The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter, it is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has 11 associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights, attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication; the broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals —underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility; this new body, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was indeed created in 1922.
On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the onset of World War II interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations. After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR; this was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented.
The idea of UNESCO was developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, a Preparatory Commission was established; the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General; the Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the ICIC, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence.
As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, the dissolution of the USSR. Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, started in 1947; this project was followed by expert missions to other countries, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.
In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, launched a global movement to provide basic education for a
The Kumano Kodō is a series of ancient pilgrimage routes that crisscross the Kii Hantō, the largest Peninsula of Japan. These sacred trails were and are used for the pilgrimage to the sacred site "Kumano Sanzan" or the Three Grand Shrines of Kumano: Kumano Hongū Taisha, Kumano Nachi Taisha and Kumano Hayatama Taisha; the Kumano Kodō pilgrimage routes that lead to Kumano can be categorized into three sub-routes: Kiji and Iseji. The Kumano Kodō and Kumano Sanzan, along with Koyasan and Yoshino and Omine, were registered as World Heritage sites on July 7, 2004 as the "Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes in the Kii Mountain Range." The "Kiji" route runs along the west coast of the peninsula to the city of Tanabe where it forks into two: Nakahechi and Ohechi. The Nakahechi route leads into the rugged interior mountains toward Kumano Hongū Taisha and the Ohechi continues south along the coast; the Nakahechi route was the most popular for pilgrimages from Kyoto, the ancient capital of Japan. The earliest records of this route dates from the early 10th century.
The trail has a long history of use by people with diverse belief backgrounds leading to mixed religious symbolism overlaid and incorporated into the setting and stages of the pilgrimage itself. The UNESCO World Heritage registered section begins at Takijiri-oji, considered to be the point of entry to the sacred area of Kumano. From here it is about 40 km of mountainous trail before one reaches the mystical Kumano Hongū Taisha. Most pilgrimages break the journey into a two-day walk; the Chikatsuyu-oji is most pilgrims stay the night here at a minshuku. In Hongū, pilgrims did purification rites in Yunomine Onsen. Tsuboyu is a small cabin on the creek that runs through this isolated village, featuring a small rocky bath, the only World Heritage hot spring open to visitors; the bath was used for its legendary healing effects. The Kumano Kodō Dainichi-goe route links Kumano Hongū Taisha with Yunomine, it is 2 km long and is a steep climb, descends over a small pass. From Kumano Hongū Taisha most pilgrims went by boat on the Kumano River to Kumano Hayatama Taisha in the coastal town of Shingū.
This 40 km section of the Kumano Kodō is the only river pilgrimage route, registered as a World Heritage site. There is an overland route. Most pilgrims take two days to complete this walk staying in the small town of Koguchi; the section between Hongū and Koguchi is called the Kogumotori-goe and the section between Koguchi and Kumano Nachi Taisha is called Ogumotori-goe. The "Kohechi" route links Koyasan to the Kumano Sanzan, it is 70 km long. It is the shortest route connecting Koyasan to Kumano but is a tough walk that traverses three passes of over 1,000 meters; the "Iseji" route links Ise Grand Shrine with the Kumano Sanzan. It was not until the 17th century that this route became part of the Saikogu pilgrimage, the first temple being Seiganto-ji, related to the Kumano Nachi Taisha; the "Magose Toge" forms the boundary between Miyama and Owase, Mie. A moss-covered stone path stretches about 2 km into the beautiful cypress forest covered with ferns; this route leads to Tengura-san with a huge stone at the tip.
There is a small tunnel below the stone. From the stone, there is a scenic view of Owase City. Magose-koen Park on the way down the pass is renowned for its cherry blossoms. Tourism in Japan The 100 Views of Nature in Kansai Kumano Kodo Travel Guide, 200km trails, 16'000m altitude, 60hrs hiking, Hans. 2016 Tanabe City Kumano Tourism Bureau Iseji information Shingu City Tourist Association Kumano Kodo, from The Official Nara Travel Guide
Kumano Hongū Taisha
Kumano Hongū Taisha is a Shinto shrine located in Tanabe, deep in the rugged mountains of the Kii Peninsula of Japan. It is included as part of the Kumano Sanzan in the World Heritage site "Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes in the Kii Mountain Range"; the main deity enshrined is Kumano Gongen. All of the ancient Kumano Kodō routes lead to the Grand Shrine, it was located at present Ōyunohara, on a sandbank at the confluence of the Kumano River and Otonashi River. In 1889, it was destroyed in a flood and the remaining shrine buildings were relocated at its present site in 1891. Of the original five main pavilions only three were rebuilt. Four deities were moved there and the other eight are still enshrined there in two stone monuments. In 2000, the largest torii shrine gate in the world was erected at the entrance to the Oyunohara sandbank. It's an official gateway, it signifies the division of the spiritual worlds. This torii is called Otorii and is made of steel weighing 172 tons, which took about six months to make and another six months to assemble.
Over 900 years ago a pilgrim wrote of a massive shrine grounds including five main pavilions enshrining 12 deities. Numerous other small temples and shrines could be found surrounding the main buildings. Over the centuries the pavilions were destroyed by periodic fires and flooding, but always faithfully rebuilt to their original state; the last fire was in 1776 and the buildings rebuilt again in 1803. The first drawing of the shrine grounds from over 800 years ago and the reconstruction that took place in 1803 are exactly identical. After the flood of 1889, the shrine pavilions were rebuilt at their present location; the Kumano Hongu Taisha's pavilions are an outstanding example of Japanese Shrine architecture. The use of natural unfinished materials allows it to blend effortlessly into the natural environment. Intricate joint works were used in the construction instead of nails; the thick roof gracefully sweeps forward extending over the stairs and the area in front of the shrine. It is made of Hinoki, or Japanese cypress bark.
The bronze ornaments on the roof top are characteristic features of shrine architecture. The X-shaped crosspieces that pierce the sky are called Chigi and the log like beams that are laid horizontally along and perpendicular to the ridge line are called Katsuogi, they add a dramatic highlight to the roof line. Unique to the Kumano Hongu Taisha is the corridor under the verandas of the pavilions. In the past, the pilgrims and ascetics would use this tiny refuge for meditation, Sutra copying, austere rites and sleeping quarters. In fact, this is; the Kumano Hongu Taisha is a mixture between Kasuga and Taisha styles but because of this sacred corridor it has been referred to as the Kumano style. Kumano Hongu Taisha Spring Festival, the annual spring festival held 13–15 April every year is not only a quintessential festival of Kumano but intimately associated with the pilgrimage to Kumano and the Kumano Kodo pilgrimage route. On April 13 fathers and their young sons purify themselves in the sacred waters of Yunomine Onsen before walking over the Dainichi-goe section of the Kumano Kodo pilgrimage route to Oyunohara wearing traditional costumes.
The young boys are forbidden to touch the ground. On April 15 the Kumano Deities are invoked to temporarily take up residence in a portable mikoshi shrine and returned to their original site of descend, Oyunohara; the atmosphere is serene, traditional and inspiring. Yata-no-Hi Matsuri Fire Festival, taking place on the last Saturday of August, in Oyunohara, in honour of the Yatagarasu crow; this fire festival includes the parading of a fire mikoshi, a Taiko drum show and fireworks. Buses from: West Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company Shingū Station on Kisei Main Line JR-West Kii-Tanabe Station on Kisei Main Line Nanki–Shirahama Airport Wakayama World Heritage Center Kumano Hongū Taisha Official Site Kumano Sanzan Official Site
Chigi, Okichigi or Higi are forked roof finials found in Japanese and Shinto Architecture. Chigi predate Buddhist are an architectural element endemic to Japan, they are an important aesthetic aspect of Shinto shrines, where they are paired with katsuogi, another type of roof ornamentation. Today and katsuogi are used on Shinto buildings and distinguish them from other religious structures, such as Buddhist temples in Japan. Chigi are thought to have been employed on Japanese buildings starting from the 1st century AD, their existence during the Jōmon period is well documented by numerous artifacts. Measurements for chigi were mentioned in an early document, the Taishinpō Enryaku Gishikichō, written in 804 AD; the evolutionary origins of the chigi are not known. One theory is that they were interlocking bargeboard planks that were left uncut. Another is, yet another theory proposes that they were used to hold thatch roofing together. Evidence of this can be seen in minka, or common traditional homes, where two interlocking timbers are found at the roof gables.
However, the only certain fact is that chigi were a working part of the structure, but as building techniques improved, their function was lost and they were left as decorations. Chigi were only to have decorated the homes and warehouses of powerful families, more decorations signified higher rank; this traditional continued until recent times. In the 17th to 19th centuries, the legal code dictated how many chigi were allowed on a building roofs in accordance with the owner's social rank. Today, chigi are found only on Shinto shrines. Chigi may be built directly into the roof as part of the structure, or attached and crossed over the gable as an ornament; the former method is believed to closer resemble its original design, is still utilized in older building methods such as shinmei-zukuri, kasuga-zukuri, taisha-zukuri. Chigi that aren't built into the building are crossed, sometimes cut with a slight curve. While chigi are predominantly placed only at the ends of the roof, this method allows them to sometimes be placed in the middle as well.
More ornate chigi, such as at Ise Shrine, are cut with one or two kaza-ana, or "wind-slots", a third open cut at the tip, giving it a forked appearance. Gold metal coverings serve both ornamental purposes. If the tops are cut vertically, the enshrined kami is a male, otherwise a female; the katsuogi, a short decorative log, is found behind the chigi. Depending on the building, there may be only one katsuogi accompanying the chigi, or an entire row along the ridge of the roof. Names for chigi can vary from region. In Kyoto, Nara Prefecture, Hiroshima, they are called uma. In parts of Toyama, Osaka, Kōchi and Miyazaki prefectures, they are called umanori. Katsuogi Shinto architecture Shinto shrine The Glossary of Shinto for terms concerning Shinto and Shinto architecture
Kumano Hayatama Taisha
Kumano Hayatama Taisha is a Shinto shrine located in Shingu, Wakayama Prefecture, on the shores of the Kumanogawa in the Kii Peninsula of Japan. It is included as part of the Kumano Sanzan in the UNESCO World Heritage site "Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes in the Kii Mountain Range"; the three Kumano Sanzan shrines are the Sōhonsha of all Kumano shrines, lie at between 20 and 40 km of distance one from the other and are connected by the pilgrimage route known as "Kumano Sankeimichi". List of National Treasures of Japan List of National Treasures of Japan Sacred Nagi Tree of Kumano Hayatama Taisha Kumano Sanzan accessed on December 1, 2008 Kumano Hayatama Taisha accessed on December 1, 2008 Sacred site "Kumano Sanzan" accessed on June 12, 2008 Tanabe City Kumano Tourism Bureau
A gongen "incarnation", was believed to be the manifestation of a buddha in the form of an indigenous kami, an entity who had come to guide the people to salvation, during the era of shinbutsu-shūgō in premodern Japan. The words gonge and kegen are synonyms for gongen. Gongen shinkō is the term for belief in the existence of gongen; the gongen concept is the cornerstone of the honji suijaku theory, according to which Buddhist deities choose to appear to the Japanese as native kami in order to save them, based on the Mahayana Buddhist notion of upaya, "expedient means". It is sometimes assumed. However, the term was created and started being used in the middle of the Heian period in an effort to harmonize Buddhism and indigenous religious practice in what is called shinbutsu-shūgō or "syncretism of kami and buddhas". At that time, the assumption that Japanese kami and buddhas were the same evolved into a theory called honji suijaku, which held that native kami were manifestations or avatars of buddhas and other Buddhist deities.
The theory spread around the country and the concept of gongen, a dual entity composed of a buddha and a kami, evolved. Under the influence of Tendai Buddhism and Shugendō, the gongen concept was adapted to religious beliefs tied to Mount Iwaki, a volcano, so that female kami Kuniyasutamahime became associated with Avalokiteśvara ekadaśamukha, Ōkuninushi with Bhaisajyaguru and Kuninotokotachi with Amitābha; the title "gongen" started being attached to the names of kami and shrines were built within the premises of large Buddhist temples to enshrine their tutelary kami. During the Japanese Middle Ages, shrines started being called with the name gongen to underline their ties to Buddhism. For example, in Eastern Japan there are still many Mount Haku shrines where the shrine itself is called either gongen or jinja; because it represents the application of Buddhist terminology to native kami, the use of the term was abolished in the Meiji Restoration with the Shinto and Buddhism Separation Order and shrines began to be called jinja.
Izuna Gongen called "Izuna Myōjin" and enshrined in Izuna Shrine in Nagano, is similar to a tengu and represents the kami of Mount Iizuna. Izusan Gongen or Hashiri-yu Gongen is the spirit of a hot spring on Izusan, a hill in Shizuoka Prefecture, enshrined in the Izusan Jinja Kumano Gongen known as Three Mountains of Kumano; the kami enshrined in the three Kumano Sanzan Grand Shrines and worshipped in Kumano shrines are the three Kumano mountains: Hongū, Shingū, Nachi. Seiryū Gongen was enshrined in Jingo-ji in Takao as the tutelary kami of Shingon Buddhism by Kūkai. Tōshō Daigongen is one of the most famous examples of gongen, representing Tokugawa Ieyasu posthumously enshrined in so-called Tōshō-gū shrines present all over Japan; the original one is Nikkō Tōshō-gū in Tochigi. Zaō Gongen or Kongō Zaō Bosatsu is a deity worshiped in Shugendō. Gongen-zukuri is the name of a complex Shinto shrine structure in which the haiden, or worship hall, the honden, or main sanctuary, are interconnected under the same roof in the shape of an H.
One of the oldest examples of gongen-zukuri is Kitano Tenmangū in Kyoto. The name comes from Nikkō Tōshō-gū in Nikkō because, as we have seen, it enshrines the Tōshō Daigongen and adopts this structure; the Glossary of Shinto for an explanation of terms concerning Japanese Shinto, Shinto art, Shinto shrine architecture Tamura, Yoshiro. Japanese Buddhism — A Cultural History. Tokyo: Kosei Publishing Company. Pp. 232 pages. ISBN 4-333-01684-3. Breen, Mark Teeuwen. Shinto in History: Ways of the Kami. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2363-4. OCLC 43487317. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
The shōrō, shurō or kanetsuki-dō is the bell tower of a Buddhist temple in Japan, housing the temple's bonshō. It can be found at some Shinto shrines which used to be shrines, as for example Nikkō Tōshō-gū. Two main types exist, the older hakamagoshi, which has walls, the more recent fukihanachi or fukinuki, which does not. During the Nara period after the arrival of Buddhism in Japan bell towers were 3 x 2 bay, 2 storied buildings. A typical temple garan had two, one to the left and one to the right of the kyōzō, the sūtra repository. An extant example of this style is Hōryū-ji's Sai-in Shōrō in Nara. During the following Heian period was developed a new style called hakamagoshi which consisted of a 2 storied, hourglass-shaped building with the bell hanging from the second story; the earliest extant example is Hōryū-ji's Tō-in Shōrō. During the 13th century the fukihanachi type was created at Tōdai-ji by making all structural parts visible; the bell tower in this case consists of a 1-ken wide, 1-ken high structure with no walls and having the bell at its center.
Sometimes the four pillars have an inward inclination called uchikorobi. After the Nara period, in which temple layout was rigidly prescribed after the Chinese fashion, the position of the bell tower stopped being prescribed and began to change temple by temple. Roofs are either gabled or hip-and-gable