Kublai Khan

Kublai was the fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire, reigning from 1260 to 1294. He founded the Yuan dynasty in China as a conquest dynasty in 1271, ruled as the first Yuan emperor until his death in 1294. Kublai was a grandson of Genghis Khan, he succeeded his older brother Möngke as Khagan in 1260, but had to defeat his younger brother Ariq Böke in the Toluid Civil War lasting until 1264. This episode marked the beginning of disunity in the empire. Kublai's real power was limited to China and Mongolia, though as Khagan he still had influence in the Ilkhanate and, to a lesser degree, in the Golden Horde. If one counts the Mongol Empire at that time as a whole, his realm reached from the Pacific Ocean to the Black Sea, from Siberia to what is now Afghanistan. In 1271, Kublai established the Yuan dynasty, which ruled over present-day Mongolia, China and some adjacent areas, assumed the role of Emperor of China. By 1279, the Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty was completed and Kublai became the first non-Han emperor to conquer all of China.

The imperial portrait of Kublai was part of an album of the portraits of Yuan emperors and empresses, now in the collection of the National Palace Museum in Taipei. White, the color of the royal costume of Kublai, was the imperial color of the Yuan dynasty. Kublai Khan was the fourth son of Tolui, his second son with Sorghaghtani Beki; as his grandfather Genghis Khan advised, Sorghaghtani chose a Buddhist Tangut woman as her son's nurse, whom Kublai honored highly. On his way home after the Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia, Genghis Khan performed a ceremony on his grandsons Möngke and Kublai after their first hunt in 1224 near the Ili River. Kublai was nine years old and with his eldest brother killed an antelope. After his grandfather smeared fat from killed animals onto Kublai's middle finger in accordance with a Mongol tradition, he said "The words of this boy Kublai are full of wisdom, heed them well – heed them all of you." The elderly Khagan Genghis Khan would die three years after this event in 1227, when Kublai was 12.

Kublai's father Tolui would serve as regent for two years until Genghis' successor, Kublai's third uncle Ogedei, was enthroned as Khagan in 1229. After the Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty, in 1236, Ogedei gave Hebei to the family of Tolui, who died in 1232. Kublai received an estate of his own; because he was inexperienced, Kublai allowed local officials free rein. Corruption amongst his officials and aggressive taxation caused large numbers of Chinese peasants to flee, which led to a decline in tax revenues. Kublai came to his appanage in Hebei and ordered reforms. Sorghaghtani sent new officials to help him and tax laws were revised. Thanks to those efforts, many of the people who fled returned; the most prominent, arguably most influential, component of Kublai Khan's early life was his study and strong attraction to contemporary Chinese culture. Kublai invited Haiyun, the leading Buddhist monk in North China, to his ordo in Mongolia; when he met Haiyun in Karakorum in 1242, Kublai asked him about the philosophy of Buddhism.

Haiyun named Kublai's son, born in 1243, Zhenjin. Haiyun introduced Kublai to the Daoist, at the time Buddhist monk, Liu Bingzhong. Liu was a painter, calligrapher and mathematician, he became Kublai's advisor when Haiyun returned to his temple in modern Beijing. Kublai soon added the Shanxi scholar Zhao Bi to his entourage. Kublai employed people of other nationalities as well, for he was keen to balance local and imperial interests and Turk. In 1251, Kublai's eldest brother Möngke became Khan of the Mongol Empire, Khwarizmian Mahmud Yalavach and Kublai were sent to China. Kublai moved his ordo to central Inner Mongolia. During his years as viceroy, Kublai managed his territory well, boosted the agricultural output of Henan, increased social welfare spendings after receiving Xi'an; these acts received great acclaim from the Chinese warlords and were essential to the building of the Yuan Dynasty. In 1252, Kublai criticized Mahmud Yalavach, never valued by his Chinese associates, over his cavalier execution of suspects during a judicial review, Zhao Bi attacked him for his presumptuous attitude toward the throne.

Möngke dismissed Mahmud Yalavach, which met with resistance from Chinese Confucian-trained officials. In 1253, Kublai was ordered to attack Yunnan and he asked the Dali Kingdom to submit; the ruling Gao family killed Mongol envoys. The Mongols divided their forces into three. One wing rode eastward into the Sichuan basin; the second column under Subutai's son Uryankhadai took a difficult route into the mountains of western Sichuan. Kublai met up with the first column. While Uryankhadai travelled along the lakeside from the north, Kublai took the capital city of Dali and spared the residents despite the slaying of his ambassadors; the Dali King Duan Xingzhi himself defected to the Mongols, who used his troops to conquer the rest of Yunnan. Duan Xingzhi, the last king of Dali, was appointed by Möngke Khan as local ruler. After Kublai's departure, unrest broke out among certain factions. In 1255 and 1256, Duan Xingzhi was presented at court, where he offered Möngke Khan maps of Yunnan and counsels about the vanquishing of the tribes who had no

Planet News

Planet News is a book of poetry written by Allen Ginsberg and published by City Lights in 1968. It is number twenty three in the Pocket Poets series, it contains poems written by Ginsberg between 1961 and 1967, many written during his travels to India, Europe and many other places. Poems in this collection include: "Television was a Baby Crawling Toward that Deathchamber" "This form of Life needs Sex" "Stotras to Kali Destroyer of Illusions" "Describe: The Rain on Dasaswamedh" "Death News"—about his first reactions upon hearing of the death of William Carlos Williams "The Change: Kyoto-Tokyo Express" "Why is God Love, Jack?"—addressing Jack Kerouac "After Yeats" "I am a Victim of Telephone" "Kral Majales"—about being nominated "The King of May" "Who Be Kind To" "First Party at Ken Kesey's with Hell's Angels" "Wichita Vortex Sutra" "City Midnight Junk Strains" "Wales Visitation"

Wheelchair basketball at the 1972 Summer Paralympics

Wheelchair basketball at the 1972 Summer Paralympics consisted of men's and women's team events. From 1969 to 1973, a classification system designed by Australian Dr. Bedwell was used; this system used some muscle testing to determine which class incomplete paraplegics should be classified in. It used a point system based on the ISMGF classification system. Class IA, IB and IC were worth 1 point. Class II for people with lesions between T1-T5 and no balance were worth 1 point. Class III for people with lesions at T6-T10 and have fair balance were worth 1 point. Class IV was for people with lesions at good trunk muscles, they were worth 2 points. Class V was for people with lesions at L4 to L5 with good leg muscles. Class IV was for people with lesions at S1-S4 with good leg muscles. Class V and IV were worth 3 points; the Daniels/Worthington muscle test was used to determine, in class V and, class IV. Paraplegics with 61 to 80 points on this scale were not eligible. A team could have a maximum of 11 points on the floor.

Source: Basketball at the 1972 Summer Olympics Wheelchair Basketball at the 1972 Summer Paralympics from the International Paralympic Committee