The Orkhon inscriptions known as Orhon Inscriptions, Orhun Inscriptions, Khöshöö Tsaidam monuments, or Kul Tigin steles, are two memorial installations erected by the Göktürks written in Old Turkic alphabet in the early 8th century in the Orkhon Valley in Mongolia. They were erected in honor of Kul Tigin and his brother Bilge Khagan; the inscriptions, in both Chinese and Old Turkic, relate the legendary origins of the Turks, the golden age of their history, their subjugation by the Chinese, their liberation by Ilterish Qaghan. In fact, according to one source, the inscriptions contain "rhythmic and parallelistic passages" that resemble that of epics; the inscriptions were discovered by Nikolay Yadrintsev's expedition in 1889, published by Vasily Radlov. The original text was written in the Old Turkic alphabet and was deciphered by the Danish philologist Vilhelm Thomsen in 1893. Vilhelm Thomsen first published the translation in French in 1899, he published another interpretation in Danish in 1922 with a more complete translation.
Orkhon Valley is a region on the western Orkhon River near Ögii Lake. More they stand about fifty miles north of the Erdene Zuu Monastery, twenty-five miles northwest of the Ordu-Baliq. Before the Orkhon Inscriptions were deciphered by Vilhelm Thomsen little was known about Turkic script; the scripts are the oldest form of a Turkic language to be preserved. When the Orkhon inscriptions were first discovered, it was obvious that they were a runic type of script, discovered at other sites, but these versions had a clear form, similar to an alphabet; when Vilhelm Thomsen deciphered the translation it was a huge stepping stone in understanding old Turkic script. The inscriptions provided much of the foundation for translating other Turkic writings; the scripts follow an alphabetical form, but appear to have strong influences of rune carvings. The inscriptions are a great example of early signs of nomadic society's transitions from use of runes to a uniform alphabet, influenced that of the Uighur script and Sogdian language.
Both inscriptions are part of the Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape UNESCO world heritage site in Mongolia. TIKA showed interest in the site in the late 20th century and finalized their project to restore and protect all three inscriptions. Since 2000, over 70 archeologists from around the world have studied the area and performed excavations; the site is now protected by fences with buildings for research storage of artifacts. The total cost of the project is around 20 million dollars and will include the building of a museum to house the inscriptions and other discovered artifacts, they were erected by the Göktürks in the early 8th century. They commemorate the brothers Bilge Khagan and Kul-Tegin, one a politician and the other a military commander. Both were descendants of Ilterish Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate, a prominent Turkic nomadic society during the Tang dynasty; the Göktürks have left artifacts and installations from China to Iran. But only in Mongolia have any memorials to kings and other aristocrats been found.
The ones in Khöshöö Tsaidam consist of tablets with inscriptions in Chinese and Old Turkic characters. Both monuments are stone slabs erected on carved stone turtles within walled enclosures. Bilge Khagan's stone shows a twisted dragon. In both enclosings, evidence of altars and carved depictions of human couples were found depicting the respective honorary and his spouse; the Old Turkic inscriptions on these monuments were written by Yollug Tigin, nephew of Bilge Khagan. These inscriptions together with the Tonyukuk inscription, are the oldest extant attestation of that language; the inscriptions show the sacred importance of the region, as evidenced by the statement, "If you stay in the land of the Ötüken, send caravans from there, you will have no trouble. If you stay at the Ötüken Mountains, you will live forever dominating the tribes!" A full English translation of the inscriptions may be found in The Orkhon Inscriptions: Being a Translation of Professor Vilhelm Thomsen's Final Danish Rendering The two monuments themselves have engravings on all four sides.
However, some of the script was not preserved, or is missing, therefore only portions of the original message remain. What follows is a summary of the most complete section of the inscriptions. One translation of the first and second monuments seems to indicate that the text continues from one side to the other; the first portion of the Turkic translations seems to be Bilge Khagan discussing the commemoration of the tablet, as well as mentioning the extent of the empire. One passage reads, "To the East I have made campaigns as far as the Shantung plain, reached the sea. To all these lands have I led; the forest of Mount Otiikin has no overlord. Continuing on, the inscriptions discuss the conquests of the Bilge Khagan and the struggles
Tong Yabghu Qaghan
Tong Yabghu Qaghan was khagan of the Western Turkic Khaganate from 618 to 628 AD. His name is translated as "Tiger Yabgu" in Old Turkic. Another interpretation of his name is "sufficiency" or "completeness", he was the brother of Sheguy, the previous khagan of the western Göktürks, was a member of the Ashina clan. Tong Yabghu's reign is regarded as the zenith of the Western Göktürk Khaganate, his clan was syncretized Buddhist and native folk religion. Tong Yabghu maintained close relations with the Tang Dynasty of China, may have married into the Imperial family; the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Xuanzang visited the western Göktürk capital Suyab in modern Kyrgyzstan and left a description of the khagan. Scholars believe. Gao and La Vaissière argue that the khagan Xuanzang met was his son Si Yabghu, rather than Tong Yabghu. Xuanzang described the khagan as follows: The khan wore a green satin robe. A band of white silk wound hung down behind; the ministers of the presence, numbering two hundred in number, all wearing embroidered robes, stood on his right and left.
The rest of his military retinue clothed in fur and fine wool, the spears and standards and bows in order, the riders of camels and horses stretched far out of. According to the Old Book of Tang, Tong Yabghu's reign was once considered as the golden age of Western Göktürk Khaganate:Tong Yehu Kaghan is a man of bravery and astuteness, he is good at art of war. Thus he controlled Tiele tribes to the north, confronted Persia to the west, connected with Kasmira to the south. All countries are subjected to him, he controlled ten thousands of men with arrow and bow, establishing his power over the western region. He moved his tent to Qianquan north of Tashkent. All of the princes of western region assumed the Turk office of Jielifa. Tong Yehu Kaghan sent a Tutun to monitor them for imposition; the power of Western Turks had never reached such a state before". Tong Yabghu's empire fought with the Sassanids of Iran. In the early 620's the khagan's nephew Böri Shad led a series of raids across the Caucasus Mountains into Persian territory.
Many scholars have identified Tong Yabghu as the Ziebel mentioned in Byzantine sources as having campaigned with the Emperor Heraclius in the Caucasus against the Sassanid Persian Empire in 627–628. It has long been maintained by some scholars, including Chavannes, Uchida and Xue Zhongzeng that Tong Yabghu cannot be positively identified with Ziebel and may have died as early as 626; these scholars point to discrepancies in the dates between Byzantine and Chinese sources and argue that definitively conflating Ziebel with Tong Yabghu is an exaggeration of the extant evidence. The latest research on this topic proves that they were right: if Tong indeed died in 628, Ziebel is to be identified with Sipi khagan, Tong Yabghu's uncle, who murdered him and rose to the throne. Sipi was by pronounced Zibil and he was a small kaghan in charge of the western part of Tong Yabghu's empire as Ziebel was according to the Byzantine sources. Ziebel is described as the brother of Tong in the Byzantine sources, as his uncle in the Chinese sources, a discrepancy which long precluded the identification.
However uncle and elder brother is the same word in ancient Turkish, äçi, the Chinese sources could not rendered this double meaning with their precise system of kinship names. Tong Yabghu appointed governors or tuduns to manage the various tribes and people under his overlordship. In all likelihood Tong Yabghu's nephew Böri Shad, son of Zibil/Ziebel was the commander of the Khazars, the westernmost of the tribes owing allegiance to the Western Göktürks. In ca. 630 he was murdered by his uncle and a partisan of Dulu faction. Following the death of Tong Yabghu, the might of the Western Göktürks collapsed. Although the khaganate lingered for a few decades before falling to the Chinese Empire, many of the client tribes became independent and a number of successor states, including the Khazar Khaganate and Great Bulgaria, became independent, he had at least 2 sons: Si Yabghu Tardush Shad - Yabgu of Kingdom of Mikhail. Istoriya Khazar. Leningrad, 1962. Brook, Kevin Alan; the Jews of Khazaria. 2nd ed. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc, 2006.
Christian, David. A History of Russia and Central Asia. Blackwell, 1999. Gao Lei. "Revision of Zhongguo Lishi Da Cidian's Sui Tang Wudai Juan". Journal of Yantai Normal Institute's Philosophy & Social Sciences, 2001. Gibbon, Edward; the History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. London, 1845. Golden, Peter Benjamin. Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz, 1992. Golden, Peter Benjamin. Khazar Studies: An Historio-Philological Inquiry into the Origins of the Khazars. Budapest: Akademia Kiado, 1980. Golden, Peter Benjamin. Nomads and Sedentary Societies in Medieval Eurasia. Washington, D. C.: American Historical Society, 1998. Klyashtorny, S. G. and T. I. Sultanov. Kazakhstan. Alma-Ata, 1992. La Vaissière, E. de "Notes sur la chronologie de Xuanzang" Journal Asiatique 298.1 2010 pp. 157–168. La Vaissière, E. de "Oncles et frères: les qaghans Ashinas et le v
Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing meaning "children's script" or "minor script", is the practice of writing Sinitic languages such as Mandarin or the Dungan language in the Perso-Arabic script. It is used on occasion by many ethnic minorities who adhere to the Islamic faith in China, by their Dungan descendants in Central Asia. Orthography reforms introduced the Latin script and the Cyrillic script to the Dungan language, which continue to be used today. Xiao'erjing is written from right to left, as with other writing systems using the Perso-Arabic script; the Xiao'erjing writing system is unusual among Arabic script-based writing systems in that all vowels and short, are explicitly marked at all times with diacritics, unlike some other Arabic-based writing like the Uyghur Ereb Yéziqi which uses full letters and not diacritics to mark short vowels. This makes it a true abugida. Both of these practices are in contrast to the practice of omitting the short vowels in the majority of the languages for which the Arabic script has been adopted.
This is due to the overarching importance of the vowel in a Chinese syllable. Xiao'erjing does not have a standard name. In Shanxi, Henan, eastern Shaanxi and Beijing and the Northeastern provinces, the script is referred to as "Xiǎo'érjīng", which when shortened becomes "Xiǎojīng" or "Xiāojīng". In Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, western Shaanxi and the Northwestern provinces, the script is referred to as "Xiǎo'érjǐn"; the Dongxiang people refer to it as the "Dongxiang script" or the "Huihui script". According to A. Kalimov, a famous Dungan linguist, the Dungan of the former Soviet Union called this script щёҗин. Since the arrival of Islam during the Tang Dynasty, many Arabic or Persian speaking people migrated into China. Centuries these peoples assimilated with the native Han Chinese, forming the Hui ethnicity of today. Many Chinese Muslim students attended madrasas to study the Qur ` an; because these students had a basic understanding of Chinese characters but would have a better command of the spoken tongue once assimilated, they started using the Arabic script for Chinese.
This was done by writing notes in Chinese to aid in the memorization of surahs. This method was used to write Chinese translations of Arabic vocabulary learned in the madrasas. Thus, a system of writing the Chinese language with Arabic script developed and standardized to some extent; the oldest known artifact showing signs of Xiao'erjing is a stone stele in the courtyard of Daxue Xixiang Mosque in Xi'an in the province of Shaanxi. The stele shows inscribed Qur'anic verses in Arabic as well as a short note of the names of the inscribers in Xiao'erjing; the stele was done in the year AH 740 in the Islamic calendar. Some old Xiao'erjing manuscripts are preserved in the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg, Russia. Xiao'erjing can be divided into two sets, the "Mosque system", the "Daily system"; the "Mosque system" is the system used by imams in mosques and madrasahs. It contains much Arabic and Persian religious lexicon, no usage of Chinese characters.
This system is standardised, could be considered a true writing system. The "Daily system" is the system used by the less educated for letters and correspondences on a personal level. Simple Chinese characters are mixed in with the Arabic script discussing non-religious matters, therewith little Arabic and Persian loans; this practice can differ drastically from person to person. The system would be devised by the writer himself, with one's own understanding of the Arabic and Persian alphabets, mapped accordingly to one's own dialectal pronunciation. Only the letter's sender and the letter's receiver can understand what is written, while being difficult for others to read. Unlike Hui Muslims in other areas of China, Muslims of the northwest provinces of Shaanxi and Gansu had no knowledge of the Han Kitab or Classical Chinese, they used Xiao'erjing. Xiao'erjing was used to annotate in Chinese, foreign language Islamic documents in languages like Persian. Xiaojing was used by Muslims who could not read Chinese characters.
It was imperfect due to various factors. The differing Chinese dialects would require multiple different depictions with Xiaojing. Xiaojing cannot display the tones present in Chinese, syllable endings are indistinguishable, i.e. xi'an and xian. Xiao'erjing was much simpler than Chinese characters for representing Chinese. In recent years, the usage of Xiao'erjing is nearing extinction due to the growing economy of the People's Republic of China and the improvement of the education of Chinese characters in rural areas of China. Chinese characters along with Hanyu Pinyin have since replaced Xiao'erjing. Since the mid-1980s, there has been much scholarly work done within and outside China concerning Xiao'erjing. On-location research has
The Yenisei Kyrgyz known as the Ancient Kyrgyz or the Khyagas, were an ancient Turkic people who dwelled along the upper Yenisei River in the southern portion of the Minusinsk Depression from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE. The heart of their homeland was the forested Tannu-Ola mountain range, in modern-day Tuva, just north of Mongolia; the Sayan mountains were included in their territory at different times. The Kyrgyz Khaganate existed from 550 to 1219 CE; the Yenisei Kyrgyz mass migration to the Jeti-su resulted in the formation of the modern Kyrgyz Republic, land of the modern-day Kyrgyz. According to recent historical findings, Kyrgyz history dates back to 201 BC; the Yenisei Kyrgyz may be correlated to the Tashtyk culture. They were known as Jiegu or Xiajiasi in Chinese historical texts, but first appeared as Gekun or Jiankun in Han period records. By the fall of the Gokturk Empire in the eighth century CE, the Yenisei Kirghiz had established their own thriving state based on the Gokturk model.
They had adopted the Orkhon script of the Göktürks and established trading ties with China and the Abbasid Caliphate in Central Asia and Middle East. The Kyrgyz Khagans of the Yenisei Kirghiz Khaganate claimed descent from the Chinese general Li Ling, grandson of the famous Han Dynasty general Li Guang. Li Ling was captured by the Xiongnu and defected in the first century BCE, and since the Tang royal Li family claimed descent from Li Guang, the Kirghiz Khagan was therefore recognized as a member of the Tang Imperial family. Emperor Zhongzong of Tang had said to them that "Your nation and Ours are of the same ancestral clan. You are not like other foreigners."In 758, the Uyghurs killed the Kirghiz Khan, the Kirghiz came under the rule of the Uyghur Khaganate. However, the Yenisei Kyrghyz spent much of their time in a state of rebellion. In 840 they succeeded in sacking the Uyghur capital, Ordu-Baliq in Mongolia's Orkhon Valley, driving the Uyghurs out of Mongolia entirely. On February 13 843 at "Kill the Foreigners" Mountain, the Tang Chinese inflicted a devastating defeat upon the Uyghur Qaghan's forces.
But rather than replace the Uyghurs as the lords of Mongolia, the Yenisei Kirghiz continued to live in their traditional homeland and exist as they had for centuries. The defeat and collapse of the Uyghur Khaganate triggered a massive migration of Uyghurs from Mongolia into Turfan and Gansu where they founded the Kingdom of Qocho and Gansu Uyghur Kingdom; when Genghis Khan came to power in the early 13th century, the Yenisei Kirghiz submitted peacefully to him and were absorbed into his Mongol Empire, putting an end to their independent state. During the time of the Mongol Empire, the territory of the Yenisei Kirghiz in northern Mongolia was turned into an agricultural colony called Kem-Kemchik. Kublai Khan, who founded the Yuan Dynasty sent Mongolian and Chinese officials to serve as judges in the Kyrgyz and Tuva regions; some of the Yenisei Kirghiz were relocated into the Dzungar Khanate by the Dzungars. In 1761, after the Dzungars were defeated by the Qing, some Öelet, a tribe of Oirat-speaking Dzungars, were deported to Nonni basin in Northeastern China, a group of Yenisei Kirghiz were deported along with the Öelet.
The Kirghiz moved to northeastern China became known as the Fuyu Kyrgyz, but they have now merged with the Mongol and Chinese population. The descendants of the Yenisei Kirghiz today are the Kyrgyz and Altai peoples. Culturally and linguistically, the Yenisei Kirghiz were Turkic; the Kirghiz were described in Tang Dynasty texts as having Caucasian features, with some having East Asian features. According to the Tang Huiyao article on Jiegu, which likely comes from the Xu Huiyao that Yang Shaofu and others completed in 852, citing Ge Jiayun, the Protector General of Anxi: During the reign period of Kaiyuan of Xuanzong, Ge Jiayun, composed A Record of the Western Regions, in which he said "the people of the Jiankun state all have red hair and green eyes; the ones with dark eyes were descendants of Li Ling. It further mentioned that the name "Xiajiasi", by which the Kirghiz were known, was what the Uyghurs called them and had the meaning "yellow head and red face", although confusingly it was a name Kirghiz themselves used.
Since the Turks were being described as people of small stature in the Tangshu, the description of the Kirghiz as tall, blue-eyed blonds excited the early interest of scholars, who assumed that they could not have been Turkic in language. Ligeti cited the opinions of various scholars who had proposed to see them as Germanic, Slav, or Ket, while he himself, following Castrén and Schott, favoured a Samoyed origin on the basis of an etymology for a supposed Kirghiz word qaša or qaš for "iron"; however Pulleyblank argued: As far as I can see the only basis for the assumption that the Kirghiz were not Turkic in language is the fact that they are described as blonds, hardly an acceptable argument in the light of present day ideas about the independence of language and race. As Ligeti himself admitted, other evidence about the Kirghiz language in Tang sources shows that at that time they were Turkic speaking and there is no earlier evidence at all about their language; the word qaša or qaš may, I think, be Turkic.
The Tongdian says: "Whenever the sky rains iron, they use it. They call it jiasha, they m
Mongolia is a landlocked country in East Asia. Its area is equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia, that term is sometimes used to refer to the current state, it is sandwiched between China to Russia to the north. Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan. At 1,564,116 square kilometres, Mongolia is the 18th-largest and the most sparsely populated sovereign state in the world, with a population of around three million people, it is the world's second-largest landlocked country behind Kazakhstan and the largest landlocked country that does not border a closed sea. The country contains little arable land, as much of its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the country's population. Ulaanbaatar shares the rank of the world's coldest capital city with Moscow and Nur-Sultan. 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic. The majority of its population are Buddhists.
The non-religious population is the second largest group. Islam is the dominant religion among ethnic Kazakhs; the majority of the state's citizens are of Mongol ethnicity, although Kazakhs and other minorities live in the country in the west. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade groups; the area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Turkic Khaganate, others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous land empire in history, his grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan dynasty. After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict, except during the era of Dayan Khan and Tumen Zasagt Khan. In the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism began to spread in Mongolia, being further led by the Manchu-founded Qing dynasty, which absorbed the country in the 17th century.
By the early 1900s one-third of the adult male population were Buddhist monks. After the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence, achieved actual independence from the Republic of China in 1921. Shortly thereafter, the country came under the control of the Soviet Union, which had aided its independence from China. In 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was founded as a socialist state. After the anti-Communist revolutions of 1989, Mongolia conducted its own peaceful democratic revolution in early 1990; this led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, transition to a market economy. Homo erectus inhabited Mongolia from 850,000 years ago. Modern humans reached Mongolia 40,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic; the Khoit Tsenkher Cave in Khovd Province shows lively pink and red ochre paintings of mammoths, bactrian camels, ostriches, earning it the nickname "the Lascaux of Mongolia". The venus figurines of Mal'ta testify to the level of Upper Paleolithic art in northern Mongolia.
Neolithic agricultural settlements, such as those at Norovlin, Tamsagbulag and Rashaan Khad, predated the introduction of horse-riding nomadism, a pivotal event in the history of Mongolia which became the dominant culture. Horse-riding nomadism has been documented by archeological evidence in Mongolia during the Copper and Bronze Age Afanasevo culture; the wheeled vehicles found in the burials of the Afanasevans have been dated to before 2200 BC. Pastoral nomadism and metalworking became more developed with the Okunev culture, Andronovo culture and Karasuk culture, culminating with the Iron Age Xiongnu Empire in 209 BC. Monuments of the pre-Xiongnu Bronze Age include deer stones, keregsur kurgans, square slab tombs, rock paintings. Although cultivation of crops has continued since the Neolithic, agriculture has always remained small in scale compared to pastoral nomadism. Agriculture arose independently in the region; the population during the Copper Age has been described as mongoloid in the east of what is now Mongolia, as europoid in the west.
Tocharians and Scythians inhabited western Mongolia during the Bronze Age. The mummy of a Scythian warrior, believed to be about 2,500 years old, was a 30- to 40-year-old man with blond hair; as equine nomadism was introduced into Mongolia, the political center of the Eurasian Steppe shifted to Mongolia, where it remained until the 18th century CE. The intrusions of northern pastoralists into China during the Shang dynasty and Zhou dynasty presaged the age of nomadic empires; the concept of Mongolia as an independent power north of China is expressed in a letter sent by Emperor Wen of Han to Laoshang Chanyu in 162 BC: Since prehistoric times, Mongolia has been inhabited by nomads who, from time to time, formed great confederations that rose to power and prominence. Common institutions were the office of the Khan, the Kurultai and right wings, imperial army and the decimal military system; the first of these empires, the Xiongnu of undetermined
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
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Dae Jo Yeong (TV series)
Dae Joyeong is a historical korean drama aired on KBS1. The drama begins during a war between Goguryeo before Dae Jo-yeong is born. Dae Jung-sang, Dae Jo-yeong's father is introduced as a general. We are introduced to Xue Rengui, a man with a brilliant mind who comes up with a plan to bring down Liaodong Fortress. After a failed attempt to assassinate the Tang emperor Li Shimin, Jungsang is captured by Tang. Seol, enraged for not receiving credit for his actions, frees him. Dae leaves Seol to himself, heads to Ansi Fortress. Thereafter, Seol rescues some Tang soldiers about to be killed, he is promoted to the rank of general. The emperor, begins plans for making a mountain of earth in order to deliberately destroy the fortress. Dae Jo-yeong's mother, comes up with the plan to dig under the mountain as it is being built, she is pregnant with Dae Jo-yeong. As the battle begins, Tang's million men come onto the mountain; the order is given and water is released through the tunnel underneath the mountain, causing it to collapse and it crushes hundreds of thousands of Tang soldiers.
Dae Jo-yeong was born during this time. When Dae Jo-yeong is born, a prophecy says; this is seen as treachery because there is a king. So his father flees from the Supreme Commander Yeon Gaesomun, who wishes to kill the baby, only to be captured as his wife and son try to escape on a raft, she is found and captured by the Supreme Commander as well. The Supreme Commander intended to kill them at first but when General Yang Manchun tells him that the heavens sent Dae Jo-yeong to protect their country after they die, he changes his mind. General Dae Jungsang is ordered to command Goryeo Fortress, his wife is ordered to be killed along with him. Dae Jo-yeong is raised by Yeon Gaesomun, the Supreme Commander of Goguryeo as a slave and is called Gaedong so he wouldn't question why he is a slave and discover who he was with his real name; as a child he is shown running away from the Supreme Commander's estate and trying to find his parents, although not knowing his parents are alive since the Supreme Commander tells him that his parents are dead.
Dae Jo-yeong teaches himself to fight. He begs the Supreme Commander's eldest son to allow him to join the martial arts contest because the reward is emancipation, but he refuses; when he hears Namseng say that he would accept anyone who had a recommendation from the Grand Martial General Yang Manchun, he runs away to Ansi Fortress and impresses Yang Manchun, who wonders if he is Dae Jungsang's son. Dae Jo-yeong tells Yang Manchun that he wants to be a warrior. Yang Manchun, not wanting to hurt him by letting him think he has a chance, tells him to fight the best fighter in Yodong Fort, he surprises everyone and is about to smash the Geol Sa-Biwoo's head with a rock when General Yang Manchun stops the fight. He asks Dae-Joyeong why he would try cheating and he replies that in a fight, there are no rules, since for him this fight is worth more than his life. Yang Manchun gives him a recommendation, but when Dae Jo-yeong returns to Pyongyang and gives the recommendation to Yeon Gaesomun, Yeon Gaesomun angrily rips it up and says that no one can stop Dae Joyeong from entering the contest now except for him.
Dae Jo-yeong is flogged and returns to being a slave. On the day of the contest, he tries to sneak in one last time, but gets caught and thrown into a barn. During this time, the princess, King Bojang's niece Sukyeong dresses up as a soldier to watch the contest. Meanwhile, at the Pyongyang palace, a Tang envoy arrives and causes mischief by offering a peace treaty, in which a princess from Goguryeo and a prince from Tang are to marry. Yeon Gaesomun rejects it and forces the civil officials to reject it too, but Seol had not come for the peace treaty, but for a chance to assassinate Yeon Gaesomun, one of the pillars of the country. Seol teams up with Bu Kiwon, one of the civil officials, hires some assassins to kill Yeon Gaesomun. Right before the contest begins the assassins go to the same barn Dae Jo-yeong was locked in to form a plan. Dae Jo-yeong hears them talking and figures out what they are up to, but he makes a tiny noise which catches the assassins' attention. One of the assassins tells the others to go ahead since the martial arts contest was beginning and stays to take care of Dae Jo-yeong.
The princess enters the barn, the assassin is about to kill her. Dae Jo-yeong is able to knock out the assassin; when Sukyeong tries to prevent him from leaving, as she thinks that he is the assassin, he knocks her out. The assassination attempt fails, thanks to Dae Jo-yeong, but he is cut by one of the poisoned blades and falls unconscious. Yeon Gaesomun orders a royal doctor to heal him. Dae Jo-yeong goes to find his father at Goryeo Fortress. Dae Jo-yeong doesn't tell Dae Jung-sang at first, but in the end, they reconcile and return to Goguryeo. On the way, they meet a Baekje citizen. In that time, Dae Jo-yeong runs into the Khitans and meets Chulin and he love chulin, a Khitan princess, Li Kaigu, a Khitan general. Li Kaigu soon becomes Dae Joyeong's greatest rival. Li Kaigu has feelings for Chulin. Goguryeo falls with the deaths of Yeon Gaesomun and Yang M