The Salvation Army
The Salvation Army is a Protestant Christian church and an international charitable organisation. The organisation reports a worldwide membership of over 1.7 million, consisting of soldiers and adherents collectively known as Salvationists. Its founders sought to bring salvation to the poor and hungry by meeting both their "physical and spiritual needs", it is present in 131 countries, running charity shops, operating shelters for the homeless and disaster relief and humanitarian aid to developing countries. The theology of the Salvation Army is derived from that of Methodism, although it is distinctive in institution and practice. A peculiarity of the Army is that it gives its clergy titles of military ranks, such as "lieutenant" or "major", it does not celebrate the rite of Holy Communion. However, the Army's doctrine is otherwise typical of holiness churches in the Wesleyan-Arminian tradition; the Army's purposes are "the advancement of the Christian religion... of education, the relief of poverty, other charitable objects beneficial to society or the community of mankind as a whole".
The Army was founded in 1865 in London by one-time Methodist circuit-preacher William Booth and his wife Catherine as the East London Christian Mission, can trace its origins to the Blind Beggar tavern. In 1878 Booth reorganised the mission, becoming its first General and introducing the military structure, retained as a matter of tradition, its highest priority is its Christian principles. The current international leader of The Salvation Army and chief executive officer is General Brian Peddle, elected by the High Council of The Salvation Army on 3 August 2018; the Salvation Army refers to its ministers as "officers". When acting in their official duties, they can be recognized by the colour-coded epaulettes on their white uniform dress shirts; the epaulettes has the letters. Officers ranks include lieutenant, major and the general. Promotion in rank up to the rank from lieutenant to major depends on years of service; the ordination of women is permitted in the Salvation Army. Salvation Army officers were allowed to marry only other officers.
Husbands and wives share the same rank and have the same or similar assignments. Such officer-couples are assigned together to act as co-pastors and administer corps, Adult Rehabilitation Centers and such; as of 2016 the organisation will not appoint homosexual people to posts as ministers, preferring individuals "whose values are consistent with the church's philosophy". See LGBT clergy in Christianity; the Army has churches located throughout the world. They are known as Salvation Army corps, they may be implemented as part of a larger community center. Traditionally many corps buildings are alternatively called citadels; the Salvation Army is well known for its network of thrift stores or charity shops, colloquially referred to as "the Sally Ann" in Canada and "Salvos Stores" in Australia, which raise money for its rehabilitation programs by selling donated used items such as clothing and toys. Clothing collected by Salvation Army stores that are not sold on location are sold wholesale on the global second hand clothing market.
The Salvation Army's fundraising shops in the United Kingdom participate in the UK government's Work Programme, a workfare programme where benefit claimants must work for no compensation for 20 to 40 hours per week over periods that can be as long as 6 months. When items are bought at the Salvation Army thrift stores, part of the proceeds go towards The Salvation Army's emergency reliefs efforts and programs. Items not sold are recycled and turned into other items such as carpets and rugs, instead of being thrown away in landfills; the Salvation Army helps their employees by hiring ex-felons depending on the circumstances because they believe in giving people second chances. There are many job opportunities available for them nationwide and are able to move their way up to become a manager or work in one of their corporate offices; some shops are associated with an Adult Rehabilitation Centers where men and women make a 6-month rehabilitation commitment to live and work at the ARC residence.
They are unpaid. Many ARCs are male-only; the program is to combat addiction. They work at the store or residence; this is referred to as "work therapy". They attend twelve-step programs and chapel services as a part of their rehabilitation; the Army advertises these programs on their collection trucks with the slogan "Doing the Most Good". The general design pattern is that an ARC is associated with warehouse. Donations are consolidated from other stores and donation sites and sorted and priced and distributed back out to the branch stores. Low-quality donated items are sold at the warehouse dock in a "dock sale". Farmland at Hadleigh in Essex was acquired in 1891 to provide training for men referred from Salvation Army shelters, it featured market gardens and two brickfields. It was mentioned in the Royal Commission report of 1909 appointed to consider Poor Laws. 7,000 trainees had passed through its doors by 1912 with more than 60% subsequently finding employment. It has a Twitter feed @SalArmyHFE and website.
The Salvation Army operates summer camps for children, Silvercrest Residences, adult day care centers. It has headquarter offices internationally and for each territory and division; some of the other facilities include: Homele
Atlanta is the capital of, the most populous city in, the U. S. state of Georgia. With an estimated 2017 population of 486,290, it is the 38th most-populous city in the United States; the city serves as the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5.8 million people and the ninth-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Atlanta is the seat of the most populous county in Georgia. A small portion of the city extends eastward into neighboring DeKalb County. Atlanta was founded as the terminating stop of a major state-sponsored railroad. With rapid expansion, however, it soon became the convergence point between multiple railroads, spurring its rapid growth; the city's name derives from that of the Western and Atlantic Railroad's local depot, signifying the town's growing reputation as a transportation hub. During the American Civil War, the city was entirely burned to the ground in General William T. Sherman's famous March to the Sea. However, the city rose from its ashes and became a national center of commerce and the unofficial capital of the "New South".
During the 1950s and 1960s, Atlanta became a major organizing center of the civil rights movement, with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Ralph David Abernathy, many other locals playing major roles in the movement's leadership. During the modern era, Atlanta has attained international prominence as a major air transportation hub, with Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport being the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic since 1998. Atlanta is rated as a "beta" world city that exerts a moderate impact on global commerce, research, education, media and entertainment, it ranks in the top twenty among world cities and 10th in the nation with a gross domestic product of $385 billion. Atlanta's economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors that include transportation, logistics and business services, media operations, medical services, information technology. Atlanta has topographic features that include rolling hills and dense tree coverage, earning it the nickname of "the city in a forest."
Revitalization of Atlanta's neighborhoods spurred by the 1996 Summer Olympics, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the city's demographics, politics and culture. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area. Standing Peachtree, a Creek village where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta; as part of the systematic removal of Native Americans from northern Georgia from 1802 to 1825, the Creek were forced to leave the area in 1821, white settlers arrived the following year. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western and Atlantic Railroad in order to provide a link between the port of Savannah and the Midwest; the initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed various possible locations for the terminus, the "zero milepost" was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points.
A year the area around the milepost had developed into a settlement, first known as "Terminus", as "Thrasherville" after a local merchant who built homes and a general store in the area. By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed "Marthasville" to honor the Governor's daughter. J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed Atlanta; the residents approved, the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29, 1847. By 1860, Atlanta's population had grown to 9,554. During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a hub for the distribution of military supplies. In 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia; the region surrounding Atlanta was the location of several major army battles, culminating with the Battle of Atlanta and a four-month-long siege of the city by the Union Army under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman.
On September 1, 1864, Confederate General John Bell Hood made the decision to retreat from Atlanta, he ordered the destruction of all public buildings and possible assets that could be of use to the Union Army. On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, on September 7, Sherman ordered the city's civilian population to evacuate. On November 11, 1864, Sherman prepared for the Union Army's March to the Sea by ordering the destruction of Atlanta's remaining military assets. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Atlanta was rebuilt. Due to the city's superior rail transportation network, the state capital was moved from Milledgeville to Atlanta in 1868. In the 1880 Census, Atlanta surpassed Savannah as Georgia's largest city. Beginning in the 1880s, Henry W. Grady, the editor of the Atlanta Constitution newspaper, promoted Atlanta to potential investors as a city of the "New South" that would be based upon a modern economy and less reliant on agriculture. By 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology and the Atlanta University Center had established Atlanta as a center for higher education.
In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, which attracted nearly 800,000 attendees and promoted the New South's development to the world. During the first decades of the 20th century, Atlanta experienced a period of unprecedented growth. In three decades' time, Atlanta's population tripled as the city limits expanded to include nearby streetcar suburbs; the city's skyline emerged with the construction of the
Kokomo is a city in and the county seat of Howard County, United States. Kokomo is Indiana's 13th-largest city, it is the principal city of the Kokomo, Indiana Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Howard County. Kokomo's population was 46,113 at the 2000 census, 45,468 at the 2010 census. On January 1, 2012, Kokomo annexed more than 7 square miles on the south and west sides of the city, including Alto and Indian Heights, increasing the city's population to nearly 57,000 people. Named for the Miami Ma-Ko-Ko-Mo, called "Chief Kokomo", Kokomo first benefited from the legal business associated with being the county seat. Before the Civil War, it was connected with Indianapolis and the Eastern cities by railroad, which resulted in sustained growth. Substantial growth came after the discovery of large natural gas reserves, which produced a boom in the mid-1880s. Among the businesses which the boom attracted was the fledgling automobile industry. A significant number of technical and engineering innovations were developed in Kokomo in automobile production, and, as a result, Kokomo became known as the "City of Firsts."
A substantial portion of Kokomo's employment still depends on the automobile industry. The following is a list of all the buildings in Kokomo, that are listed in the National Register of Historic Places: Elwood Haynes House Kokomo City Building Kokomo Country Club Golf Course Kokomo Courthouse Square Historic District Kokomo High School and Memorial Gymnasium Lake Erie and Western Depot Historic District Learner Building Old Silk Stocking Historic District Seiberling Mansion The settler tradition says Kokomo was named for Kokomoko or Ma-Ko-Ko-Mo, shortened to Kokomo, said to have been one of the four sons of Chief Richardville last of the chiefs of the Miami people. Folklore holds that he was 7 feet tall and falsely gives him the title of "chief." David Foster, known as the "Father of Kokomo," claimed that he named the town Kokomo after the "ornriest Indian on earth" because Kokomo was "the ornriest town on earth." Kokomo is thought to have been born in 1775 and died in 1838. The only documentary proof of his existence is a trading post record of a purchase of a barrel of flour for $12 for his "squaw."
His remains were discovered during the construction of a saw mill in 1848 and re-interred in the "north-east corner" of the Pioneer Cemetery. The tradition of the Peru Miami is that the town was named after a Thorntown Miami named Ko-kah-mah, whose name is rendered Co-come-wah in the Treaty at the Forks of the Wabash in 1834; that name was translated as "the diver". As a result of various removals, by 1840 the Miami population in Howard County was reduced to about 200; the principal settlement was the Village of Kokomo, on the south side of Wildcat Creek. Indian paths connected Kokomo with Frankfort and Thorntown and led to Peru by way of Cassville, to Meshingomesia by way of Greentown. At the time David Foster had a trading post in Howard County, near the intersection of the reservation boundary line and Wildcat pike, where he engaged in both legitimate trade and illegal sale of alcohol to the Miamis on government property. Shortly after Richardville County was organized in 1844 the commissioners appointed to establish the county seat approached Foster for a donation from his substantial holdings.
At the time of the request the only improvements in what is now Kokomo were Foster's log house and log barn and several Miami huts. The commissioners sought a donation of the more fertile lands south of Wildcat Creek, but Foster refused, donating instead 40 acres north of the creek—land, thickly forested and "swampy." The terms of the donation required that Foster build a courthouse on the land, but he was excused and Rufus L. Blowers was promised $28 to build it, he was penalized $2 for construction delays. The log courthouse was completed in 1845. In June 1855 Henry A. Brouse petitioned the board of Howard county commissioners to incorporate the town of Kokomo; the original election was not held, but another took place on October 1, 1855. After a vote of 62–3 in favor of incorporation, the board so ordered it. On March 31, 1865, an election was held for Kokomo to assume a city government; the resolution was passed, Nelson Purdum was elected the first mayor. In anticipation of business that the court would bring, Kokomo began a quick growth from the time that lots were first sold on October 18, 1844.
David Foster was granted the first license to sell merchandise in Kokomo at the December 1844 commissioners meeting. Two more merchants were licensed in March 1845. John Bohan, who would become a major shop owner, justice of the peace and investor, moved to Kokomo in December 1844, erected the first two story frame house, not only in Kokomo, but in all the county. After the enactment of the 1846 pre-emption law, settlers attempted to secure homesteads in the surrounding lands. In 1848 Stonebreaker's Mill, 10 miles west of Kokomo, began operations. By 1850 Kokomo had a newspaper, when James Beard purchased the printing equipment of the New London Pioneer and set up the Howard Tribune. By 1851 county business was so brisk that the county ordered the construction of two more court buildings, both one story brick affairs, 18 by 36 feet; the county auditor and treasurer occupied one building, the clerk and recorder occupied the other. On April 1, 1854, Kokomo's first bank, the Indian Reserve Bank, was organized
South African Republic
The South African Republic referred to as the Transvaal Republic, was an independent and internationally recognised country in Southern Africa from 1852 to 1902. The country defeated the British in what is referred to as the First Boer War and remained independent until the end of the Second Boer War on 31 May 1902, when it was forced to surrender to the British. After the war the territory of the ZAR became the Transvaal Colony; the land area, once the ZAR now comprises all or most of the provinces of Gauteng, Limpopo and North West in the northeastern portion of modern-day Republic of South Africa. Constitutionally the name of the country was the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek; the ZAR was commonly referred to as Transvaal in reference to the area over the Vaal River, including by the British and European press. The British objected to the use of the name Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek. After the end of the First Boer War, the ZAR became a British Suzerain and in the Pretoria Convention of 3 August 1881, the British insisted on the use of the name Transvaal over Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek.
This convention was renegotiated in the London Convention dated 27 February 1884, a subsequent treaty between Britain and the ZAR, Britain acquiesced and the ZAR reverted to the use of the previous name. The name of the South African Republic was of such political significance that on 1 September 1900, the British declared by special proclamation that the name of the country be changed from Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek to the Transvaal; this proclamation was issued during the British occupation of the region in the Second Boer War and while the ZAR was still nominally an independent country. On 31 May 1902, the Treaty of Vereeniging was signed with the government of the South African Republic, the Orange Free State government, the British government, ending the war, converted the ZAR into the Transvaal Colony. Following the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910, the Transvaal Colony became Transvaal Province; the name Transvaal was changed in 1994, when the South African government broke up the province into four provinces and renamed the core region to Gauteng.
In paleolithic times, between 2.2 and 3.3 million years ago, hominids lived within the geographic area of the ZAR. The earliest hominid bones, between 2.2 and 3.3 million years old, were discovered at Sterkfontein in 1994. In 1938 Paranthropus robustus bones were found at Kromdraai, during 1947 several more examples of Australopithecus africanus were uncovered in Sterkfontein; the South African Republic came into existence on 17 January 1852, when the United Kingdom signed the Sand River Convention treaty with about 40,000 Boer people, recognising their independence in the region to the north of the Vaal River. The first president of the ZAR was Marthinus Wessel Pretorius, elected in 1857, son of Boer leader Andries Pretorius, who commanded the Boers to victory at the Battle of Blood River; the capital was established at Potchefstroom and moved to Pretoria. The parliament had 24 members; the South African Republic was forcefully annexed by Britain in 1877, during the British' attempt to consolidate the states of southern Africa under British rule.
Long-standing Boer resentment turned into full-blown rebellion in the Transvaal, the First Boer War broke out in 1880. The conflict ended as soon as it began with a decisive Boer victory at Battle of Majuba Hill; the ZAR became independent on the 27 February 1884, when the London Convention was signed. The country independently entered into various agreements with other foreign countries after that date. On 3 November 1884 the country signed a Postal convention with the government of the Cape Colony and similarly with the Orange Free State. On the November 1859, the independent Republics of Lijdenburg and Utrecht merged with the ZAR. On 9 May 1887, burghers from the territories of Stellaland and Goosen were granted rights to the ZAR franchise. On 25 July 1895 the burghers that took part in the battle at Zoutpansberg, were granted citizenship of the ZAR; the constitution of the South African Republic has been referred to as interesting for its time. It contained provisions for the division between the political leadership and office bearers in government administration.
The legal system had adopted a jury system. Laws were enforced by the South African Republic Police which were divided into Mounted Police and Foot Police. On 10 April 1902, the Magistrates Court powers were extended to increase the civil ceiling amounts and to expand criminal jurisdiction to include all criminal cases not punishable by death or banishment. Established was a Municipal Government, Witwatersrand District court and the High Court of Transvaal; the State and Church were not separated in the constitution of the ZAR, citizens of the ZAR had to be members of the Dutch Reformed Church. In 1858 these clauses were altered in the constitution to allow for the Volksraad to approve other Dutch Christian churches; the Reformed Church was approved by the Volksraad in 1858, which had the effect of allowing Paul Kruger, of the to remain a citizen of the ZAR. The Bible itself was often used to interpret the intention of legal documents; the Bible was used to interpret a prisoner exchange agreement, reached in terms of the Sand River Convention, between a commando of the ZAR, led by Paul Kruger and a Commando of the Orange Free State.
President Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff had issued a death sentence over two ZAR
Economy of the Western Cape
The Western Cape province of South Africa had a total GDP for 2016 of R424.38 billion growing from R268.26bn in 2008. In 2016 the economy grew by 2.7% with an annual inflation rate of 6.3%. The province accounts for 14% of South Africa's total GDP with Cape Town accounting for 9.9% of the country's total GDP in 2016. The province accounts for 11.2% of the country's total population with 6.2 million residents. The Western Cape has a GDP per capita of R74,274 in comparison to the South African average of R55,609 per capita in 2016. At 19.7% the province has a lower unemployment rate than the national average standing at 23.2% in 2009. In 2018 the number of unemployed people declined by 38,000 with employment rates increasing by 3.9% since 2017. The province's Gini coefficient of 0.58 in 2010 is lower than South Africa's Gini coefficient of 0.65 making it more equal than the rest of the country whilst still being high and unequal by international standards. The Western Cape's Human Development Index is the highest in South Africa at 0.7708, compared to the South African average of 0.6675 in 2003.
The province's economy is dominated by the city of Cape Town, where the vast majority of all non-agricultural economic activity takes place. The single largest contributor to the region's economy is the financial and business services sector, followed by manufacturing. Close to 30% of the gross regional product comes from foreign trade with agricultural products and wine dominating exports. High-tech industries, international call centres, fashion design, advertising and TV production are niche industries gaining in importance. Since the founding of Cape Town by the Dutch East India Company in 1652, the two pillars of the Cape Colony's economy until the Kimberley diamond strike of 1868 and the opening of the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 were shipping and agriculture. Cape Town's strategic position as the halfway point between Europe and Asia meant that prior to the opening of the Suez Canal every ship involved in the spice trade between those two continents docked at Cape Town to resupply.
The supplying of these ships with fresh provisions and wine provided a large market for the surplus produce of the colony. By the late 18th century, the Cape Colony was one of the best developed European settlements outside of Europe or the Americas. During the 18th century, pastoral production was the dominant economic activity in the more arid north-western Cape whilst mixed agriculture was dominant in the south-western Cape. During this period, the VOC exercised enormous control over the economy of the colony and imposed high and unpopular taxes in an effort to offset the high costs of running the colony. For much of the Dutch rule in the Cape, income inequality is thought to have been amongst the highest in the pre-industrial world with pockets of wealthy living amongst an and poor farming community; the biggest drivers of this inequality-apart from labour and race relations—was wheat and wine production. The wealthy segments of society were dominated by wine producers, alcohol merchants and those farmers that managed to dominate wheat production.
Slavery played a large role in the early economy of the province until the British takeover of the Cape Colony in 1806 and the abolition of slavery in the British Empire in 1833. Slaves from across the Dutch Empire, in addition to political prisoners from the Dutch East Indies, were imported to work on the farms and workshops in the area of the colony closest to Cape Town. At the beginning of the 18th century, labour relations between Dutch colonists—particularly the Trekboers in the interior—and the native Khoisan was characterised by semi-cooperative symbiosis. By the beginning of the 19th century, the majority of the Khoisan had been turned into a class of wage labourers whose status and situation was similar to serfs. After 1833, the resistance of free burghers to the creation of a permanent wage-labour force as a result of the abolition of slavery as well as the'resistance of freed slaves and Khoi to full proletarianization' produced labour relations characterised by a greater degree of dependency.
The main export staple of the Cape Colony for most of its history was wine and brandy, but by 1845 it had been overtaken in value by wool. The wool boom continued into the 1850s and in addition to a speculative boom in copper-mining shares investment in the region grew considerably; this sparked the growth of the region's financial industry and by 1860 there were 23 local banks operating in fifteen towns. Increases in costs of production, falling wool prices, poor quality wools and severe drought from 1862 were among the causes of an economic recession that affected the region for most of the 1860s. Increasing competition from Port Elizabeth for the trade of the interior of Southern Africa encouraged Capetonian business interests to lobby for the construction of a railway. By 1865, nine towns in the region had a population of over 2000 people. After the MSP Suez Canal was constructed in 1869, Cape Town's importance as a refuelling point declined as the canal obviated the need to navigate the longer sea lane around the southern coast of Africa.
The recession of the 1860s and the construction of the canal forced the colony to search for new opportunities and adopt new products in rural production. The raising of Angora goats and ostriches for their mohair and feathers date from this period and became important export commodities; the discovery of diamonds and gold in the interior again increased investment in Cape Town and despite a long depression that plagued the western world for much of the 1870s the Western Ca
Spokane is a city in Spokane County in the state of Washington in the northwestern United States. It is located on the Spokane River west of the Rocky Mountain foothills in eastern Washington, 92 miles south of the Canada–US border, 18 miles from the Washington–Idaho border, 228 miles east of Seattle along Interstate 90. Known as the birthplace of Father's Day, Spokane's official nickname is the "Lilac City". A pink, double flower lilac variety known as'Syringa Spokane' is named for the city, it is the seat of Spokane County and the economic and cultural center of the Spokane Metropolitan Area, the Spokane–Coeur d'Alene combined statistical area, the Inland Northwest. The city, along with the whole Inland Northwest, is served by Spokane International Airport, 5 miles west of downtown Spokane. According to the 2010 Census, Spokane had a population of 208,916, making it the second-largest city in Washington, the 101st-largest city in the United States; the first people to live in the area, the Spokane tribe, lived off plentiful game.
David Thompson explored the area with the westward expansion and establishment of the North West Company's Spokane House in 1810. This trading post was the first long-term European settlement in Washington. Completion of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1881 brought settlers to the Spokane area; the same year it was incorporated as a city with the name of Spokane Falls. In the late 19th century and silver were discovered in the Inland Northwest; the local economy depended on mining and agriculture until the 1980s. Spokane hosted the first environmentally themed World's Fair at Expo'74. Many of the downtown area's older Romanesque Revival-style buildings were designed by architect Kirtland Kelsey Cutter after the Great Fire of 1889; the city features Riverfront and Manito parks, the Smithsonian-affiliated Northwest Museum of Arts and Culture, the Davenport Hotel, the Fox and Bing Crosby theaters. The Cathedral of Our Lady of Lourdes is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Spokane, the city is the center of the Mormon Spokane Washington Temple District.
The Cathedral of St. John the Evangelist represents the Anglican community. Gonzaga University was established in 1887 by the Jesuits, the private Presbyterian Whitworth University was founded three years and moved to north Spokane in 1914 In sports, the Gonzaga Bulldogs collegiate basketball team competes at the Division I level. Professional and semi-professional sports teams include the Spokane Chiefs in junior ice hockey, the Spokane Indians Minor League Baseball team located in nearby Spokane Valley; as of 2010, Spokane's only major daily newspaper, The Spokesman-Review, had a daily circulation of over 76,000. The first humans to live in the Spokane area were hunter-gatherer societies that lived off plentiful fish and game; the Spokane tribe, after which the city is named, are believed to be either their direct descendants, or descendants of people from the Great Plains. When asked by early white explorers, the Spokanes said their ancestors came from "up North." Early in the 19th century, the Northwest Fur Company sent two white fur trappers west of the Rocky Mountains to search for fur.
These were the first white men met by the Spokanes, who believed they were sacred, set the trappers up in the Colville River valley for the winter. The explorer-geographer David Thompson, working as head of the North West Company's Columbia Department, became the first European to explore the Inland Empire. Crossing what is now the Canada–US border from British Columbia, Thompson wanted to expand the North West Company further south in search of furs. After establishing the Kullyspell House and Saleesh House trading posts in what are now Idaho and Montana, Thompson attempted to expand further west, he sent out two trappers, Jacques Raphael Finlay and Finan McDonald, to construct a fur trading post on the Spokane River, which flows west from Lake Coeur d'Alene to the Columbia River, trade with the local Indians. This post was established in 1810, at the confluence of the Little Spokane and Spokane rivers, becoming the first enduring European settlement of significance in what became Washington state.
Known as the Spokane House, or "Spokane", it was in operation from 1810 to 1826. Operations were run by the British North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, the post was the headquarters of the fur trade between the Rocky and Cascade mountains for 16 years. After the latter business absorbed the North West Company in 1821, the major operations at the Spokane House were shifted north to Fort Colville, reducing the post's significance. In 1836, Reverend Samuel Parker visited the area and reported that around 800 Native Americans were living in Spokane Falls. A medical mission was established by Marcus and Narcissa Whitman to cater for Cayuse Indians and hikers of the Oregon Trail at Walla Walla in the south. After the Whitmans were killed by Indians in 1847, Reverend Cushing Eells established Whitman College in their memory setting up the first church in Spokane. In 1853, two years after the establishment of the Washington Territory, the first governor, Isaac Stevens, made an initial effort to make a treaty with Chief Garry and the Spokanes at Antoine Plantes' Ferry, not far from Millwood.
After the last campaign of the Yakima Indian War, the Coeur d'Alene War of 1858 was brought to a close by the actions of Col. George Wright, who won decisive victories agai
The fineness of a precious metal object represents the weight of fine metal therein, in proportion to the total weight which includes alloying base metals and any impurities. Alloy metals are added to increase hardness and durability of coins and jewelry, alter colors, decrease the cost per weight, or avoid the cost of high-purity refinement. For example, copper is added to the precious metal silver to make a more durable alloy for use in coins and jewelry. Coin silver, used for making silver coins in the past, contains 90% silver and 10% copper, by mass. Sterling silver contains 92.5% silver and 7.5% of other metals copper, by mass. Various ways of expressing fineness have been used and two remain in common use: millesimal fineness expressed in units of parts per 1,000 and karats used only for gold. Karats measure the parts per 24, so that 18 karat = 18⁄24 = 75% and 24 karat gold is considered 100% gold. Millesimal fineness is a system of denoting the purity of platinum and silver alloys by parts per thousand of pure metal by mass in the alloy.
For example, an alloy containing 75% gold is denoted as "750". Many European countries use decimal hallmark stamps rather than "14K", "18K", etc., used in the United Kingdom and United States. It is an extension of the older karat system of denoting the purity of gold by fractions of 24, such as "18 karat" for an alloy with 75% pure gold by mass; the millesimal fineness is rounded to a three figure number where used as a hallmark, the fineness may vary from the traditional versions of purity. Here are the most common millesimal finenesses used for precious metals and the most common terms associated with them. 999.5: what most dealers would buy as if 100% pure. Refined by the Perth Mint in 1957. 999.99—five nines fine: the purest type of gold produced. 999.9—four nines fine: e.g. ordinary Canadian Gold Maple Leaf and American Buffalo coins 999—24 karat occasionally known as three nines fine: e.g. Chinese Gold Panda coins 995: the minimum allowed in Good Delivery gold bars 990—two nines fine 986—Ducat fineness: used by Venetian and Holy Roman Empire mints.
This was achieved by the Royal Silver Company of Bolivia. 999.9—four nines fine: ultra-fine silver used by the Royal Canadian Mint for their Silver Maple Leaf and other silver coins 999—fine silver or three nines fine: used in Good Delivery bullion bars and most current silver bullion coins 980: common standard used in Mexico ca. 1930–45 958: Britannia silver 950: French 1st Standard 935: Swiss standard for watchcases after 1887, to meet the British Merchandise Marks Act and to be of equal grade to 925 Sterling. Sometimes claimed to have arisen as a Swiss misunderstanding of the standard required for British Sterling. Marked with three Swiss bears. 925: Sterling silver equivalent to "plata de primera ley" in Spain 917: a standard used for the minting of Indian silver, during the British raj 900: one nine fine, coin-silver, or 90% silver: e.g. Flowing Hair and 1837–1964 U. S. silver coins 892.4: US coinage 1485⁄1664 fine "standard silver" as defined by the Coinage Act of 1792: e.g. Draped Bust and Capped Bust U.
S. silver coins 875: Swiss standard used for export watchcases. 835: a standard predominantly used in Germany after 1884, for the minting of coins in countries of the Latin Monetary Union 833: a common standard for continental silver among the Dutch and Germans 830: a common standard used in older Scandinavian silver 800: the minimum standard for silver in Germany after 1884. The karat system is a standard adopted by US federal law. K is the karat rating of the material, Mg is the mass of pure gold in the alloy, Mm is the total mass of the material.24-karat gold is pure, 18-karat gold is 18 parts gold, 6 parts another metal, 12-karat gold is 12 parts gold, so forth. In England, the karat was divisible into four grains, the grain was divisible into four quarts. For example, a gold alloy of 127⁄128 fineness could have been described as being 23-karat, 3-grain, 1-quart gold; the karat fractional system is being complemented or superseded by the millesimal system, descr