Twitter is an American online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". Tweets were restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7, 2017, this limit was doubled for all languages except Chinese and Korean. Registered users can post and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through its website interface, through Short Message Service or its mobile-device application software. Twitter, Inc. is based in San Francisco and has more than 25 offices around the world. Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and launched in July of that year; the service gained worldwide popularity. In 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day, the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day. In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet"; as of 2018, Twitter had more than 321 million monthly active users.
Since 2015 Twitter has been a hotbed of debates and news covering politics of the United States. During the 2016 U. S. presidential election, Twitter was the largest source of breaking news on the day, with 40 million election-related tweets sent by 10:00 p.m. that day. It was a source of information on Brett Kavanaugh's Supreme Court nomination and the 2018 United States midterm elections. Twitter's origins lie in a "daylong brainstorming session" held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo. Jack Dorsey an undergraduate student at New York University, introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group; the original project code name for the service was twttr, an idea that Williams ascribed to Noah Glass, inspired by Flickr and the five-character length of American SMS short codes. The decision was partly due to the fact that the domain twitter.com was in use, it was six months after the launch of twttr that the crew purchased the domain and changed the name of the service to Twitter.
The developers considered "10958" as a short code, but changed it to "40404" for "ease of use and memorability". Work on the project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9:50 p.m. Pacific Standard Time: "just setting up my twttr". Dorsey has explained the origin of the "Twitter" title:...we came across the word'twitter', it was just perfect. The definition was'a short burst of inconsequential information,' and'chirps from birds', and that's what the product was. The first Twitter prototype, developed by Dorsey and contractor Florian Weber, was used as an internal service for Odeo employees and the full version was introduced publicly on July 15, 2006. In October 2006, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo, together with its assets — including Odeo.com and Twitter.com — from the investors and shareholders. Williams fired Glass, silent about his part in Twitter's startup until 2011. Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007.
Williams provided insight into the ambiguity that defined this early period in a 2013 interview: With Twitter, it wasn't clear what it was. They called it a social network, they called it microblogging, but it was hard to define, because it didn't replace anything. There was this path of discovery with something like that, where over time you figure out what it is. Twitter changed from what we thought it was in the beginning, which we described as status updates and a social utility, it is that, in part, but the insight we came to was Twitter was more of an information network than it is a social network. The tipping point for Twitter's popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest Interactive conference. During the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000. "The Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways streaming Twitter messages," remarked Newsweek's Steven Levy. "Hundreds of conference-goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters.
Panelists and speakers mentioned the service, the bloggers in attendance touted it." Reaction at the conference was positive. Blogger Scott Beale said. Social software researcher danah boyd said. Twitter staff received the festival's Web Award prize with the remark "we'd like to thank you in 140 characters or less, and we just did!"The first unassisted off-Earth Twitter message was posted from the International Space Station by NASA astronaut T. J. Creamer on January 22, 2010. By late November 2010, an average of a dozen updates per day were posted on the astronauts' communal account, @NASA_Astronauts. NASA has hosted over 25 "tweetups", events that provide guests with VIP access to NASA facilities and speakers with the goal of leveraging participants' social networks to further the outreach goals of NASA. In August 2010, the company appointed Adam Bain from News Corp.'s Fox Audience Network as president of revenue. The company experienced rapid initial growth, it had 400,000 tweets posted per quarter in 2007.
This grew to 100 million tweets posted per quarter in 2008. In February 2010, Twitter users were sending 50 million tweets per day. By March 2010, the company recorded over 70,000 registered applications; as of June 2010, about 65 million tweets were posted each day, equaling about 750 tweets sent each second, according to Twitter. As of March 2011, about 140 million tweets posted daily; as noted on Compete.com, Twitter moved up to the third-highest-ranking social networking site
World Cyber Games 2005
The World Cyber Games 2005 was held in Singapore at Suntec Singapore International Convention and Exhibition Centre from 16 to 20 November 2005. There were over 800 players from 67 countries. Over 39,000 spectators turned up at the games to cheer for the players; the grand prize for the game is US$435,000. Official games PC games Counter-Strike: Source FIFA Football 2005 Need For Speed: Underground 2 StarCraft: Brood War Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne Warhammer 40,000: Dawn of WarXbox games Dead or Alive Ultimate Halo 2Special tournament game freestyleMobile tournament games Bruce Lee Chopper Rescue Goolie Midtown Madness 3Promotional event game Carom 3D The Costa Sands Resort in Singapore served as the WCG 2005 Players' Village. About 800 national representatives who advanced from the WCG 2005 national championships stayed at the Players' Village during the WCG 2005 Grand Final. Worldwide sponsor Samsung ElectronicsPremier sponsors Intel Razer USA LtdOfficial sponsors Singapore Telecommunications Video ProOfficial suppliers ProCurve Kingston Technology Ablerex Seagate ASUS Foxconn Cooler Master VRnet DVDrama RadioitgHost broadcaster MediaCorpOfficial media partners Gameaxis HardwareZone Hardware Magazine PHOTO-i PC MagazineOfficial gaming magazine Gameaxis PlayworksOfficial partners Blizzard Entertainment EA Sports EA Games Microsoft Tecmo THQ Valve Corporation Xbox Live Online audio and video coverage was provided by Inside the Game.
Marcus Graham Games covered: Counter-Strike: Source, Dead or Alive Ultimate, Halo 2 Stuart Saw Games covered: Counter-Strike: Source, Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne, FIFA Football 2005 Paul Chaloner Games covered: Counter-Strike: Source, Need For Speed: Underground 2, FIFA Football 2005 Jason Hutchison Games covered: Counter-Strike: Source, FIFA Football 2005, Need For Speed: Underground 2, Dead or Alive Ultimate, Halo 2 Christopher Iannitti Games covered: StarCraft: Brood War, Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne Nicolas Plott Games covered: StarCraft: Brood War, Warhammer 40,000: Dawn of War Kim Phan Games covered: StarCraft: Brood War, Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne Verena Vlajo, the first female participant World Cyber Games Official Website
DirecTV is an American direct broadcast satellite service provider based in El Segundo, California and is a subsidiary of AT&T. Its satellite service, launched on June 17, 1994, transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States, Latin America and the Caribbean, its primary competitors are cable television providers. On July 24, 2015, after receiving approval from the United States Federal Communications Commission and United States Department of Justice, AT&T acquired DirecTV in a transaction valued at $67.1 billion. As of Q1 2017, DirecTV U. S. had 21 million revenues of $12 billion. On November 30, 2016, DirecTV Now, their internet streaming TV service, was launched. In 1953, Howard Hughes created the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, to which he transferred full ownership of Hughes Aircraft. Ostensibly created as a non-profit medical research foundation, HHMI was accused of being used by Hughes as a tax shelter. Following Hughes' death in 1976, HHMI was incorporated in 1977, litigation ensued to determine whether it would be allowed to maintain its interest in Hughes Aircraft.
In 1984, the court appointed a new board for HHMI, which proceeded to sell off Hughes Aircraft to General Motors on December 20, 1985, for an estimated $5.1 billion. General Motors merged Hughes Aircraft with its subsidiary Delco Electronics to create Hughes Electronics Corporation; the new subsidiary was composed of four units: Delco Electronics Company, Hughes Aircraft Company, Hughes Space and Communications Company, Hughes Network Systems. Stanley E. Hubbard founded United States Satellite Broadcasting in 1981 and was a leading proponent for the development of direct-broadcast satellite service in the United States. USSB was awarded five frequencies at the coveted 101-degree west satellite location. Hughes Communications, Inc. was awarded 27 frequencies at the same 101-degree location. After many years, the technology was developed to enable the building of high-power satellites, digital compression standards were developed that allowed multiple digital television channels to be sent through each satellite frequency.
Hughes attempted to create a joint venture with NBC, News Corp. and Cablevision in 1990, to launch the first high-power digital television service called Sky Cable. Failing to do so, the company instead created DirecTV as a separate division and secured an agreement with USSB to build and launch the first high-power direct-broadcast satellite system. DirecTV's name is a portmanteau of "direct" and "TV". Hughes/DirecTV turned to Thomson Consumer Electronics to develop the digital satellite system for the service that would be capable of receiving 175 channels on a small 18-inch dish; these dishes utilized a new generation of smaller, lighter receiver dishes based on military technology introduced by the Global Broadcast System, which predated DirecTV's viability by ten years. Hughes was awarded the contract to build and launch the new high-powered satellites, USSB and DirecTV agreed that the new satellites would carry the two separate programming services: USSB and DirecTV; the USSB and DirecTV programming services were launched on June 17, 1994.
Digital Equipment Corporation provided the hardware for DirecTV, Matrixx Marketing provided customer care via the Matrixx Plus department, DBS Systems created the billing software. In December 1998, DirecTV acquired USSB for $1.3 billion, combined the two satellite services. In 1999, DirecTV acquired PrimeStar, a competitor in the satellite television industry, for $1.83 billion increasing its share of the satellite television market in the US. In September 1996, Hughes purchased 70% of PanAmSat for $3 billion. In 1997, GM transferred it to Delphi Automotive Systems; that same year, Hughes Aircraft was sold to Raytheon for $9.5 billion. Raytheon filed a lawsuit in 1999 accusing Hughes of overstating the value of Hughes Aircraft by $1 billion. A $635.5-million settlement was reached in 2001. In 2000, Hughes Space and Communications was sold to Boeing for $3.75 billion, which it claimed had been overvalued by Hughes. Hughes settled with Boeing for $360 million; these sales left DirecTV, PanAmSat and Hughes Network Systems as the remaining components of Hughes Electronics.
Direct satellite broadcaster were mandated in 1992 to set aside 4% of its channel space for noncommercial educational and informational programming. DirecTV selected C-SPAN, EWTN and the Trinity Broadcasting Network from its current channel lineup plus request additional proposals from other programmers. DirecTV had given PBS Kids, PBS's original application, carriage that did not count against the set aside six weeks before the deadline. DirecTV selected an additional six channels. In 2000, DirecTV introduced the first live in-flight television service for airlines. In September 2000, GM executives, under pressure from GM's shareholders as a result of its poor performance and the greater market worth of Hughes, authorized Hughes executives to begin seeking buyers. In 2001, News Corporation began negotiations to acquire Hughes Electronics in a deal worth $8 billion, which would allow News Corp. to expand its Sky Global Networks satellite television operations into the United States. Negotiations with News Corp. failed, Hughes entered into an agreement on October 28, 2001 to be purchased for $26 billion
Electronic Sports World Cup
The Electronic Sports World Convention is an international professional gaming championship. Every year, winners of national qualifier events around the world earn the right to represent their country in the ESWC Finals; the event has been praised for its ability to put on a good show for spectators. The ESWC was created by a French company, that had hosted smaller Local Area Network events in France under the name of LAN Arena. In 2003, Ligarena decided to do something on a larger scale and the ESWC was born. In 2005, Ligarena became Games-Services. In 2009, ESWC was bought by another French company, Games-Solution, which became the owner of the brand. In 2012, Oxent, an agency specialising in electronic sports, acquired the ESWC; the grand finals and masters of ESWC have had a total prize purse of €1,721,000 between 2003 and 2010. The first Electronic Sports World Cup was held in 2003 with a total of 358 participants from 37 countries and a prize purse of €150.000. To participate in the tournament, competitors had to place in their country's national qualifier.
By 2006, the event had grown to 547 qualified participants from 53 countries and had a prize purse of $400,000 US. The event featured the first competition with a game made for it: TrackMania Nations; the 2003 ESWC saw around 150,000 players narrowed down to just 358 players, from 37 different countries, who attended the finals at the Futuroscope near Poitiers in France. The total prize fund for the event was €156,000. SK Gaming representing Sweden in the Counter-Strike competition The 2004 finals were once again held at the Futuroscope. 400 finalists, from 41 countries, attended to compete for a €210,000 prize purse. In 2005, the venue was moved to a larger facility: The Carrousel du Louvre in Paris; the total prize payout was again raised - this time to €300,000. *SK-Gaming's, Danish squad The 2006 event took place at the Palais omnisports de Paris-Bercy and the total prize payout was €300,000. SK Gaming representing USA in Counter-Strike female The 2007 ESWC took place at the Paris expo Porte de Versailles, from July 5 to July 8.
There was a complete expo for this event, called "Mondial du Gaming". 750 finalists, from 51 countries, competed for a prize purse of $180,000 US. Leaving France for the first time, the 2008 Electronic Sports World Cup took place in San Jose, California, USA, from August 25 to August 27 during the bigger "NVISION 08" event; the disciplines announced were: Counter-Strike, Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne, Trackmania Nations Forever, Defense of the Ancients and, Quake 3. Pro Evolution Soccer was not included because the global Konami authority had not given its support to the competition; the prize purse was $200,000 US. In place of the ESWC, the "Masters of Paris" was held from July 4 to July 6, during the "Mondial du Gaming", taking place at the Palais omnisports de Paris-Bercy; the same disciplines took place during this Masters and offered additional qualifying slots for ESWC Grand Final in San Jose. All winners won a slot to participate in the ESWC Grand Final, hotel accommodation in San Jose, free of charge.
"Masters of Athens" was held from October 17 to October 2008, during the Athens Digital Week. Disciplines featured were Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne; the tournament had a $30.000 prize purse, the champion qualified for ESWC 2009. Venue: Cheonan, South Korea Prize: €54.000 Date: 2–6 May 2009 The 2010 "Electronic Sports World Cup", which took place at Disneyland Paris, featured a €213,500 prize purse. Games Solution took over the ESWC in 2010; this event marked the transitional replacement and additions of several cornerstone tournament titles. This included the replacement of Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne with StarCraft II: Wings of Liberty, as well as the replacement of Defense of the Ancients with Dota 2. Additionally, this event marked the only year in which Counter-Strike: Source was present, it was the last year that would include Counter-Strike 1.6, the main attraction of the tournament for many years, the last remaining game, featured in the inaugural ESWC event. Date: From October 20 to October 25, 2011 Venue: Paris Games Week, Porte de Versailles, France Production: Photos | Videos Date: From October 30 to November 4, 2012 Venue: Paris Games Week, Porte de Versailles, France Official disciplines: Counter-Strike: Global Offensive on PC, Shootmania Storm on PC, Call of Duty Black Ops 2 on Xbox 360, Dota 2 on PC, FIFA 14 on Xbox 360, Trackmania² Stadium on PC Production: Photos | Videos Date: From October 30 to November 3, 2013 Venue: Paris Games Week, Porte de Versailles, France Official disciplines: Counter-Strike: Global Offensive on PC, ShootMania Storm on PC, Call of Duty: Black Ops 2 on Xbox 360, Dota 2 on PC, FIFA 14 on Xbox 360, Trackmania Stadium on PC Production: Archives | Photos | Videos Date: From October 29 to November 2, 2014 Venue: Paris Games Week, Porte de Versailles, France Official disciplines: Counter-Strike: Global Offensive on PC, Call of Duty:Ghosts on Xbox One, Just Dance on Xbox One, FIFA 15 on Xbox One, Trackmania² Stadium on PC, ShootMania Storm on PC Production: Archives | Photos | Videos Date: May 2–3, 2015 Venue: Zenith-Paris, France Official disciplines: Call of Duty: Advanced Warfare on Xbox One Date: From July 9 to July 12, 2015 Venue: Mondial des Jeux Loto Québec, Quebec Official disciplines: Counter-Strike: Global Offensive on PC Date: From October
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
World Cyber Games
The World Cyber Games is an international esports competition with multi-game titles in which hundreds of esports athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions known as Esports Olympics. WCG events attempt to emulate a traditional sporting tournament, such as the Olympic Games. WCG are held every year in other cities around the world. World Cyber Games is one of the largest global esports tournament, with divisions in various countries; the World Cyber Games, created by International Cyber Marketing CEO Yooseop Oh and backed financially by Samsung, was considered the e-sports Olympics. The organization itself had an official mascot, used an Olympic Games inspired logo. Organizations from each participating country conducted preliminary events at a regional level, before conducting national finals to determine the players best suited to represent them in the main World Cyber Games tournament event. All events had areas for spectators, but the tournament could be viewed over internet video streams.
Besides providing a platform for tournament gaming, the World Cyber Games was used as a marketing tool. In addition, advertisers saw the event as a good means to reach young male audiences, who may not be exposed to traditional advertising streams via television. In 2000, the World Cyber Games was formed, an event was held titled "The World Cyber Game Challenge", which began with an opening ceremony on 7 October; the event was sponsored by the Republic of Korea's Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Ministry of Information and Communications, Samsung. It brought together teams from 17 countries to compete against each other in PC games including Quake III Arena, FIFA 2000, Age of Empires II, StarCraft: Brood War; the tournament ended on 15 October 2000. The competition had 174 competitors from 17 different countries with a total prize purse of $20,000. In 2001, the World Cyber Games held their first main event, hosted in Seoul, with a prize pool of $600,000 USD. National preliminaries were held between March and September, with the main tournament running between 5 December to 9 December.
The World Cyber Games quoted an attendance of 389,000 competitors in the preliminaries, with 430 players advancing to the final tournament. In 2002, the World Cyber Games held a larger event in Daejeon, Korea with a prize pool of $1,300,000 USD; the 2003 tournament, which took place in Seoul again, saw an bigger prize pool of $2,000,000 USD, was the first World Cyber Games tournament to feature a console based competition, with the game Halo: Combat Evolved on the Xbox. In 2004, the World Cyber Games held a tournament in San Francisco, United States, the first tournament outside of its home country. At this stage, the prize pool was at $2,500,000 USD; the tournament has since been hosted in various countries around the world. In addition, all games played at the tournament would be based on Windows PC's or the Xbox console. In 2006, the prize purse had risen to $462,000, the event had grown to 9 different competitions and 700 qualified participants from 70 different countries. In 2007, the event was hosted in Seattle, United States, with a total prize pool of $4,000,000 USD.
In 2008, the tournament was hosted in Germany. The tournament was coincided to run alongside the World Cyber Games debut reality television show, WCG Ultimate Gamer. Season 2 of WCG Ultimate Gamer was aired between August and October 2010. In 2014 February, the CEO Brad Lee announced the closing of WCG. Several partners described difficulty working with the organization. In March 2017, the former Samsung owned. Plans to develop the WCG "into the world's top digital entertainment festival in the future". World Cyber Games 2018 should have been hosted in Bangkok in April 26–29, 2018, but was cancelled subsequently. World Cyber Games 2019 will be hosted in Xi'an, China in July 18–21, 2019
World Cyber Games 2004
The World Cyber Games 2004 was held in San Francisco, United States from the October 6–10. It was the first World Cyber Games to be held outside of Korea. Counter-Strike: Condition Zero FIFA Football 2004 Need for Speed: Underground StarCraft: Brood War Unreal Tournament 2004 Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne Halo: Combat Evolved Project Gotham Racing 2 WCG 2004 Overview