Scott Spedding is a French rugby union player. His position is fullback and he plays for Castres Olympique in the Top 14. Spedding attended St. John's College, Johannesburg from 2000 to 2004 where he captained the first XV Rugby team, he was in the same boarding house and matriculated one year after four-time Tour de France champion Chris Froome. In 2008, Spedding moved to France to play with Brive in the Top 14. After seven years of living in France, Spedding gained French citizenship in 2014. In January 2015 he was named in the France 31-man squad for the 2015 Six Nations Championship by coach Philippe Saint-André, he debuted for France on 8 November 2014 against Fiji. Scott Spedding at ESPNscrum
Veld spelled veldt, is a type of wide open rural landscape in Southern Africa. It is a flat area covered in grass or low scrub in the countries of South Africa, Swaziland and Botswana. A certain sub-tropical woodland ecoregion of Southern Africa has been defined as the Bushveld by the World Wide Fund for Nature. Trees are found only in a few places—frost and grazing animals allow grass to grow but prevent the growth of trees; the word veld comes from the Afrikaans word for "field". The etymological origin is older modern Dutch veldt, a spelling that the Dutch abandoned in favour of veld during the 19th century, decades before the first Afrikaans dictionary. A cognate to the English field, it felt in Old Dutch; the climate of the veld is variable, but its general pattern is mild winters from May to September and hot or hot summers from November to March, with moderate or considerable variations in daily temperatures and abundant sunshine. Precipitation occurs in the summer months in the form of high-energy thunderstorms.
Over most of the South African Highveld, the average annual rainfall is between 500–900 millimetres a year, decreasing to about 250 millimetres near the western border and increasing to nearly 1,000 millimetres in some parts of the Lesotho Highlands. Temperature is related to elevation. In general, the mean July temperatures range between 7 °C in the Lesotho Highlands and 16 °C in the Lowveld. January temperatures range between 18 °C and 30 °C. In Zimbabwe the precipitation averages around 750–900 millimetres on the Highveld, dropping to less than 350 millimetres in the lowest areas of the Lowveld. Temperatures are higher than in South Africa. Over the entire veld and annual average rainfall variations of up to 40 percent are common. Damaging drought affects at least half the area about once every four years. Everywhere the average number of hours of annual sunshine varies from 60 to 80 percent of the total amount possible. Veld can be loosely compared to the Australian terms outback or "the bush", to the prairie of North America, to the pampas lowlands of South America, or to the steppe of Central Asia.
Someone from Yorkshire might equate "wandering across the moors" to "walking through the veld."By extension, the veld can be compared to the "boondocks" or those places "beyond the black stump" in Australia. There is a sense in which it refers in essence to unimproved land and does not include areas used both for pastoral activities and the planting of crops; these areas are referred to as fields. The word is less appropriate for land, forested, mountainous, or urban; the simplest explanation will be to say the word "veld" means "natural vegetation". It does include mountains with vegetation but not mountains without natural vegetation; the veld definition may encompass different natural environments, both humid and dry, such as Coastal plain, Coastal prairie, Flooded grasslands and savannas, Prairie, Steppe, Water-meadow, Flood-meadow, Wet meadow, as well as agricultural fields. Whereas mountainous peaks and thick forests do not fit in with the term veld, bushes are acceptable; the area becomes Bosveld, a term, used to describe Die Bosveld, both a loose botanical classification and a specific geographical part of what used to be known as the Transvaal, as described for example in the story Jock of the Bushveld.
The word Renosterveld, "rhinoceros-field", is now used to differentiate one of the major vegetation types of the Cape Floristic Region. A husbanded sports field on which the game of Rugby is played in the middle of cities such as Cape Town or Johannesburg is referred to as a "rugbyveld" in the Afrikaans language; the word "veld" carries military connotations. The word "field" in English has a strong association with "war", as evidenced by the expression "the first foe in the field" and the lines of the ballad'Lord Marlborough': "You generals all and champions bold, that takes delight in field, that knocks down churches and castle walls but now to death must yield"; the same relationship is paralleled in Afrikaans. Just as the English Army has its Field Marshals, the Boer armies had their Veldkornets and Veldkommandos. Much of the interior of Southern Africa consists of a high plateau, the higher portions 1,500–2,100 m of which are known as the Highveld, starting at the Drakensberg escarpment, 220 km to the east of Johannesburg and sloping downwards to the west and south west, as well as to the north, through the Bushveld towards the Limpopo river.
These higher, cooler areas are characterised by flat or undulating terrain, vast grasslands and a modified tropical or subtropical climate. To the east, the Highveld's border is marked by the Great Escarpment, or the Mpumalanga Drakensberg, but in the other directions the boundary is not obvious and arbitrary; the blesbok and quagga were among the large animals that once roamed on the highveld in great numbers. Nowadays there still is a sizeable population of springbok in some areas, though much of the area is devoted to commercial farming and South Africa's largest conurbation; the lowlands, below about 500 m
Jaque Fourie is a former South African rugby union rugby player. He was a versatile backline player, he was a member of the 2007 Rugby World Cup winning team, playing at outside centre for 6 out of 7 matches, including all 80 minutes of the World Cup Final, which South Africa won 15-6. Fourie made his international debut on 11 October at the 2003 Rugby World Cup at outside centre for the Springboks against Uruguay at Subiaco Oval in Perth, scored a try on debut, he played against Georgia during the pool stages, scoring another try. He was a reserve for subsequent World Cup games against the All Blacks, he next played for the Springboks in June 2004, playing on the left wing against Ireland, which South Africa won 26–17. He played a further three times for the Springboks that year; the following year he played in the IRB Rugby Aid Match and was a reserve for the Springboks against Uruguay and France in June, before being included in the Springboks 2005 Tri Nations Series. He played in a further three tests that November.
In 2006, he played for the Springboks during the mid year tests and after that he became the first-choice outside centre in the side playing alongside Jean de Villiers. On 20 October 2007 he won a Rugby World Cup winners' medal when South Africa beat England 15–6 in the 2007 Rugby World Cup final in Paris. After playing much of 2008 and the 2009 series against the British and Irish Lions off the bench, he was back in the starting team for the 2009 Tri-Nations campaign, he played his 50th test match for South Africa in a 6–21 loss to Australia in Brisbane on 5 September 2009. In March 2010 a try scored by Fourie was named as the International Rugby Players Association Try of the Year 2009; the try, scored in the 74th minute of the second Test against the British and Irish Lions in Pretoria in June, sealed a dramatic Series victory for the Springboks. In March 2017, Fourie was named as part of a new re-branded Western Force team to play in the new World Series Rugby in the lead up to the National Rugby Championship.
Source: scrum.com 18 October Stormers profile "SA Rugby Player Profile – Jaque Fourie". South African Rugby Union. Retrieved 30 May 2016. Springbok Hall of Fame
Lanseria International Airport
Lanseria International Airport is a owned international airport, situated north of Randburg and Sandton to the north west of Johannesburg, South Africa. The airport can handle aircraft up to the size of the Boeing 757-300. Lanseria Airport started out as a grass strip airfield in 1972, the brainchild of two Pretoria pilots – Fanie Haacke and Abe Sher; the land was bought by Krugersdorp and Roodepoort Municipality together with the Transvaal Peri-Urban Board and contracted to Lanseria Management Company on a 99-year lease since 1972. The airport was opened by the Minister of Transport at the time, Hannes Rall, on 16 August 1974. Soon after its opening, Lanseria Airport hosted the Air Africa'75; when Nelson Mandela was released from prison in 1990 he was flown to Johannesburg landing at Lanseria Airport. On 15 November 2012 the airport was sold to a consortium consisting of Harith, an infrastructure development fund management company. On 11 November 2013 the airport opened its new 45-meter-wide 07/25 Runway and closing the existing 30-meter-wide 06/24 runway.
Kulula was the first carrier to land on the new runway. In November 2017 airport officials announced that they were negotiating with Air Namibia, Kenya Airways, Air Mauritius and Air Botswana for flights to and from the airport as part of their expansion plan. Runway 07 is equipped with ILS CAT I, despite the name, is directed at 047° East of North; the single runway has a 1.5% gradient, sloping up towards the South-West end of the runway. This is because winds of the Highveld of South Africa are Northerly winds, blowing South. National Airways has its head office building on the airport property. Various maintenance and avionics companies are situated on the airport including Interjet Maintenance, MPT Maintenance, ExecuJet, Lanseria Jet centre and NAC with various other smaller outfits; the maintenance facilities at Lanseria International Airport provide small to midsize aircraft maintenance focused on corporate aircraft and small regional airliners, up to a Bombardier CRJ700 or similar. 9 October 1977 – During Airshow Africa'77 – a Britten-Norman Trislander performed a wing-over but had insufficient altitude to recover and the aircraft impacted the runway, bounced into the air and came to rest some 500m further off to the side of the runway.
The flying controls were main gear detached. One wing engine detached; the crew were not injured but the aircraft was written off. On 2 October 1993, an Impala Mark I of the SAAF Silver Falcons aerobatic team crashed after suffering separation of the right wing during a performance at the Lanseria Airshow; the pilot ejected but was killed, as the ejection was initiated outside of the design envelope of the ejection seat. Media related to Lanseria International Airport at Wikimedia Commons Lanseria Airport Homepage Private site about Lanseria International Airport – History, airlines, road access, car rental... Aerial Photograph on Google Maps
First Boer War
The First Boer War known as the First Anglo-Boer War, the Transvaal War or the Transvaal Rebellion, was a war fought from 16 December 1880 until 23 March 1881 between the United Kingdom and the South African Republic. The war resulted in defeat for the British and the second independence of the South African Republic. In the 19th century a series of events occurred in the southern part of the African continent, with the British attempting to set up a single unified state there. Three prime factors fueled British expansion into southern Africa: the desire to control the trade routes to India that passed around the Cape of Good Hope the discovery in 1868 of huge mineral deposits of diamonds around Kimberley on the joint borders of the South African Republic, the Orange Free State and the Cape Colony, thereafter in 1886 in the Transvaal the gold rush the race against other European colonial powers, as part of a general European colonial expansion in AfricaOther potential colonisers included: the Portuguese Empire, which controlled Portuguese Angola in West Africa and Portuguese Mozambique in East Africa the German Empire, which came to control the area in Southern Africa which in 1884 would become German South West Africa further north, the Kingdom of Belgium, which controlled an area in Central Africa which in 1885 would become the Congo Free State the French Third Republic, in the process of conquering the Merina Kingdom and, pursuing the areas which in 1895 and in 1910 would become French West Africa and French Equatorial Africa a series of Boer republics expanding into territories north of the British sphere of influence in the CapeBritish attempts in 1880 to annex the Transvaal represented their biggest incursions into southern Africa, but other expansions occurred.
In 1868 the British Empire annexed Basutoland, following an appeal from Moshesh, the leader of a mixed group of African refugees from the Zulu wars who sought British protection against both the Boers and the Zulus. In the 1880s, became an object of dispute between the Germans to the west, the Boers to the east, the British in the Cape Colony to the south. Although Bechuanaland had at the time no economic value, the "Missionaries Road" passed through it toward territory farther north. After the Germans annexed Damaraland and Namaqualand in 1884, the British annexed Bechuanaland in 1885. Following the Battle of Blaauwberg Britain had acquired the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa from the Dutch in 1815 after the Napoleonic Wars. Certain groups of Dutch-speaking settler farmers resented British rule though British control brought some economic benefits. Successive waves of migrations of Boer farmers, probed first east along the coast away from the Cape toward Natal, thereafter north toward the interior establishing the republics that came to be known as the Orange Free State and the Transvaal.
The British did not try to stop the Trekboers from moving away from the Cape. The Trekboers functioned as pioneers, opening up the interior for those who followed, the British extended their control outwards from the Cape along the coast toward the east annexing Natal in 1843; the Trekboers were farmers extending their range and territory with no overall agenda. The formal abolition of slavery in the British Empire in 1834 led to more organised groups of Boer settlers attempting to escape British rule, some travelling as far north as modern-day Mozambique. Indeed, the British subsequently acknowledged two new Boer Republics in a pair of treaties: the Sand River Convention of 1852 recognised the independence of the Transvaal Republic, the Bloemfontein Convention of 1854 recognised the independence of the Orange Free State. However, British colonial expansion, from the 1830s, featured skirmishes and wars against both Boers and native African tribes for most of the remainder of the century; the discovery of diamonds in 1867 near the Vaal River, some 550 miles northeast of Cape Town, ended the isolation of the Boers in the interior and changed South African history.
The discovery triggered a diamond rush that attracted people from all over the world, turning Kimberley into a town of 50,000 within five years and drawing the attention of British imperial interests. In the 1870s the British annexed West Griqualand, site of the Kimberley diamond-discoveries. In 1875 the Earl of Carnarvon, the British Colonial Secretary, in an attempt to extend British influence, approached the Orange Free State and the Transvaal Republic and tried to organise a federation of the British and Boer territories modelled on the 1867 federation of the French and English provinces of Canada; however the cultural and historical context differed and the Boer leaders turned him down. Successive British annexations, in particular the annexation of West Griqualand, caused a climate of simmering unease in the Boer republics. There were other more pressing concerns for the Boer Republics; the two territories of the Orange Free State and the Transvaal were squeezed between the British-ruled Cape Colony to the south and west, Zululand to the east and Matabeleland and Bechuan
O. R. Tambo International Airport
O. R. Tambo International Airport is a major international airport in Kempton Park, Gauteng, South Africa, near the city of Johannesburg and, to a lesser extent, the executive capital Pretoria, it serves as the primary airport for domestic and international travel to/from South Africa and is Africa's busiest airport with a capacity to handle up to 28 million passengers annually with non-stop flights to all continents except Antarctica. The airport is the hub of South Africa's largest international and domestic carrier, South African Airways, a number of smaller local airlines; the airport handled a total of over 21 million passengers in 2017. It was known as Jan Smuts International Airport, after the former South African Prime Minister of the same name; the airport was renamed Johannesburg International Airport in 1994 when the newly elected African National Congress government implemented a policy of not naming airports after politicians. The policy was reversed and the airport was renamed again on 27 October 2006 after Oliver Reginald Tambo.
The airport was founded in 1952 as "Jan Smuts Airport," two years after his death, near the town of Kempton Park on the East Rand. It replaced the "Palmietfontein International Airport," which had handled European flights since 1945. In 1943, a decision was by the cabinet of the Union of South Africa to construct three international airports with a Civil Airports Advisory Committee formed to investigate and report on the viability; that report was submitted to the cabinet in March 1944 with one main international airport on the Witwatersrand and two smaller international airports at Cape Town and Durban. The South African Railways and Harbours Administration was given the role of managing the project and in 1944, a member sent to the USA to study standards and methods of construction. Four possible sites around Johannesburg were identified, with one south of Johannesburg chosen but soon discarded due to being situated on land with gold bearing reefs below. Sites were narrowed down to Kempton Park and the existing airport at Palmietfontein.
Layouts and rough costing for the two sites were established and submitted for a ministerial decision. The site would be named Jan Smuts Airport; the area outside Kempton Park, was an expropriated undulating dairy farm of 3,706 acres with a 598 acre eucalyptus plantation. Sitting on a plateau, the area sloped away towards the east; the area was drained by the Blesbok River. In the late fifties jet passenger aircraft became the norm and there was a need to expand the existing ground facilities at the airport and this began in the sixties and early seventies. In addition to the new airside facilities, ground developments included improved road access, parking areas, retail areas and car hire; the late sixties saw a new choice of aircraft for South African Airways, the Boeing 747. A decision was made by the Minister of Transport of three five 747s for the airline. Delivery would begin in October 1971 with the first flight to London on 10 December 1971 with daily services from February 1972; these purchases however required new hangar facilities with the contract awarded in September 1969 worth R2,983,408.
Construction started in December 1968 and was completed in October 1971 for R8 million while other work at the airport associated with the arrival of these new aircraft brought the costs to R40 million. Other new buildings such as workshops, testing facilities, staff accommodation and air cargo handling building were built; the new hangar would allow for two 747s with each bay with dimensions of 73.2 m wide, 24.4 m high and a depth of 91.4 m. It was used as a test airport for the Concorde during the 1970s, to determine how the aircraft would perform while taking off and landing at high elevations. During the 1980s, many countries stopped trading with South Africa because of the United Nation sanctions imposed against South Africa in the struggle against apartheid, many international airlines had to stop flying to the airport; these sanctions resulted in South African Airways being refused rights to fly over most African countries, in addition to this, the risk of flying over some African countries was emphasised by the shooting down of two passenger aircraft over Rhodesia, forcing them to fly around the "bulge" of Africa.
This required specially-modified aircraft like the long-range Boeing 747SP. A second runway was built at the airport in the late 1980s. In December 1993, a R120 million upgrade at the airport was completed; the main part of the projects was an 880 m, 3000 t steel airside corridor consisting of two levels high of 6 m wide with thirteen passenger bridges. The upper levels are connected the departure lounges through security screening points. Lower levels are for arrivals for entry into the custom areas. A future provision for extensions to this airside corridor was included in the design. A new airside bus terminal was added for bussing in passengers to aircraft not able dock next to the terminal. Other parts of the project included upgrading the terminal facilities for the passengers. Following the ending of apartheid, the airport's name, that of other international airports in South Africa, were changed and these restrictions were lifted. With the creation of the Airports Company of South Africa in the mid-nineties, a plan to commercialise the airport begun with new passenger and retail and airside facilities to handle a larger amount of planes completing this phase in 2004.
The airport overtook Cairo International Airport in 1996 as the busiest airport in Africa and is the fourth-busiest airp
Coloureds are a multiracial ethnic group native to Southern Africa who have ancestry from more than one of the various populations inhabiting the region, including Khoisan, Afrikaner, Austronesian, East Asian or South Asian. Because of the combination of ethnicities, different families and individuals within a family may have a variety of different physical features. In the Western Cape, a distinctive Cape Coloured and affiliated Cape Malay culture developed. In other parts of Southern Africa, people classified as Coloured were the descendants of individuals from two distinct ethnicities. Genetic studies suggest. Mitochondrial DNA studies have demonstrated that the maternal lines of the Coloured population are descended from African Khoisan women; this ethnicity shows a gender-biased admixture. Male lines have been African, Asian Indian, Southeast Asian. Coloureds are to be found in the western part of South Africa. In Cape Town, they form 45.4% of the total population, according to the South African National Census of 2011.
The apartheid-era Population Registration Act, 1950, subsequent amendments, codified the Coloured identity, defined its subgroups. Indian South Africans were classified under the act as a subgroup of Coloured; the Coloured community is predominantly descended from numerous interracial sexual unions between Western European men and Khoisan or mixed-race women in the Cape Colony from the 17th century onwards. In KwaZulu-Natal, the Coloured possess a diverse heritage including British, German, Saint Helenian, Indian and Zulu. Zimbabwean Coloured are descended from Shona or Ndebele and Afrikaner settlers, as well as Arab and Asian people. Griqua, on the other hand, are descendants of Afrikaner Trekboers. Despite these major differences, as both groups have ancestry from more than one naturalised racial group, they are classified as coloured in the South African context; such mixed-race people did not self-identify this way. The Griqua were subjected to an ambiguity of other creole people within Southern African social order.
According to Nurse and Jenkins, the leader of this “mixed” group, Adam Kok I, was a former slave of the Dutch governor, manumitted and provided land outside Cape Town in the eighteenth century. With territories beyond the Dutch East India Company’s administration, Kok provided refuge to deserting soldiers, runaway slaves, remaining members of various Khoikhoi tribes. In South Africa and neighbouring countries, the white minority governments segregated Africans from Europeans after settlement had progressed, they classified all such mixed race people together in one class, despite their numerous ethnic and national differences in ancestry. The imperial and apartheid governments categorized them as Coloured. In addition, other distinctly homogeneous ethnic groups traditionally viewed the mixed-race populations as a separate group. During the apartheid era in South Africa of the second half of the 20th century, the government used the term "Coloured" to describe one of the four main racial groups it defined by law.
This was an effort to maintain racial divisions. Individuals were classified as white South Africans, black South Africans and Indians. Coloured people may have ethnic ancestry from Indonesia, mixed-race, Khoisan ancestry; the Apartheid government treated them as one people, despite their differences.'Cape Muslims' were classified as'coloured.' They have Indonesian and black ancestry, as many Indonesian slaves had children with African partners. Many Griqua began to self-identify as Coloureds during the apartheid era, because of the benefits of such classification. For example, Coloureds did not have to carry a dompas, while the Griqua, who were seen as an indigenous African group, did. In the 21st century, Coloured people constitute a plurality of the population in the provinces of Western Cape, a large minority in the Northern Cape, both areas of centuries of mixing among the populations. In the Eastern Cape, they make up 8.3% of the population. Most speak Afrikaans, as they were descendants of Dutch and Afrikaner men and grew up in their society.
About twenty percent of the Coloured speak English as their mother tongue those of the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. All Cape Town Coloured are bilingual; some can comfortably codeswitch between Kaapse taal and suiwer Afrikaans, South African English. At least one genetic study indicates that Cape Coloureds have ancestries from the following ethnic groups. Indigenous Khoisan: Bantu peoples, chiefly from Southern Africa: Peoples from Western Europe, chiefly the Low Countries: Peoples from South and Southeast Asia: The Malagasy component in the Coloured composite gene pool is itself a blend of Malay and Bantu genetic markers; this genetic admixture appears to be gender-biased. A majority of maternal genetic material is Khoisan; the Coloured population is descended predominantly from unions of European and European-African males with autochthonous Khoisan females. Colou