Krzysztof Eugeniusz Penderecki is a Polish composer and conductor. The Guardian has called him Poland's greatest living composer. Among his best known works are Threnody to the Victims of Symphony No. 3, his St. Luke Passion, Polish Requiem and Utrenja. Penderecki composed four operas, eight symphonies and other orchestral pieces, a variety of instrumental concertos, choral settings of religious texts, as well as chamber and instrumental works. Born in Dębica to a lawyer, Penderecki studied music at Jagiellonian University and the Academy of Music in Kraków. After graduating from the Academy of Music, Penderecki became a teacher at the academy and he began his career as a composer in 1959 during the Warsaw Autumn festival, his Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima for string orchestra and the choral work St. Luke Passion, have received popular acclaim, his first opera, The Devils of Loudun, was not successful. Beginning in the mid-1970s, Penderecki's composing style changed, with his first violin concerto focusing on the semitone and the tritone.
His choral work Polish Requiem was written in the 1980s, with Penderecki expanding it in 1993 and 2005. Penderecki has won many prestigious awards, including the Commander's Cross in 1964, the Prix Italia in 1967 and 1968, the Knight's Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta in 1964, four Grammy Awards in 1987, 1998, 2017, Wolf Prize in Arts in 1987 and the University of Louisville Grawemeyer Award for Music Composition in 1992. Penderecki was born in Dębica, to Tadeusz Penderecki, a lawyer, Zofia. Penderecki's grandfather, Robert Berger, was a talented painter and director of the local bank at the time of Penderecki's birth, his grandmother was an Armenian from Iran. Penderecki used to go to the Armenian Church in Kraków with her. Penderecki was the youngest of three siblings. Tadeusz was a violinist and played piano. In 1939, the Second World War broke out, Penderecki's family moved out of their apartment as the Ministry of Food was to operate there. After the war, Penderecki began attending grammar school in 1946.
He began studying the violin under Stanisław Darłak, Dębica's military bandmaster who organized an orchestra for the local music society after the war. Upon graduating from grammar school, Penderecki moved to Kraków in 1951, where he attended Jagiellonian University, he studied violin with music theory with Franciszek Skołyszewski. In 1954, Penderecki entered the Academy of Music in Kraków and, having finished his studies on violin after his first year, focused on composition. Penderecki's main teacher there was Artur Malawski, a composer known for his choral works and orchestral works, as well as chamber music and songs. After Malawski's death in 1957, Penderecki took further lessons with Stanisław Wiechowicz, a composer known for his choral works. At the time, the 1956 overthrow of Stalinism in Poland lifted strict cultural censorship and opened the door to a wave of creativity. On graduating from the Academy of Music in Kraków in 1958, Penderecki took up a teaching post at the Academy, his early works show the influence of Pierre Boulez.
Penderecki's international recognition began in 1959 at the Warsaw Autumn with the premieres of the works Strophen, Psalms of David, Emanations, but the piece that brought him to international attention was Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima, written in 1960 for 52 string instruments. In it, he makes use of extended instrumental techniques. There are many novel textures in the work, he titled the work 8' 37", but decided to dedicate it to the victims of Hiroshima. Fluorescences followed a year later; the piece was composed for the Donaueschingen Festival of contemporary music of 1962, its performance was regarded as provocative and controversial. The score appeared revolutionary, his intentions at this stage were quite Cagean: "All I'm interested in is liberating sound beyond all tradition." This preoccupation with sound culminated in De Natura Sonoris I, which calls upon the orchestra to use non-standard playing techniques to produce original sounds and colours. A sequel, De Natura Sonoris II, was composed in 1971: with its more limited orchestra, it incorporates more elements of post-Romanticism than its predecessor.
This foreshadowed Penderecki's renunciation of the avant-garde in the mid-1970s, although both pieces feature dramatic glissandos, dense clusters, a use of harmonics, unusual instruments. In 1968 Penderecki received State Prize 1st class. Due to the jubilee of People's Republic of Poland he received Commander's Cross and Knight's Cross of Order of Polonia Restituta; the large-scale St. Luke Passion brought Penderecki further popular acclaim, not least because it was devoutly religious, yet written in an avant-garde musical language, composed within Communi
Jared Paul Mortensen is a Canadian professional baseball pitcher, a free agent. Mortensen played college baseball at Mount Olive College and the Louisiana State University in Shreveport. After going undrafted in the 2012 Major League Baseball Draft, he signed with the Grand Prairie AirHogs of the American Association of Independent Professional Baseball. In the year he signed a minor league contract with the Tampa Bay Rays. In 2017, Mortensen signed with the Texas AirHogs of the American Association of Independent Professional Baseball. On January 10, 2018, Mortensen was traded to the Sugar Land Skeeters of the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball, he was released on April 24, 2018. On May 2, 2018, Mortensen signed with the Cleburne Railroaders of the American Association, he was traded to the Kansas City T-Bones on August 15, 2018. On March 27, 2019, Mortensen was traded to the Ottawa Champions of the Can-Am League. In 2015, Mortensen was selected to play for the Canada national baseball team at the Pan American Games.
Box Head Revolution is a 2002 science fiction film directed, edited and co-written by Mark Christensen. On an unknown planet in an uncertain time, a two-tiered society has taken shape; the ruling class live above ground and wear masks on their faces, while the working class labors below the surface of the planet. The lowest order of the underground culture – prisoners and various troublemakers – are forced to wear boxes locked around their heads. One day, an alien craft crashes on the planet. Gritt and Brythle, a pair of rebellious young lovers from the upper tier of the planet's society, discover the wreckage. Unknown to them, the wreckage is a Voyager program space craft, launched from the U. S. in the 1970s. Within the wreckage is a long-playing gold album featuring rock music of the 1970s. Despite the efforts of the ruling class to destroy this album, the young lovers are able to broadcast the music to the planet's oppressed masses. With this musical discovery, the planet faces a sudden and unstoppable turn of events that brings about the eponymous uprising.
Box Head Revolution was the filmmaking debut of Mark Christensen, a dancer, a pilot, a two time world champion skateboarder, One of the first innovators of the Snow Board, a musician before turning to cinema production. In the film’s press notes, he stated he turned to filmmaking because he felt "it would be easier to communicate his ideas through film rather than struggling with a song."Box Head Revolution was shot on a low budget in black-and-white 16 millimeter film, the cinematography was intentionally out of focus. Dave Kehr, reviewing the film for The New York Times noted, “Mr. Christensen's use of blurry black-and-white video serves a double purpose, it disguises the complete absence of sets while lending the film the quality of decaying contraband from the indefinite past.”Box Head Revolution had its theatrical premiere in New York City on August 21, 2002, reviews were mixed. Edward Havens, writing for the online magazine FilmJerk.com, stated the film "is the most audacious directorial debut to invade American cinemas in a long time.
It's not the best looking or most intelligent. And the funny thing is, after watching the film, I don't think Mr. Christensen cares if you like it or not." David Sterritt, reviewing the film for The Christian Science Monitor, commented that the film's "story is incoherent, but there's a weirded-out charm to Christensen's visual style – part German Expressionism, part'Captain Video,' part early David Lynch – all as hazy as a half-remembered dream." But Ken Fox, writing for TV Guide Online, noted: "The onscreen text is riddled with typos, the migraine-inducing B&W photography is over-exposed and out of focus, the post-synchronized sound is badly looped and Christensen himself can be heard directing his actors. Adventurous — and forgiving — lovers of strange celluloid could do worse. Others will no doubt find the whole experience the longest 76 minutes of their lives." And Shaun Sages, writing for the Movie Navigator online site, found the film to be "weirder than anything you’ll stumble upon watching 4 a.m.
A wardrobe malfunction describes a clothing failure that accidentally or intentionally exposes a person's intimate parts. It is public flashing. Justin Timberlake first used the term when apologizing for the Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime-show controversy during the 2004 Grammy Awards; the phrase "wardrobe malfunction" was in turn used by the media to refer to the incident and entered pop culture. There was a long history of such incidents before the term was coined and it has since become common; the American Dialect Society defines "wardrobe malfunction" as "an unanticipated exposure of bodily parts". Global Language Monitor, which tracks usage of words on the internet and in newspapers worldwide, identified the term as the top Hollywood contribution to English in 2004, surpassing words like girlie men, Yo! and frass. The term was one of the new entrants into the Chambers Dictionary in 2008, along with words like electrosmog, carbon footprint, credit crunch and social networking; the dictionary defines it as "the temporary failure of an item of clothing to do its job in covering a part of the body that it would be advisable to keep covered."
The term was first used on February 1, 2004 by singers Justin Timberlake and Janet Jackson in a statement attempting to explain the Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show controversy during which Jackson's right breast was exposed. Timberlake apologized for the incident, stating he was "sorry that anyone was offended by the wardrobe malfunction during the halftime performance of the Super Bowl...." The term wardrobe malfunction appeared in numerous stories in major US consumer and business publications and major TV and radio broadcasts. Journalist Eric Alterman described the incident as "the most famous'wardrobe malfunction' since Lady Godiva." The American Dialect Society had a number of related terms for word of the year nominations in 2004, including Janet moment, boobgate and wardrobe malfunction. The term has been translated into other languages to describe similar incidents, including garderobedefect, incident de garde-robe, disfunzione del guardaroba or incidente del guardaroba, mal funcionamiento de vestuario.
In April 1957, Italian actress Sophia Loren was being welcomed to Hollywood by Paramount Pictures at a dinner party at Romanoff's restaurant in Beverly Hills. Busty American actress Jayne Mansfield went directly to Loren's table. Mansfield had engineered several stunts exposing her breasts. On this evening, she was seated between her dinner companion Clifton Webb. Braless and wearing a plunging neckline, Mansfield at one point stood and purposefully leaned over the table, further exposing her 40D breasts and her left nipple. Photographer Delmar Watson captured Loren staring at Mansfield's breasts, Joe Shere caught Loren looking side-eye at Mansfield's bust. Shere's picture went viral, was published world-wide. On February 1, 2004, the half-time show of Super Bowl XXXVIII was broadcast live from Houston, Texas on the CBS television network in the United States. During the halftime show, Justin Timberlake deliberately removed a portion of Janet Jackson's costume, exposing for about half a second her breast adorned with a nipple shield.
It was the first usage of "wardrobe malfunction". The incident, sometimes referred to as Nipplegate, was world-wide news. MTV Chief Executive said that Jackson planned the stunt and Timberlake was informed of it just moments before he took the stage; the stunt was broadcast live to a total audience of 143.6 million viewers. In DJing for Dummies, John Steventon describes a range of wardrobe malfunctions from a revelation of buttock cleavage to visible panty lines. Bikinis present celebrity wardrobe malfunction opportunities to the paparazzi in the form of wedgies or bikini-top malfunctions. In Wedding Planning and Management: Consultancy for Diverse Clients, Maggie Daniels warns, "With so many people involved in the wedding party, a wardrobe malfunction is guaranteed to happen." In Cheer!: Inside the Secret World of College Cheerleaders, Kate Torgovnick warns of wardrobe malfunctions while cheerleading. Dress code Voyeurism Whale tail
I Maninrori Kare Tojeng known as Karaeng Galesong, was a Makassarese nobleman and warrior, a major leader of the Trunajaya rebellion in Java against the Mataram Sultanate. He participated in the successful invasion of East Java and the subsequent rebel victory at Battle of Gegodog, he broke out with Trunajaya, built a stronghold in Kakaper, East Java. Dutch East India Company and Bugis forces took Kakaper in October 1679, but Galesong escaped and rejoined Trunajaya, he murdered by Trunajaya, before the rebellion ended. Makassar was the principal trading center east of Java. After the 1669 VOC victory over the Gowa Sultanate in the Makassar War, bands of Makassarese fighters fled Makassar, rejecting the terms of the Treaty of Bongaya imposed by the Dutch, seeking their fortune elsewhere. Karaeng Galesong was a son of Sultan Hasanuddin, the defeated Sultan of Makassar who died in 1670. In early 1670s, Galesong led a band of Makassarese fighters and pirates to the Lesser Sunda Islands, engaged in piracy there in Sumbawa.
On June 1673 he bought land to settle there. In either late 1674 or early 1675 Galesong moved to East Java and settled in Demung in the eastern salient of Java. In 1675, Karaeng Galesong entered into an alliance with the Madurese prince Raden Trunajaya, in rebellion against the Mataram Sultanate; the alliance was cemented by a niece of Trunajaya. As a condition for the marriage, Trunajaya asked Galesong and his followers to join a campaign against Mataram cities of Gresik and Surabaya in the northeastern coast of Java. By the end of 1675 both cities fell to the forces of Trunajaya and Galesong along with the areas between them, including the major port towns of Pasuruan, Pajarakan and Gerongan. Having fulfilled the marriage condition, Karaeng Galesong married Trunajaya's niece in fall 1675. Galesong and his Makassarese followers hoped that by helping Trunajaya, in time Trunajaya would help them retake South Sulawesi from VOC and its Bugis allies. In May–July 1676, Mataram and its ally the Dutch East India Company counter-attacked and retook most of the rebel-held cities after hard fighting.
Galesong fled from Panarukan in East Java to Trunajaya's base in Madura. In August or September, Trunajaya took the title Panembahan Maduretna, granted the title Adipati Anom to Galesong. Madura became a safe haven for the Makassarese to raid the nearby islands. In September 1676, Galesong and Trunajaya invaded East Java again with an army of 9,000; this army defeated a much larger army under Mataram's crown prince at the Battle of Gegodog in October. This victory was followed by an offensive along the north coast of Java, resulting in the rebel army taking of most Mataram cities there. However, at the same time as the rebel victories, Galesong quarreled with Trunajaya. By late 1676 and January 1677 this evolved into an open conflict between the followers of the two. Galesong settled in Pasuruan and did not help Trunajaya when his capital Surabaya was taken by the VOC in May 1677, he refused to submit to Mataram or the VOC's authority. During the subsequent VOC-Mataram campaign against Trunajaya's new capital in Kediri, Galesong's allegiance wavered.
He sided with Mataram and unsuccessfully attacked Kediri from Pasuruan. However, he and 800 of his followers broke with the VOC, established a fortification in Kakaper in East Java and pillaged the surrounding area. In October 1679, a combined VOC-Bugis troops took this stronghold after a five-week siege. Galesong escaped with rejoined Trunajaya. At this point he was ill and died on 21 November 1679, either due to his illness or murdered by Trunajaya for his treachery. Before his death he designated his son Karaeng Mamampang as heir to the leadership of the Makassarese band; as per his father's wishes, Mamampang, 16 or 17 years old at the time, asked his men to capitulate and return to Makassar via Surabaya. 120 Makassarese heeded this request, but the rest joined Trunajaya's men and continued the rebellion. However, on 15 December, as Trunajaya was cornered in the mountains of East Java, 2,500 Makassarese choose to surrender to the VOC rather than be destroyed. Trunajaya himself was captured on 25 December, with 30 or less Makassarese still with him.
He was buried in Ngantang, now part of East Java, Indonesia. The grave was in the style of a Makassarese commoner instead of a nobleman, it was preserved, became a cultural site, today attracts visitors and pilgrims. The epitaph, added reads in Arabic "Here lies a fighter in the way of God". On 2013, Indonesian former Vice President Jusuf Kalla – who like Galesong is from South Sulawesi – visited the grave along with other officials, said that Galesong had shown that "people of South Sulawesi could be a fighter and be successful anywhere". Andaya, Leonard Y.. The Heritage of Arung Palakka: A History of South Sulawesi in the Seventeenth Century; the Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. Doi:10.1163/9789004287228. ISBN 9789004287228. Cummings, William P.. A Chain of Kings: The Makassarese Chronicles of Gowa and Talloq. KITLV Press. ISBN 978-9067182874. Kemper, Simon. War-bands on Java. Leiden University. Ricklefs, M. C.. War and Economy in Java, 1677–1726: Asian and European Imperialism in the Early Kartasura Period. Sydney: Asian Studies Association of Australia.
ISBN 978-1-86373-380-9. Ricklefs, M. C.. A History of Modern Indonesia Since C.1200. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-05201-8. Pigeaud, Theodore Gauthier Thomas. Islamic States in Java 1500–1700: Eight Dutch Books
Hand County is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 3,431, its county seat is Miller. Hand County was named for territorial secretary, it was created in 1873 by the Dakota territorial legislature. The boundaries were finalized in 1882, the year; the terrain of Hand County consists of rolling hills, dotted with infrequent ponds and small lakes. Most of the area is devoted to agriculture; the terrain slopes to the northeast. The county contains a total area of 1,440 square miles, of which 1,437 square miles is land and 3.6 square miles is water. Collins State Game Production Area Dakota State Game Production Area East Pearl State Game Production Area Hawkins State Game Production Area Lake Jones State Game Production Area Lake Louise State Game Production Area Lake Louise State Recreation Area Lechtenberg State Game Production Area Reinhardt State Game Production Area Rosehill State Game Production Area Spring Lake State Game Production Area West Pearl State Game Production Area As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 3,741 people, 1,543 households, 1,050 families in the county.
The population density was 3 people per square mile. There were 1,840 housing units at an average density of 1.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 99.30% White, 0.03% Black or African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.08% Asian, 0.13% from other races, 0.32% from two or more races. 0.29 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 1,543 households out of which 28.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.90% were married couples living together, 4.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.90% were non-families. 30.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.97. The county population contained 24.60% under the age of 18, 5.10% from 18 to 24, 22.30% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, 24.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 96.20 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,377, the median income for a family was $38,017. Males had a median income of $26,335 versus $16,181 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,735. About 6.10% of families and 9.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.90% of those under age 18 and 10.50% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 3,431 people, 1,494 households, 972 families residing in the county; the population density was 2.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,815 housing units at an average density of 1.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.4% white, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.1% black or African American, 0.2% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 57.3% were German, 15.3% were Irish, 9.0% were Norwegian, 8.1% were English, 6.1% were Dutch, 3.4% were American.
Of the 1,494 households, 23.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.6% were married couples living together, 5.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.9% were non-families, 32.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.84. The median age was 48.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $45,895 and the median income for a family was $52,407. Males had a median income of $40,725 versus $24,844 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,238. About 11.4% of families and 13.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.9% of those under age 18 and 16.5% of those age 65 or over. Miller/Dale Colony Polo Vayland The county contains one area of unorganized territory: Northwest Hand. Hand County voters have voted Republican for many decades. In only one national election since 1936 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Hand County, South Dakota Titan Wind Project