The Italians are a Romance ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula and its neighbouring insular territories. Most Italians share a common culture, ancestry or language. All Italian nationals are citizens of the Italian Republic, regardless of ancestry or nation of residence and may be distinguished from people of Italian descent without Italian citizenship and from ethnic Italians living in territories adjacent to the Italian Peninsula without Italian citizenship; the majority of Italian nationals are speakers of a regional variety thereof. However, many of them speak another regional or minority language native to Italy. In 2017, in addition to about 55 million Italians in Italy, Italian-speaking autonomous groups are found in neighbouring nations: a quarter million are in Switzerland, a large population is in France, the entire population of San Marino, there are smaller groups in Slovenia and Croatia in Istria and Dalmatia; because of the wide-ranging diaspora, about 5 million Italian citizens and nearly 80 million people of full or partial Italian ancestry live outside their own homeland, which include the 62.5% of Argentina's population, 1/3 of Uruguayans, 40% of Paraguayans, 15% of Brazilians, people in other parts of Europe bordering Italy, the Americas and the Middle East.
Italians have influenced and contributed to diverse fields, notably the arts and music and technology, cuisine, jurisprudence and business both abroad and worldwide. Furthermore, Italian people are known for their localism, both regionalist and municipalist; the Latin name Italia according to Strabo's Geographica was used by Greeks to indicate the southwestern tip of the Italian peninsula, corresponding to the current region of Calabria, from the strait of Messina to the line connecting the gulf of Salerno and gulf of Taranto. It most originates with Oscan Víteliú, meaning "land of young cattle"; the bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. The name was extended to include all the Italian peninsula south of the Rubicon, still by the end of the 1st century BC, to all of the peninsula and beyond. Latin Italicus as a substantive meaning "a man of Italy" is first recorded in Pliny the Elder, Letters 9.23.
The adjective italianus, from which are derived the Italian name of the Italians is medieval. The Italian peninsula was divided into a multitude of tribal or ethnic territory prior to the Roman conquest of Italy in the 3rd century BC. After a series of wars between Greeks and Etruscans, the Latins, with Rome as their capital, gained the ascendancy by 272 BC, completed the conquest of the Italian peninsula by 218 BC; this period of unification was followed by one of conquest in the Mediterranean, beginning with the First Punic War against Carthage. In the course of the century-long struggle against Carthage, the Romans conquered Sicily and Corsica. In 146 BC, at the conclusion of the Third Punic War, with Carthage destroyed and its inhabitants enslaved, Rome became the dominant power in the Mediterranean; the process of Italian unification, the associated Romanization, culminated in 88 BC, when, in the aftermath of the Social War, Rome granted its Italian allies full rights in Roman society, extending Roman citizenship to all Italic peoples.
From its inception, Rome was a republican city-state, but four famous civil conflicts destroyed the republic: Lucius Cornelius Sulla against Gaius Marius and his son, Julius Caesar against Pompey, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus against Mark Antony and Octavian, Mark Antony against Octavian. Octavian, the final victor, was accorded the title of Augustus by the Senate and thereby became the first Roman emperor. Augustus created for the first time an administrative region called Italia with inhabitants called "Italicus populus", stretching from the Alps to Sicily: for this reason historians like Emilio Gentile called him Father of Italians. In the 1st century BC, Italia was still a collection of territories with different political statuses; some cities, called municipia, had some independence from Rome, while others, the coloniae, were founded by the Romans themselves. Around 7 BC, Augustus divided Italy into eleven regiones. During the Crisis of the Third Century the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasions, military anarchy and civil wars, hyperinflation.
In 284, emperor Diocletian restored political stability. The importance of Rome declined; the seats of the Caesars were Augusta Treverorum for Constantius Chlorus and Sirmium (on the Riv
Goa is a state on the south-western coast of India within the coastal region known as the Konkan, separated from the Deccan highlands of the state of Karnataka by the Western Ghats. It is bounded by Maharashtra to the north and Karnataka to the east and south, with the Arabian Sea forming its western coast, it is the fourth-smallest by population. Goa has the highest GDP per capita among all Indian states, two and a half times that of the country, it was ranked the best-placed state by the Eleventh Finance Commission for its infrastructure and ranked on top for the best quality of life in India by the National Commission on Population based on the 12 Indicators. Panaji is the state's capital; the historic city of Margao still exhibits the cultural influence of the Portuguese, who first landed in the early 16th century as merchants and conquered it soon thereafter. Goa is a former Portuguese province. Goa is visited by large numbers of international and domestic tourists each year for its white sand beaches, places of worship and World Heritage-listed architecture.
It has rich flora and fauna, owing to its location on the Western Ghats range, a biodiversity hotspot. In ancient literature, Goa was known by many names, such as Gomanchala, Gopakapattam, Govapuri and Gomantak. Other historical names for Goa are Sindapur and Mahassapatam. Prehistory Rock art engravings found in Goa exhibit the earliest traces of human life in India. Goa, situated within the Shimoga-Goa Greenstone Belt in the Western Ghats, yields evidence for Acheulean occupation. Rock art engravings are present on laterite platforms and granite boulders in Usgalimal near the west flowing Kushavati river and in Kajur. In Kajur, the rock engravings of animals and other designs in granite have been associated with what is considered to be a megalithic stone circle with a round granite stone in the centre. Petroglyphs, stone-axe, choppers dating to 10,000 years ago have been found in various locations in Goa, including Kazur and the Mandovi-Zuari basin. Evidence of Palaeolithic life is visible at Dabolim, Shigao, Arli, Diwar, Sanguem and Aquem-Margaon.
Difficulty in carbon dating the laterite rock compounds poses a problem for determining the exact time period. Early Goan society underwent radical change when Indo-Aryan and Dravidian migrants amalgamated with the aboriginal locals, forming the base of early Goan culture. Early History In the 3rd century BC, Goa was part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha. Buddhist monks laid the foundation of Buddhism in Goa. Between the 2nd century BC and the 6th century AD, Goa was ruled by the Bhojas of Goa. Chutus of Karwar ruled some parts as feudatories of the Satavahanas of Kolhapur, Western Kshatrapas, the Abhiras of Western Maharashtra, Bhojas of the Yadav clans of Gujarat, the Konkan Mauryas as feudatories of the Kalachuris; the rule passed to the Chalukyas of Badami, who controlled it between 578 and 753, the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed from 753 to 963. From 765 to 1015, the Southern Silharas of Konkan ruled Goa as the feudatories of the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas.
Over the next few centuries, Goa was successively ruled by the Kadambas as the feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kalyani. They patronised Jainism in Goa. In 1312, Goa came under the governance of the Delhi Sultanate; the kingdom's grip on the region was weak, by 1370 it was forced to surrender it to Harihara I of the Vijayanagara empire. The Vijayanagara monarchs held on to the territory until 1469, when it was appropriated by the Bahmani sultans of Gulbarga. After that dynasty crumbled, the area fell into the hands of the Adil Shahis of Bijapur, who established as their auxiliary capital the city known under the Portuguese as Velha Goa. Portuguese period In 1510, the Portuguese defeated the ruling Bijapur sultan Yusuf Adil Shah with the help of a local ally, Timayya, they set up a permanent settlement in Velha Goa. This was the beginning of Portuguese rule in Goa that would last for four and a half centuries, until its annexation in 1961; the Goa Inquisition, a formal tribunal, was established in 1560, was abolished in 1812.
In 1843 the Portuguese moved the capital to Panaji from Velha Goa. By the mid-18th century, Portuguese Goa had expanded to most of the present-day state limits; the Portuguese lost other possessions in India until their borders stabilised and formed the Estado da Índia Portuguesa or State of Portuguese India, of which Goa was the largest territory. Contemporary period After India gained independence from the British in 1947, India requested that Portuguese territories on the Indian subcontinent be ceded to India. Portugal refused to negotiate on the sovereignty of its Indian enclaves. On 19 December 1961, the Indian Army invaded with Operation Vijay resulting in the annexation of Goa, of Daman and Diu islands into the Indian union. Goa, along with Diu, was organised as a centrally administered union territory of India. On 30 May 1987, the union territory was split, Goa was made India's twenty-fifth state, with Daman and Diu remaining a union territory. Goa encompasses an area of 3,702 km2, it lies between the latitudes 14°53′54″ N and 15°40′00″ N and longitudes 73°40′33″ E and 74°20′13″ E. Goa is a part of the coastal country known as the Konkan, an escarpment rising up to the Western Ghats
Agnieszka Grochowska is a Polish actress. She has performed in more than twenty films since 2002, she is famous for her work in Shameless, where her character Anka is in an incestuous relationship with her younger half-brother. Shooting Stars Award Agnieszka Grochowska on IMDb
University of Warsaw
The University of Warsaw, established in 1816, is the largest university in Poland. It employs over 6,000 staff including over 3,100 academic educators, it provides graduate courses for 53,000 students. The University offers some 37 different fields of study, 18 faculties and over 100 specializations in Humanities, technical as well as Natural Sciences, it was founded as a Royal University on 19 November 1816, when the Partitions of Poland separated Warsaw from the oldest and most influential University of Kraków. Alexander I granted permission for the establishment of five faculties – law and political science, philosophy and the humanities; the university expanded but was closed during November Uprising in 1830. It was reopened in 1857 as the Warsaw Academy of Medicine, now based in the nearby Staszic Palace with only medical and pharmaceutical faculties. All Polish-language campuses were closed in 1869 after the failed January Uprising, but the university managed to train 3,000 students, many of whom were important part of the Polish intelligentsia.
The university was resurrected during the First World War and the number of students reached 4,500 in 1918. After Poland's independence the new government focused on improving the university, in the early 1930s it became the country's largest. New faculties were established and the curriculum was extended. Following the Second World War and the devastation of Warsaw, the University reopened in 1945. Today, the University of Warsaw consists of 126 buildings and educational complexes with over 18 faculties: biology, chemistry and political science and sociology, physics and regional studies, history, applied linguistics and Slavic philology, philology, Polish language and public administration, applied social sciences and mathematics, computer science and mechanics; the University of Warsaw is one of the top Polish universities. It was ranked by Perspektywy magazine as best Polish university in 2010, 2011, 2014 and 2016. International rankings such as ARWU and University Web Ranking rank the university as the best Polish higher level institution.
On the list of 100 best European universities compiled by University Web Ranking, the University of Warsaw was placed as 61st. QS World University Rankings positioned the University of Warsaw as the best higher level institution among the world's top 400. In 1795 the partitions of Poland left Warsaw with access only to the Academy of Vilnius. In 1815, the newly established autonomous Congress Poland de facto belonging to the Russian Empire found itself without a university at all, as Vilnius was incorporated into Russia; the first to be established in Congress Poland were the Medical School. In 1816 Tsar Alexander I permitted the Polish authorities to create a university, comprising five departments: Law and Administration, Philosophy and Art and Humanities; the university soon grew to 50 professors. After most of the students and professors took part in the November 1830 Uprising the university was closed down. After the Crimean War, Russia entered a brief period of liberalization, the permission was given to create a Polish medical and surgical academy in Warsaw.
In 1862 departments of Law and Administration and History, Mathematics and Physics were opened. The newly established academy gained importance and was soon renamed the "Main School". However, after the January 1863 Uprising the liberal period ended and all Polish-language schools were closed down again. During its short existence, the Main School educated over 3,000 students, many of whom became part of the backbone of the Polish intelligentsia; the Main School was replaced with a Russian-language "Imperial University of Warsaw". Its purpose was to provide education for the Russian military garrison of Warsaw, the majority of students were Poles; the tsarist authorities believed that the Russian university would become a perfect way to Russify Polish society and spent a significant sum on building a new university campus. However, various underground organizations soon started to grow and the students became their leaders in Warsaw. Most notable of these groups joined the ranks of the 1905 Revolution.
Afterwards a boycott of Russian educational facilities was proclaimed and the number of Polish students dropped to below 10%. Most of the students who wanted to continue their education left for Western Europe. After the fall of the January Uprising, the Tsarist authorities' decided to convert the Main School into a Russian-language university, which functioned under the name of Imperial University for 46 years. There were two times. During the 1905–1907 revolution, such a proposal was made by some of the professors, in the face of a boycott of the university by Polish students. Talks on that subject were conducted with a number of Russian cities, including Voronezh and Saratov; the Russian government decided to keep a university in Warsaw, but as a result of the boycott, the university was Russian not only in the sense of the language used, but of the nationality of its professors and students. For the second time the question emerged during th
1980 Cannes Film Festival
The 33rd Cannes Film Festival was held between 9 and 23 May 1980. The Palme d'Or went to the All That Jazz by Bob Kagemusha by Akira Kurosawa; the festival opened with Fantastica, directed by Gilles Carle and closed with Sono fotogenico, directed by Dino Risi. The showing of Andrei Tarkovsky's film Stalker was interrupted by an electricians strike; the following people were appointed as the Jury of the 1980 feature film competition:Feature films Kirk Douglas Jury President Ken Adam Robert Benayoun Veljko Bulajić Leslie Caron Charles Champlin André Delvaux Gian Luigi Rondi Michael Spencer Albina du Boisrouvray The following feature films competed for the Palme d'Or: The following films were selected for the competition of Un Certain Regard: The following films were selected to be screened out of competition: The following short films competed for the Short Film Palme d'Or: The following feature films were screened for the 19th International Critics' Week: Adrien's Story by Jean-Pierre Denis Babylon by Franco Rosso Best Boy by Ira Wohl Immacolata and Concetta: The Other Jealousy by Salvatore Piscicelli Provincial Actors by Agnieszka Holland The Nineteen Year-Old's Map by Mitsuo Yanagimachi Ticket of No Return by Ulrike Ottinger The following films were screened for the 1980 Directors' Fortnight: Short films The following films and people received the 1980 awards: Palme d'Or: All That Jazz by Bob Fosse Kagemusha by Akira Kurosawa Grand Prix: Mon oncle d'Amérique by Alain Resnais Best Screenplay: Ettore Scola, Agenore Incrocci and Furio Scarpelli for La terrazza Best Actress: Anouk Aimée for A Leap in the Dark Best Actor: Michel Piccoli for A Leap in the Dark Best Supporting Actress: Milena Dravić for Special Treatment & Carla Gravina for La terrazza Best Supporting Actor: Jack Thompson for Breaker Morant Jury Prize: Constans by Krzysztof ZanussiGolden Camera Caméra d'Or: Adrien's Story by Jean-Pierre DenisShort films Short Film Palme d'Or: Seaside Woman by Oscar Grillo Jury Prize: Canada Vignettes: The Performer by Norma Bailey & Krychle by Zdenek Smetana FIPRESCI Prizes Mon oncle d'Amérique by Alain Resnais Provincial Actors by Agnieszka Holland Gaijin: Roads to Freedom by Tizuka Yamasaki Commission Supérieure Technique Technical Grand Prize: Le Risque de vivre by Gérald Calderon Ecumenical Jury Prize of the Ecumenical Jury: Constans by Krzysztof Zanussi INA: Joint Palme d'Or to Akira Kurosawa and Bob Fosse INA: Chronicle of the 1980 Festival 1980 Cannes Film Festival Official website Retrospective 1980 Cannes Film Festival:1980 at Internet Movie Database
Power of Evil
Power of Evil is a 1985 French-German-Italian drama film written and directed by Krzysztof Zanussi. Vittorio Gassman: Gottfried Marie-Christine Barrault: Sylvie Benjamin Völz: Hubert Raf Vallone: Laboratory director Erika Wackernagel: Mutter Hans-Werner Marquardt: Alexander Hark Bohm: Notar Power of Evil on IMDb
Institute of National Remembrance
This is about the Polish institution. You may be looking for the Ukrainian Institute of National Remembrance; the Institute of National Remembrance – Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation is a Polish government-affiliated research institute with lustration prerogatives, as well as prosecution powers. It was created by legislation enacted by the Parliament of Poland; the Institute specialises in the legal and historical examination of the 20th century history of Poland in particular. IPN investigates both Nazi and Communist crimes committed in Poland between 1939 and the Revolutions of 1989, documents its findings and disseminates the results of its investigations to the public; the Institute was established in law by the Polish Parliament on 18 December 1998, incorporated the earlier 1991-passed Main Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation. It began its activities on 1 July 2000. During the first fifteen years following its inception the IPN collected over 90 kilometres of archives, released 1,794 publications, organized 453 exhibits, held 817 conferences, launched 30 educational internet portals.
In the same period, the Institute researchers held interviews with over 103,000 witnesses and interrogated 508 individuals charged with criminal offences, leading to 137 sentences by the courts of justice. According to a new law which went into effect on 15 March 2007, IPN was to be mandated to carry out lustration procedures prescribed by Polish law. However, key articles of that law were judged unconstitutional by Poland's constitutional court on 11 May 2007, so the role of IPN in the lustration process is at present unclear; the IPN is a founding member of the Platform of European Conscience organisation. IPN's main areas of activity, in line with its original mission statement, include researching and documenting the losses which were suffered by the Polish Nation as a result of World War II and during the post-war totalitarian period; the Institute informs about the patriotic traditions of resistance against the occupational forces, the Polish citizens' fight for sovereignty of the nation, including their efforts in defence of freedom and human dignity in general.
IPN investigates crimes committed on Polish soil against Polish citizens as well as people of other citizenships wronged in the country. War crimes which are not affected by statute of limitations according to Polish law include: crimes of the Soviet and Polish communist regimes committed in the country from 17 September 1939 until fall of communism on 31 December 1989, deportations to the Soviet Union of Polish soldiers of Armia Krajowa, other Polish resistance organizations as well as Polish inhabitants of the former Polish eastern territories, pacifications of Polish communities between Vistula and Bug Rivers in the years 1944 to 1947 by UB-NKVD, crimes committed by the law enforcement agencies of the Polish People's Republic Ministry of Public Security of Poland and Main Directorate of Information of the Polish Army, crimes under the category of war crimes and crimes against humanity, it is the IPN's duty to prosecute crimes against humanity, as much as war crimes. Its mission includes the need to compensate for damages which were suffered by the repressed and harmed people at a time when human rights were disobeyed by the state, educate the public about recent history of Poland.
IPN collects and archives all documents about the Polish communist security apparatus active from 22 July 1944 to 31 December 1989. IPN was created by special legislation on 18 December 1998. IPN is governed by the chairman; this chairman is chosen by a supermajority of the Polish Parliament with the approval of the Senate of Poland on a request by a Collegium of IPN. The chairman has a 5-year term of office; the first chairman of the IPN was Leon Kieres, elected by the Sejm for five years on 8 June 2000. The second chairman was Janusz Kurtyka, elected on 9 December 2005 with a term that started 29 December 2005 until his death in the Smolensk airplane crash on 10 April 2010. Franciszek Gryciuk was acting chairman from 2010 to 2011, when the current chairman, Łukasz Kamiński, was elected by the Sejm; the IPN is divided into: Main Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation Bureau of Provision and Archivization of Documents Bureau of Public Education Lustration Bureau local chapters.
On 29 April 2010, acting president Bronislaw Komorowski signed into law a parliamentary act that reformed the Institute of National Remembrance. The research conducted by IPN from December 2000 falls into four main topical areas: Security Apparatus and Civil Resistance.