Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters and motto. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to an individual person, state, organization or corporation; the Roll of Arms is a collection of many coats of arms, since the early Modern Age centuries it has been a source of information for public showing and tracing the membership of a noble family, therefore its genealogy across time. The ancient Greek hoplites used individual insignia on their shields; the ancient Romans used similar insignia on their shields. Heraldic designs came into general use among western nobility in the 12th century. Systematic, heritable heraldry had developed by the beginning of the 13th century. Who had a right to use arms, by law or social convention, varied to some degree between countries. Early heraldic designs were personal. Arms become hereditary by the end of the 12th century, in England by King Richard I during the Third Crusade.
Burgher arms are used in Northern Italy in the second half of the 13th century, in the Holy Roman Empire by the mid 14th century. In the late medieval period, use of arms spread to the clergy, to towns as civic identifiers, to royally chartered organizations such as universities and trading companies; the arts of vexillology and heraldry are related. The term coat of arms itself in origin refers to the surcoat with heraldic designs worn by combattants in the knightly tournament, in Old French cote a armer; the sense is transferred to the heraldic design itself in the mid-14th century. Despite no widespread regulation, heraldry has remained consistent across Europe, where tradition alone has governed the design and use of arms; some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain the same heraldic authorities which have traditionally granted and regulated arms for centuries and continue to do so in the present day. In England, for example, the granting of arms has been controlled by the College of Arms.
Unlike seals and other general emblems, heraldic "achievements" have a formal description called a blazon, which uses vocabulary that allows for consistency in heraldic depictions. In the present day, coats of arms are still in use by a variety of institutions and individuals: for example, many European cities and universities have guidelines on how their coats of arms may be used, protect their use as trademarks. Many societies exist that aid in the design and registration of personal arms. Heraldry has been compared to modern corporate logos; the French system of heraldry influenced the British and Western European systems. Much of the terminology and classifications are taken from it. However, with the fall of the French monarchy there is not a Fons Honorum to enforce heraldic law; the French Republics that followed have either affirmed pre-existing titles and honors or vigorously opposed noble privilege. Coats of arms are considered an intellectual property of municipal body. Assumed arms are considered valid unless they can be proved in court to copy that of an earlier holder.
In the heraldic traditions of England and Scotland, an individual, rather than a family, had a coat of arms. In those traditions coats of arms are legal property transmitted from father to son. Undifferenced arms are used only by one person at any given time. Other descendants of the original bearer could bear the ancestral arms only with some difference: a colour change or the addition of a distinguishing charge. One such charge is the label, which in British usage is now always the mark of an heir apparent or an heir presumptive; because of their importance in identification in seals on legal documents, the use of arms was regulated. This has been carried out by heralds and the study of coats of arms is therefore called "heraldry". In time, the use of arms spread from military entities to educational institutes, other establishments. In Scotland, the Lord Lyon King of Arms has criminal jurisdiction to control the use of arms. In England, Northern Ireland and Wales the use of arms is a matter of civil law and regulated by the College of Arms and the High Court of Chivalry.
In reference to a dispute over the exercise of authority over the Officers of Arms in England, Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, Lord Privy Seal, declared on 16 June 1673 that the powers of the Earl Marshal were "to order and determine all matters touching arms, ensigns of nobility and chivalry. It was further declared that no patents of arms or any ensigns of nobility should be granted and no augmentation, alteration, or addition should be made to arms without the consent of the Earl Marshal. In Ireland the usage and granting of coats of arms was regulated by the Ulster King of Arms from the office's creation in 1552. After Irish independence in 1922 the office was still working out of Dublin Castle; the last Ulster King of Arm
Ljungby Municipality is a municipality in Kronoberg County, southern Sweden, where the town Ljungby is seat. In 1971 the City of Ljungby was amalgamated with the rural municipalities surrounding it, thus creating the present municipality. In 1974 a minor adjustment of the boundaries took place. There are 19 original entities within the area. Ljungby Municipality contains a little more plains than average in Småland. Lakes and plains are never far away; the tenth largest lake in Sweden, Bolmen, is located in the north-western part of the municipality. The town Ljungby is visited by thousands of tourists from Germany, every summer. Ljungby Municipality traces its history back to the Viking Age. Vikings followed the river Lagan and lived in its vicinity, one of the locations were in what is now Ljungby Municipality. In the 14th century several important medieval roads went through the municipality. In that century, an inn was established, this was to form the center of Ljungby town. During the 19th century the area closest to Ljungby itself consisted of sand without any vegetation, the government released funds to plant trees which would tie together the sand and make it suitable for plants.
There are 8 urban areas in Ljungby Municipality. In the table the localities are listed according to the size of the population as of 31 December 2005; the municipal seat is in bold characters. The small village of Bohok is located within Ljungby Municipality; the following cities are twinned with Ljungby: Ås, Akershus fylke, Norway Paimio, Southwest Finland, Finland Šilutė, Klaipėda County, Lithuania The opera singer Christina Nilsson was discovered while performing at the Ljungby market in 1857. Metallica bassist Cliff Burton died on a highway within the municipality when the band's tour bus overturned on 27 September 1986. Eskil Erlandsson born in Torpa 1957. Former chairman of the Swedish Defence Committee and current Agriculture ministry. John Lind, Governor of Minnesota, born in Kånna parish. Olof Johansson, former president of the Swedish Centre Party. Peter Westerstrøm, mass murderer executed in Norway in 1809. Statistics Sweden Ljungby Municipality - Official site
Ljungby is the central locality of Ljungby Municipality, Kronoberg County, with 15,785 inhabitants in 2015. Ljungby was in 1829 instituted as a köping, or market town, did not become a municipality of its own when the first local government acts took effect in 1863, but retained part of the surrounding rural municipality of the same name. In 1936 Ljungby got the title stad, Swedish for Town or City. Ljungby is since 1971 the seat of Ljungby Municipality. Much of the town centre was destroyed in the 1953 city fire; the at the time modern style of the rebuilding, characterized by among other Hotel Terazza, still remains controversial locally. The first known inhabitant of the area, today's Ljungby was Astrad, as can be read on the runestone Replösastenen from the 11th century located a couple of kilometers from the city centre; the runestone says: "Götrad made this stone after Astrad, the foremost of kinsmen and yeomen who in Finnveden lived". In 1952 a statue by John Lundqvist was erected near the main plaza depicting Götrad.
But there were other people living around Ljungby long before Astrad and Götrad as evident by the numerous burial mounds in the area. One of the largest burial mounds is named Kungshögen; the largest burial is however Höga rör that lies some kilometers south of Ljungby on the slope of the Lagan river valley. In the 12th century the first stone church was built with the formation of the parish Ljungby socken. Ljungby had for a long time been the crossroad where the two important north-south and east-west trade routes met; because of this a hostelry was built adjacent to the Laganstigen in the 14th century by royal decree. In 1828 Ljungby only consisted by five farms, it was in the beginning of the 19th century. Ljungby competed with the village Berga, where bishop Henrik had obtained permission to found a city; as Ljungby was considered to be located more central in the hundred and had better road connections, the choice fell on the latter option. According to a royal letter from October 15, 1828 Ljungby was made a friköping with regulations on March 28, 1829 according to three sources, on January 1, 1830 according to another.
Ljungby was founded on property, donated by Märta Ljungberg, operator of Ljungby's hostelry. A town plan with perpendicular roads was used as base; the city plan would be split with the arrival of the railroad. In 1878 the railroad between Vislanda and Bolmen, via Ljungby, was opened; the railroad would be linked with Karlshamn–Vislanda–Bolmens railroad and Halmstad–Bolmen Railroad. In 1899 the north-south stretch Skåne–Smålands Railroad was opened. During the 20th century the town expanded with the help of the wood industry; the first population boom culminated in the 1960s. Luckily this coincided with the increased need of work by the growing industry in the urban area with the need of work decreasing in the rural areas; the growth was supported by the labor immigration that began in the post-war period. During the night between 4 and 5 July, 1953 a fire started at Gustaf Svenssons Bilverkstad by the street Eskilsgatan at block Stjärnan; the garage was a wooden building with cans of oil on the floor.
First on site was Ljungby fire department, no more than five minutes after the alarm, could confirm that the fire had started at the garage. Once the fire had taken hold it continued to spread eastward towards the other wooden buildings in block Stjärnan; the fire department had hoped that the street Föreningsgatan would work as a fire road, but the wind brought with it sparks and flames, soon stood parts of block Kometen ablaze. Next to block Kometen, by the street Kungsgatan, lied Ljungby's Telegraph and Telephone Station, who tried to protect themself behind suspended soaked cloths; the nightstaff could not handle the increased traffic pressure the fire had brought with it and had to call in additional staff, who had to evacuate archives and machines from the building. The Telegraph and Telephone Station survived the fire after the firefighters managed to extinguished it with foam. In an attempt to gain control over the fire Ljungby called on reinforcement from Hamneda, Ryssby, Växjö, Älmhult, Strömsnäsbruk.
Police from Växjö were called in to support Ljungby's police force with directing traffic and to prevent people from entering the scene of fire. Due to an error the fire department from Lagan were not summoned; the fire departments' efforts were weakened as only one of the pumps at Ljungby water plant was in operation. The activation of the second pump was delayed as the regular mechanic was on vacation and the subsitiunual mechanic had troubles getting the machinery started. Despite the activation of both pumps at the water plant there were still not enough water to put out the fires; the fire departments had to activate the river pump by Lagan River and pump in untreated raw water into Ljungby's water supply. A wagon with water pipes from the civil defence were requisitioned; the pipes gave water to five fire hoses. It is said that the pipe ended at the square basin by the statue of Götrad. At most. During the days after the fire it was concluded that 7,200 square metres floor space had been destroyed and that twenty buildings had been affected by the fire.
Markaryd is a locality and the seat of Markaryd Municipality, Kronoberg County, Sweden with 3,966 inhabitants in 2010. Markaryd is twinned with: Bytów, Poland
Växjö is a city and the seat of Växjö Municipality, Kronoberg County, Sweden. It had 66,275 inhabitants out of a municipal population of 90,721, it is the administrative and industrial centre of Kronoberg County and the episcopal see of the Diocese of Växjö. The town is home to Linnaeus University; the city's name is believed to be constructed from the words "väg" and "sjö", meaning the road over the frozen Växjö Lake that farmers used in the winter to get to the marketplace which became the city. In contrast to what was believed a century ago, there is no evidence of a special pre-Christian significance of the site; the pagan cultic center of Värend may have been located at a nearby village. An episcopal see since the 12th century, the city did not get its city charter until 1342, when it was issued by Magnus Eriksson; the cathedral of St Sigfrid dates from about 1300, has been subsequently restored. Otherwise, during the Middle Ages, Växjö did not have many pious institutions. A Franciscan monastery was established in 1485.
A hospital of the Holy Ghost was first mentioned in 1318. In the 14th century Växjö got its first school. In 1643 it received gymnasium status. At the beginning of Gustav Eriksson's war of liberation, the peasantry joined forces, under the guidance of the union-hostile bishop Ingemar Pedersson, with the mountain men and peasantry of Dalarna, Hälsingland, Gästrikland, who urged fidelity to their leader Gustav Eriksson. During the Dacke War, a peasant uprising, the city was under the authority of Nils Dacke and his supporters from the summer of 1542 until after New Year 1543. Several times during the Northern Wars and the Scanian Wars, thereafter, the city was affected by fire. After the last fire in 1843, when 1,140 citizens were rendered homeless, Växjö received its current street plan; the Barbarella nightclub was prominent in southeastern Sweden in the 1970s, attracting several major international bands. Växjö is the city in which the "Kvinnan med handväskan" photograph was taken in 1985 by Hans Runesson.
In its December 2015 report, Police in Sweden placed the Växjö district Araby in the most severe category of urban areas with high crime rates. In 2015, there were a series of three arson incidents tied together via the location in which they occurred. On February 24, 2015, a fire broke out in a barber shop at Dalbo, Växjö. A 17-year-old girl was apprehended. On June 18, 2015, the suspect was sentenced to institutional juvenile detention brought upon by charges of first-degree arson; the motive of the crime is thought to be revenge. The target features an 11-time attempted attack on an ice cream van located near Kampa Pelare, Växjö; the van's interior was left burned out while its exteriors remained intact. No suspects have been identified. In May 2015, two boys were found guilty of second-degree arson. One of the boys was given an institutional juvenile detention while the other one's whereabouts remains unknown. Teleborg: 12,834 Hovshaga: 9,541 Hov: 8,020 Araby: 6,520 Norr: 4,518 Väster: 4,829 Öster: 4,489 Söder: 3,694 Sandsbro: 3,090 Högstorp: 2,710 Öjaby: 2,213 Centrum: 2,086 Räppe: 1,260 Kronoberg/Evedal: 279 Regementstaden: 88 Västra mark: 69 Norremark: 29 The Coast to Coast track cuts through the municipality from north-west to south-east.
SJ´s long-distance trains travel between Gothenburg and Kalmar, with stop in Växjö. Öresundståg´s long-distance trains travel the Kalmar – Alvesta – Malmö route. Regional trains Krösatågen travel the Växjö – Jönköping route. Trunk roads 23, 25, 27, 29, 30 and 37 meet in the municipality. In 1996 the city adopted a policy for the elimination of the use of fossil fuels by 2030; this decision was taken in reaction to pollution and eutrophication in the lakes that surround the town. Greenhouse gas emissions were cut by 41% from 1993 to 2011, were reduced by 55% by 2015; the city's economy has grown during this time. By 2014, Växjö's CO2 emissions had dropped to 2.4 tonnes per capita, well below the EU average of 7.3 tonnes. Växjö has called itself "The Greenest City in Europe" since 2007, it has its foundation in a long history of commitment to environmental issues, ambitious goals for a green future. It is a vision shared with the local companies. In 2017 Växjö was awarded the European Green Leaf Award 2018 by the European Commission.
The prize is awarded to cities with less than 100 000 inhabitants that show good results and ambitions in terms of environment and committed to generate green growth. The city has three municipality-run secondary schools: Teknikum, Katedralskolan, Växjö, Kungsmadskolan. Linnaeus University had a student body of 42,000 students as of 2012. Industries include GE Power and Aerotech Telub, as well as Volvo Articulated Haulers, located in Braås 29 kilometres, north of Växjö. One of the best-known service providers is Visma. Växjö houses Sweden's National Glass Museum and claims to be the capital of the "Kingdom of Crystal" as well as of the "Kingdom of Furniture"; the Swedish Emigrant Institute was established in 1965 and is housed in the House of Emigrants near Växjö Lake in the heart of the city. It contains archives, a library, a museum, a research center relating to the emigration period between 1846 and 1930, when 1.3 million of the Swedish population emigrated to the United States. Archives dating to the 17th century contain birth and death records, as well as household records, that are available on microfiche.
North of Växjö is Kronoberg Castle, a ruined fortress constructed in the 15th cen
Småland is a historical province in southern Sweden. Småland borders Blekinge, Halland, Västergötland, Östergötland and the island Öland in the Baltic Sea; the name Småland means Small Lands. The Latinized form Smolandia has been used in other languages; the highest point in Småland is at 377 metres. The traditional provinces of Sweden no longer serve any governmental purpose, but they do remain important and culturally; the province of Småland today is divided entirely into the three administrative counties of Jönköping and Kronoberg. Some few small portions of historic Småland are situated in Östergötland Counties; the current coat of arms, granted in 1569, displays a rampant red lion carrying a crossbow, all on a golden background. The arms may be surmounted by a ducal coronet; the blazon in English would be, "Or, a lion rampant gules and armed azure, holding in its front paws a crossbow of the second and stringed Sable with a bolt argent." The population of Småland was 754,535 as of 31 December 2016, distributed over five counties as follows: The land is dominated by a forested high plain in which the soil is mixed with sand and small boulders, making it barren in all but the coastal areas and unsuited for agriculture except in certain locations, most notably the Kalmar plains.
The province is rich in bogs. The coast is marked by cultivated flatlands in the south. In total, cultivated land covers 14%, meadows cover 7%, forests cover 50% of the surface of the province. Other than lacking deep valleys, the landscape is similar to the Norrland terrain found further north in Sweden; the largest towns are Jönköping in the north-west, Växjö in the south, Kalmar on the east coast near Öland Island. Småland comprises the central and southern parts of the South Swedish highlands. In detail, the topography of Småland is a series of flat surfaces built upon or deformed by a geological dome; the elevated terrain thought to be a buckle formed as result of far-away forces transmitted to Sweden. The main surfaces are the Sub-Cambrian peneplain, the South Småland peneplain and the "200 m peneplain"; these surfaces and others are arranged in a stepped sequence called a piedmonttreppen. In eastern Småland, the Sub-Cambrian peneplain dips to the sea. To the West, this part of the Sub-Cambrian peneplain terminates along a North-South escarpment that separates it from other flat surfaces.
Central and northwestern Småland contains strings of isolated hills. The lakes and rivers of Småland are associated to zones of weak rock, either fractured, weathered, or both; the many lakes in Småland owe their existence to the creation of basins through the stripping of an irregular mantle of weathered rock by glacial erosion. The Lagan and the Nissan drain western Småland, following for most of their courses zones of weak rock associated with the Protogine Zone. Rusken, Möckeln lakes are aligned with a more eastern branch of the Protogine Zone. Canyons cut into the bedrock are common in central and northern Småland, with the area near Mörlunda containing various narrow canyons; the climate of Småland is divided between the oceanic climate of coastal areas such as Kalmar and the humid continental climate of the interior higher areas such as Jönköping. Southern interior areas such as Växjö have similar oceanic climates such as the coastline. However, temperature average differences between areas are small, since Småland lies in the continental/oceanic transition zone.
Summer daytime averages are similar throughout the province, since according to Weatherbase all three major urban areas are on average around 21 °C with daytime winter temperatures hovering around the freezing point. The colder nights averaging −5 °C in Jönköping are rendering its continental classification; the locality of Målilla has the Swedish and Scandinavian all-time highest-measured temperature with 38 °C on June 1, 1947. The area was populated in the Stone Age from the south, by people moving along the coast up to Kalmar. Småland was populated by Stone Age peoples by at least 6000 BC, since the Alby People are known to have crossed the ice bridge across the Kalmar Strait at that time, it is named Småland because it was an aggrupation of a dozen little territories: Kinda, Vista, Tjust, Aspeland, Handbörd, Möre, Värend and Njudung. Each "small land" had its own law in the Viking age and early Middle Ages and could declare itself neutral in wars that Sweden was involved in -- at least if the King had no army present at the parliamentary debate.
Around 1350, during the reign of Magnus Eriksson, the first national law code was introduced in Sweden and the historic provinces lost much of their old autonomy. The city of Kalmar is one of the oldest cities of Sweden. In the medieval period it was the southernmost and the third largest city in Sweden, when it was a center for export of iron, which, in many cases, was handled by German merchants. At that time and Blekinge were not part of Sweden. Småland was the center of several peasant rebellions; the most nearly successful was the Dackefejden led by Nils Dacke in 1542 and 1543. When officials of king Gustav Vasa were assaulted and murdered, the king sent small expeditions to pacify the area. Dacke was the virtual ruler of large parts of Småland during that Winter, though much troubled by a blockade of supplies, before being defeated by larger forces attacking