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Kubla Khan

Kubla Khan: or, A Vision in a Dream: A Fragment is a poem written by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, completed in 1797 and published in 1816. According to Coleridge's preface to Kubla Khan, the poem was composed one night after he experienced an opium-influenced dream after reading a work describing Xanadu, the summer palace of the Mongol ruler and Emperor of China Kublai Khan. Upon waking, he set about writing lines of poetry that came to him from the dream until he was interrupted by "a person from Porlock"; the poem could not be completed according to its original 200–300 line plan as the interruption caused him to forget the lines. He left it unpublished and kept it for private readings for his friends until 1816 when, at the prompting of Lord Byron, it was published; some of Coleridge's contemporaries questioned his story of its origin. It was not until years that critics began to admire the poem. Most modern critics now view Kubla Khan as one of Coleridge's three great poems, along with The Rime of the Ancient Mariner and Christabel.

The poem is considered one of the most famous examples of Romanticism in English poetry, is one of the most anthologized poems in the English language. A copy of the manuscript is a permanent exhibit at the British Library in London. Kubla Khan was written in October 1797, though the precise date and circumstances of the first composition of Kubla Khan are ambiguous, due limited direct evidence. Coleridge dated his poems, but did not date Kubla Khan, did not mention the poem directly in letters to his friends. Coleridge's descriptions of the poem's composition attribute it to 1797. In a manuscript in Coleridge's handwriting, a note by Coleridge says that it was composed "in the fall of the year, 1797." In the preface to the first published edition of the poem, in 1816, Coleridge says that it was composed during an extended stay he had made in Somerset during "the summer of the year 1797." On 14 October 1797, Coleridge wrote a letter to John Thelwall which, although it does not directly mention Kubla Khan, expresses many of the same feelings as in the poem, suggesting that these themes were on his mind.

All of these details have led to the consensus of an October 1797 composition date. A May 1798 composition date is sometimes proposed because the first written record of the poem is in Dorothy Wordsworth's journal, October 1798. October 1799 has been suggested because by Coleridge would have been able to read Robert Southey's Thalaba the Destroyer, a work which drew on the same sources as Kubla Khan. At both time periods, Coleridge was again in the area of Ash Farm, near Culbone Church, where Coleridge described composing the poem. However, the October 1797 composition date is more accepted. In September 1797, Coleridge lived in Nether Stowey in the south west of England and spent much of his time walking through the nearby Quantock Hills with his fellow poet William Wordsworth and Wordsworth's sister Dorothy; some time between 9 and 14 October 1797, when Coleridge says he had completed the tragedy Osorio, he left Stowey for Lynton. On his return journey, he became sick and rested at Ash Farm, located near Culbone Church and one of the few places to seek shelter on his route.

There, he had a dream. Coleridge described the circumstances of his dream and the poem in two places: on a manuscript copy written some time before 1816, in the preface to the printed version of the poem published in 1816; the manuscript states: "This fragment with a good deal more, not recoverable, composed, in a sort of Reverie brought on by two grains of Opium taken to check a dysentry, at a Farm House between Porlock & Linton, a quarter of a mile from Culbone Church." The printed preface describes his location as "a lonely farm house between Porlock and Linton, on the Exmoor confines of Somerset and Devonshire," and embellishes the events into a narrative which has sometimes been seen as part of the poem itself. According to the extended preface narrative, Coleridge was reading Purchas his Pilgrimes by Samuel Purchas, fell asleep after reading about Kublai Khan, he says, he "continued for about three hours in a profound sleep... during which time he had the most vivid confidence, that he could not have composed less than from two or three hundred lines...

On Awaking he appeared to himself to have a distinct recollection of the whole, taking his pen and paper and eagerly wrote down the lines that are here preserved." The passage continues with a famous account of an interruption: "At this moment he was called out by a person on business from Porlock... and on his return to his room, found, to his no small surprise and mortification, that though he still retained some vague and dim recollection of the general purpose of the vision, with the exception of some eight or ten scattered lines and images, all the rest had passed away." The Person from Porlock became a term to describe interrupted genius. When John Livingston Lowes taught the poem, he told his students "If there is any man in the history of literature who should be hanged and quartered, it is the man on business from Porlock."There are some problems with Coleridge's account the claim to have a copy of Purchas with him. It was a rare book, unlikely to be at a "lonely farmhouse", nor would an individual carry it on a journey.

It is possible that the words of Purchas were remembered by Coleridge and that the depiction of reading the work before falling asleep was to suggest that the subject came to him accidentally. Critics have noted that unlike the manuscri

Lessee of Ashton v. Ashton

Lessee of Ashton v. Ashton, 1 U. S. 4 is a decision of a Pennsylvania Provincial Court, issued when Pennsylvania was still an English colony. It is among the first decisions. None of the decisions appearing in the first volume and most of the second volume of the United States Reports are decisions of the United States Supreme Court. Instead, they are decisions from various Pennsylvania courts, dating from the colonial period and the first decade after Independence. Alexander Dallas, a Philadelphia, Pennsylvania lawyer and journalist, had been in the business of reporting these cases for newspapers and periodicals, he subsequently began compiling his case reports in a bound volume, which he called Reports of cases ruled and adjudged in the courts of Pennsylvania and since the Revolution. This would come to be known as the first volume of Dallas Reports; when the United States Supreme Court, along with the rest of the new Federal Government, moved in 1791 to the nation's temporary capital in Philadelphia, Dallas was appointed the Supreme Court's first unofficial and unpaid Supreme Court Reporter.

Dallas continued to collect and publish Pennsylvania decisions in a second volume of his Reports, when the Supreme Court began hearing cases, he added those cases to his reports, starting towards the end of the second volume, 2 Dallas Reports. Dallas would go on to publish a total of four volumes of decisions during his tenure as Reporter. In 1874, the U. S. government created the United States Reports, numbered the volumes published as part of that series, starting from the first volume of Dallas Reports. The four volumes Dallas published were retitled volumes 1 - 4 of United States Reports; as a result, the complete citation to Lessee of Ashton v Ashton is 1 U. S. 4. According to Dallas's annotations, an unknown party known only as the "deviser", made a will by which he devised real estate to "the first Heir Male of I. S. when he shall Arrive to the Age of 21 Years" so long as that first male heir of I. S. paid the sum of 40 pounds to each of I. S.'s daughters, designated "A" and "B". When the deviser died, I. S. only had the two daughters.

Some time I. S. had a son, who reached the age of 21 years and paid his two sisters their 40 pounds each. The issue before the court was. Dallas reported. First, since the son of I. S. did not exist either at the time the will was made, or at the time of the deviser's death, the son could not take under the will. Second if the devise might be construed as a "future devise", the interest was too remote under the rule that a future interest must take effect within the lifetime of a life in being at the time of the deviser's death. Moreover if one of I. S.'s daughters, or grand-daughters, or an later female descendant bore a son, who might arguably become I. S.'s male heir, that heir could not inherit under the rule against perpetuities. The third argument was that, since I. S. was still alive, he could have no heir under the legal maxim "Nemo est Hares Viventis". The plaintiff responded by arguing, first that this was not a "present Devise", because the devisor would have known at the time he made his will that I. S. did not at that time have a male heir.

Second, the "Contingency", was not too remote for purposes of the rule against perpetuities, because it was clear that the devisor intended that the first son of I. S. take, not some more distant descendant, that the deviser's intent should be respected. The court ruled that the deviser's clear intent was that first son of I. S. should take, that his intentions should be enforced. It is not clear from the record of the decision or from Dallas's annotations what relationship "the deviser" or I. S. or the son of I. S. had to either Ashton or Ashton's Lessee, the parties to the proceeding before the court. Over a century after Lessee of Ashton v. Ashton was decided, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court would cite it as precedent for the proposition that the word "heirs" means "children" in the case of Appeal of Porter 45 Pa 201 Hall, Kermit, ed. Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States, Goebel, Jr. Julius, The Oliver Wendell Holmes Devise History of the Supreme Court of the United States Volume 1: Antecedents and Beginnings to 1801 Walters, Jr. Raymond, Alexander Dallas: Lawyer -- Politician -- Financier, 1759 - 1817 Lessee of Ashton v. Ashton, 1 U.

S. 4 List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 1

Deerfield Township, Ross County, Ohio

Deerfield Township is one of the sixteen townships of Ross County, United States. The 2000 census found 1,096 people in the township, 580 of whom lived in the unincorporated portions of the township. Located in the northwestern corner of the county, it borders the following townships: Perry Township, Pickaway County - north, west of Deer Creek Township Deer Creek Township, Pickaway County - north, east of Perry Township Wayne Township, Pickaway County - northeast Union Township - southeast Concord Township - southwest Wayne Township, Fayette County - west Marion Township, Fayette County - northwest cornerThe village of Clarksburg is located in northern Deerfield Township. Statewide, other Deerfield Townships are located in Morgan and Warren counties; the township is governed by a three-member board of trustees, who are elected in November of odd-numbered years to a four-year term beginning on the following January 1. Two are elected in the year after the presidential election and one is elected in the year before it.

There is an elected township fiscal officer, who serves a four-year term beginning on April 1 of the year after the election, held in November of the year before the presidential election. Vacancies in the fiscal officership or on the board of trustees are filled by the remaining trustees. County website

Kuttikattu Sree Bhadra Kali Devi Temple

Kuttikattu Sree Bhadra Kali Devi Temple is one of the Bhadrakali temples in Cherthala, Alappuzha district, Kerala. It is about 1 kilometer west of the Arthungal bypass of NH 47 at Cherthala. Kunguma Khalasam is conducted on the first Sunday of every month, as per Malayalam calendar; this special Vazipadu is for people who wish to have children and prosperity, improve their health or other desires. Rahukala Naranga Vilakku is another major offering for settling marriage, it has been conducted every Friday. Providing food for temple attendees on special days is regarded as quite benevolent. Prasadam Oottu is available on Prathishta days, day of Kunguma Kalasam, Bhagavatha Sapthaham days and 10-day annual ceremony; these are sponsored by the Devaswom. Devotees can contribute through remittance at the temple counter. Now there is a Prasadam Oottu on all Fridays; the temple is a centre of pilgrimage for devotees of serpent gods. The Sarpam Pattu is most pleasing of all poojas to the serpents; this holy ceremony has been conducted once every year.

Sarppam Pattu requires huge manpower for many months. Separate poojas are offered to the nine Nagas: Nagaraja, Sarppa Yakshi, Naga Yakshi, Naga Chamundi, Angu Thala Mani Nagam, Kuzhi Nagam, Kari Nagam, Mani Nagam and Para Nagam during these days. On the eastern side of the temple, songs are recited to please the serpents; the Pulluvan song is accompanied by the sounds from the little Veenas and the music of the Pulluva women playing on Kudam are a familiar sight at Kutti kkattu Devi Temple. Pulluva is a community of the Hindu religion, they follow this musical form as their vocation, it is believed that the songs, recited by the Pulluva praising the Nagaraja and his consorts, the sound of the musical instrument Pulluva Veena and Kudam, have the divine power to appease and attract divine serpents and earn their blessings. People with expertise in handling these instruments are rare among the Pulluva community

Lyman Stewart

Lyman Stewart was a U. S. businessman and co-founder of Union Oil, which became Unocal. Stewart was a significant Christian philanthropist and cofounder of the Bible Institute of Los Angeles, he and his brother Milton anonymously funded publication of The Fundamentals, the foundation document of Christian fundamentalism. Stewart helped found the Union Rescue Mission in Los Angeles. Stewart was born in northwestern Pennsylvania, worked for his father, a tanner; when Edwin Drake discovered oil near Titusville, Pennsylvania in 1859, Stewart tried drilling wells in the same area. After two disastrous attempts, he served a three-year enlistment in the 16th Pennsylvania Cavalry during the American Civil War. After the war, Stewart again tried to drill for oil. In 1877, Stewart was introduced to Wallace Hardison. Hardison agreed to financially support Stewart, so they purchased some land where they hoped to find oil, they enjoyed some moderate success. When John D. Rockefeller started to consolidate oil holdings in the eastern U.

S. Hardison and Stewart moved to California. Stewart and his partner found the success. By 1886, the Hardison and Stewart Oil Company was responsible for 15% of all oil production in California. In 1890, they merged their interests with those of Thomas Bard and Paul Calonico to form the Union Oil Company; as president of Union Oil, Stewart invested in new wells and expanded his company's market capitalization from $10 million in 1900 to over $50 million in 1908. Stewart founded the Pacific Gospel Mission in 1891. In 1908, along with noted Christian author T. C. Horton, founded the Bible Institute of Los Angeles. Harvard Business School 20th Century American Leaders database "Whiskey and Gunpowder" article featuring biographical information about Lyman Stewart

Hans Koeppen

Hans Friedrich Wilhelm Hugo Koeppen was an officer in the Prussian army, the German Reichswehr, a participant in the first car race around the world. He joined the 2nd Westphalian Infantry Regiment, in 1894 was promoted to second lieutenant, he rose through the ranks and became a full colonel in October 1939, major general in April 1944, shortly before retiring. As a lieutenant he took part in the first touring car rally around the world: the 1908 New York to Paris Race. Koeppen had never driven before. Koeppen's car, the Protos Wettfahrtwagen, was the first to arrive in Paris, beating the next competitor by four days; however he was penalized because he had used a rail-car for part of the journey and skipped Alaska, thus lost first place. In 1909, his book about the race, Im Auto um die Welt was published and it made him a celebrity, or folk hero, in Germany, his fame helped to popularise the toothbrush moustache in Germany, the same style adopted by Adolf Hitler