, Clark battles Brainiac, a Kryptonian artificial intelligence in the form of a man. Clark fights to stop Brainiac from releasing the Kryptonian criminal Zod from the Phantom Zone. Clark fails, becomes himself imprisoned in the Phantom Zone, while Zod escapes and sets out to conquer Earth. In the season six premiere, Clark escapes the Phantom Zone — inadvertently releasing several of the prisoners in the process — and returns to Smallville, where he fights and defeats Zod; the other Phantom Zone escapees become Clark's primary focus in season six.
He must deal with Lana's romantic relationship with Lex, which culminates in their engagement in the season six episode "Promise". T
Overseas Chinese are people of ethnic Chinese birth or descent who reside outside the territories of Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Although a vast majority are Han Chinese, the group represents all ethnic groups in China. Huáqiáo or Hoan-kheh in Hokkien, refers to people of Chinese origin residing outside of China. At the end of the 19th century, the Chinese government realized that the overseas Chinese could be an asset, a source of foreign investment, a bridge to overseas knowledge; the modern term haigui refers to returned overseas Chinese and guīqiáo qiáojuàn to their returning relatives. Huáyì refers to people of Chinese descent residing outside of China, regardless of citizenship. Another often-used term is 海外華人, it is used by the PRC government to refer to people of Chinese ethnicities who live outside the PRC, regardless of citizenship. Overseas Chinese who are ethnically Han Chinese, such as Cantonese, Hokkien, Hakka, or Teochew refer to themselves as 唐人, pronounced tòhng yàn in Cantonese, toung ning in Hoochew, Tn̂g-lâng in Hokkien, tong nyin in Hakka.
It means Tang people, a reference to Tang dynasty China when it was ruling China proper. This term is used by the Cantonese, Hoochew and Hokkien as a colloquial reference to the Chinese people, has little relevance to the ancient dynasty; the term shǎoshù mínzú is added to the various terms for the overseas Chinese to indicate those who would be considered ethnic minorities in China. The terms shǎoshù shǎoshù mínzú hǎiwài qiáobāo are all in usage; the Overseas Chinese Affairs Office of the PRC does not distinguish between Han and ethnic minority populations for official policy purposes. For example, members of the Tibetan people may travel to China on passes granted to certain people of Chinese descent. Various estimates of the Chinese emigrant minority population include 3.1 million, 3.4 million, 5.7 million, or one tenth of all Chinese emigrants. Cross-border ethnic groups are not considered Chinese emigrant minorities unless they left China after the establishment of an independent state on China's border.
Some ethnic groups who have historic connections with China, like the Hmong may not associate themselves as part of the Chinese diaspora. The Chinese people have a long history of migrating overseas. One of the migrations dates back to the Ming dynasty, he sent people – many of them Cantonese and Hokkien – to explore and trade in the South China Sea and in the Indian Ocean. When China was under the imperial rule of the Qing Dynasty, subjects who left the Qing Empire without the Administrator's consent were considered to be traitors and were executed, their family members faced consequences as well. However, the establishment of the Lanfang Republic in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, as a tributary state of Qing China, attests that it was possible to attain permission; the republic lasted until 1884. Under the administration of the Republic of China from 1911 to 1949, these rules were abolished and many migrated outside the Republic of China through the coastal regions via the ports of Fujian, Guangdong and Shanghai.
These migrations are considered to be among the largest in China's history. Many nationals of the Republic of China fled and settled down in South East Asia between the years 1911–1949, after the Nationalist government led by Kuomintang lost to the Communist Party of China in the Chinese Civil War in 1949. Most of the nationalist and neutral refugees fled Mainland China to Southeast Asia as well as Taiwan. Many nationalists who stayed behind were persecuted or executed. Most of the Chinese who fled during 1911–1949 under the Republic of China settled down in Singapore and Malaysia and automatically gained citizenship in 1957 and 1963 as these countries gained independence. Kuomintang members who settled in Malaysia and Singapore played a major role in the establishment of the Malaysian Chinese Association and their meeting hall at Sun Yat Sen Villa. There is some evidence that they intend to reclaim mainland China from the Communists by funding the Kuomintang in China. During the 1950s and 1960s, the ROC tended to seek the support of overseas Chinese communities through branches of the Kuomintang based on Sun Yat-sen's use of expatriate Chinese communities to raise money for his revolution.
During this period, the People's Republic of China tended to view overseas Chinese with suspicion as possible capitalist infiltrators and tended to value relationships with Southeast Asian nations as more important than gaining support of overseas Chinese, in the Bandung declaration explicitly stated that overseas Chinese owed primary loyalty to their home nation. Different waves of immigration led to subgroups among overseas Chinese such as the new and old immigrants in Southeast Asia, North America, the Caribbean, South America, South Africa, Europe. In the 19th century, the age of colonialism was at its height and the great Chinese dia
British Indian Army
The Indian Army known since 1947 as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947. It was responsible for the defence of both the British Indian Empire and the princely states, which could have their own armies; the Indian Army was an important part of the British Empire's forces, both in India and abroad during the First World War and the Second World War. The term "Indian Army" appears to have been first used informally, as a collective description of the Presidency armies of the Presidencies of British India after the Indian Rebellion; the first army called the "Indian Army" was raised by the government of India in 1895, existing alongside the three long-established presidency armies. However, in 1903 the Indian Army absorbed these three armies; the Indian Army should not be confused with the "Army of India", the Indian Army itself plus the "British Army in India". The Indian Army has its origins in the years after the Indian Rebellion of 1857 called the Indian Mutiny in British histories, when in 1858 the Crown took over direct rule of British India from the East India Company.
Before 1858, the precursor units of the Indian Army were units controlled by the Company and were paid for by their profits. These operated alongside units of the British Army, funded by the British government in London; the armies of the East India Company were recruited from Muslims in the Bengal Presidency, which consisted of Bengal and Uttar Pradesh, high caste Hindus recruited from the rural plains of Oudh. Many of these troops took part in the Indian Mutiny, with the aim of reinstating the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II at Delhi as a result of insensitive treatment by their British officers; the meaning of the term "Indian Army" has changed over time: The officer commanding the Army of India was the Commander-in-Chief, India who reported to the civilian Governor-General of India. The title was used before the creation of a unified British Indian Army. By the early 1900s the Commander-in-Chief and his staff were based at GHQ India. Indian Army postings were less prestigious than British Army positions, but the pay was greater so that officers could live on their salaries instead of having to have a private income.
Accordingly, vacancies in the Indian Army were much sought after and reserved for the higher placed officer-cadets graduating from the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. British officers in the Indian Army were expected to learn to speak the Indian languages of their men, who tended to be recruited from Hindi speaking areas. Prominent British Indian Army officers included Lord Roberts, Sir William Birdwood, Sir Claude Auchinleck and Sir William Slim. Commissioned officers and Indian, held identical ranks to commissioned officers of the British Army. King's Commissioned Indian Officers, created from the 1920s, held equal powers to British officers. Viceroy's Commissioned Officers were Indians holding officer ranks, they were treated in all respects as commissioned officers, but had authority over Indian troops only, were subordinate to all British King's Commissioned Officers and KCIOs. They included Subedar Major or Risaldar-Major, equivalents to a British Major. Recruitment was voluntary. Non-Commissioned Officers included Company Havildar Majors equivalents to a Company Sergeant Major.
Soldier ranks included Sowars, equivalent to a British private. British Army ranks such as gunner and sapper were used by other corps. In the aftermath of the Indian Mutiny of 1857 called the Sepoy Mutiny by the British, the three armies of the former Presidencies of the East India Company passed to the British Crown. After'the Mutiny', recruitment switched to what the British called the "martial races," Sikhs, Awans and other Punjabi Musulmans, Pashtuns, Bunts, Rajputs, Kumaonis, Garhwalis, Dogras, Gurjar and Sainis; the three Presidency armies remained separate forces, each with its own Commander-in-Chief. Overall operational control was exercised by the Commander-in-Chief of the Bengal Army, formally the Commander-in-Chief of the East Indies. From 1861, most of the officer manpower was pooled in the three Presidential Staff Corps. After the Second Afghan War a Commission of Enquiry recommended the abolition of the presidency armies; the Ordnance and Transport, Pay branches were by unified. The Punjab Frontier Force was under the direct control of the Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab during peacetime until 1886, when it came under the C-in-C, India.
The Hyderabad Contingent and other local corps remained under direct governmental control. Standing higher formations – divisions and brigades – were abandoned in 1889. No divisional staffs were maintained in peacetime, troops were dispersed throughout the sub-continent, with internal security as their main function. In 1891 th