San Diego Museum of Man
The San Diego Museum of Man is a museum of anthropology located in Balboa Park, San Diego and housed in the historic landmark buildings of the California Quadrangle. The museum traces its origins to the Panama-California Exposition, which opened in 1915 on the occasion of the inauguration of the Panama Canal; the central exhibit of the exposition, "The Story of Man through the Ages", was assembled under the direction of noted archaeologist Dr. Edgar Lee Hewett of the School of American Archaeology. Hewett organized expeditions to gather pre-Columbian pottery from the American Southwest and to Guatemala for objects and reproductions of Maya civilization monuments. Numerous other materials were gathered from expeditions sent by anthropologist Aleš Hrdlička of the Smithsonian Institution, who gathered casts and specimens from Africa, Siberia and Southeast Asia. Osteological remains and trepanated crania from Peruvian sites were obtained; as the Exposition drew to a close, a group of citizens led by George Marston formed the San Diego Museum Association to retain the collection and convert it into a permanent museum, with Dr. Hewett as the first director.
Notable additions to the museum's collection after the Exposition included the Jessop Weapons Collection and a rare collection of artifacts from the ancient Egyptian city of Amarna, donated by Ellen Browning Scripps and the Egyptian Exploration Society. Between 1935 and 1936, the museum's name changed to the Palace of Science in order to correspond with other exhibit buildings participating in the California-Pacific International Exposition. During this exposition, the museum housed several special exhibitions from a variety of sources, such as the Monte Alban exhibit, which featured many artifacts on loan from the Mexican government; the name was changed to "Museum of Man" in 1942 to emphasize the museum's concentration on anthropology. "San Diego" was added in 1978. The museum was converted into a hospital during World War II, its exhibits and collections were temporarily moved into storage. Following the war, the museum began to focus its collections on the peoples of the Western Americas.
The museum's collections grew from the 1980s through the early 1990s, today contains nearly two million individual objects. The museum is housed in four original buildings from the 1915 Exposition; those include the California Quadrangle, designed for the Exposition by American architect Bertram G. Goodhue, the California Tower, one of the most prominent landmarks in San Diego; the Quadrangle and Tower are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The exterior sculpture on the building was created by the Piccirilli Brothers; the main museum, including exhibits and gift shop, is housed in the ornate California Building with its landmark tower. The tower, closed to the public for nearly 80 years, reopened on January 1, 2015, in time for the 2015 centennial of the Panama-California Exposition; the tower contains a quarterly-hour chimes which can be heard all over Balboa Park. The museum occupies three other original 1915 buildings. Administrative offices and an auditorium are housed in the Gill Administration Building adjacent to the Museum on the west.
Known as the Balboa Park Administration Building, it was built in 1911 and designed by architect Irving Gill. It was the first building. On the opposite side of the California Quadrangle, housed in what was the Fine Arts Building, is Evernham Hall, a banquet room, used for temporary exhibits. Adjacent is the Saint Francis Chapel, a non-denominational Spanish-style chapel available for private events such as weddings; the museum's cultural resources and permanent exhibits focus on the pre-Columbian history of the western Americas, with materials drawn from Native American cultures of the Southern California region, Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Maya. The museum holds one of the most important collections of Ancient Egyptian antiquities in the United States, which includes burial masks and seven painted wooden coffins; the most extraordinary of these is an rare Ptolemaic child's coffin — only six others are known to exist worldwide. Total holdings include more than 100,000 documented ethnographic items, more than 300,000 archaeological items, more than 25,000 photographic images.
Admissions and Gift Shop BEERology: This special exhibit features 10,000 years of beer history and brewing practices among the Ancient Egyptians, Chinese, Amazonian headhunters, other cultures throughout the world. The exhibit explores ancient and modern beer types and brewing practices, as well as their influential connections to agriculture and social meaning-making. Highlights include the solid gold beer cup of an Incan king; the exhibit includes a full, hand-crafted bar, which provides the space for regular beer tasting events and other private functions. This exhibit will be open through 2018. Maya: Heart of Sky, Heart of Earth: displays several huge Maya monuments, or stelae, in the Rotunda Gallery; these are casts of the original monuments in a site in Guatemala. The casts were made for the 1915 Panama-California Exposition and have been on display since, except during World War II, when the Navy took control of most of Balboa Park and turned the Museum into a hospital. Today these casts are studied by researchers tracing the history of the Maya through their
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
Escondido is a city located in San Diego County's North County region, 30 miles northeast of downtown San Diego. The city occupies a shallow valley ringed by rocky hills. Incorporated in 1888, it is one of the oldest cities in San Diego County; the city had a population of 143,911 in the 2010 census. "Escondido" is a Spanish word meaning "hidden". One source says the name referred to agua escondida or hidden water; the city is known as Eskondiid in Diegueño. The Escondido area was first settled by the Luiseño, who established campsites and villages along the creek running through the area, they named the place "Mehel-om-pom-pavo." The Kumeyaay migrated from areas near the Colorado River, settling both in the San Pasqual Valley and near the San Dieguito River in the southwestern and western portions of what is now Escondido. Most of the villages and campsites today have been destroyed by agriculture. Spain controlled the land from the late 18th century to the early 19th century, established many missions in California to convert the indigenous people.
When Mexico gained its independence from Spain, the local land was divided into large ranchos. Most of what is now Escondido occupies the former Rancho Rincon del Diablo, a Mexican land grant given to Juan Bautista Alvarado in 1843 by Governor Manuel Micheltorena. Alvarado was a Regidor of Los Angeles at the time, the first Regidor of the pueblo of San Diego; the southern part of Escondido occupies the former Rancho San Bernardo, granted in 1842 and 1845. In 1846, during the Mexican–American War, the Battle of San Pasqual was fought southeast of Escondido; this battle pitted Mexican forces under Andrés Pico against Americans under Stephen W. Kearny, Archibald Gillespie, Kit Carson. A park in Escondido is named for Carson; the city was home to a Spanish-speaking population in the first census, taken in 1850 when California became a state. After statehood, non-Hispanic settlers came to Southern California in increasing numbers; the decade of the 1880s is known as the "Southern California Land Boom" because so many people moved to the state.
In 1853, pro-Southern Copperheads proposed dividing the state of California to create a new Territory of Colorado. San Diego Judge Oliver S. Witherby suggested placing the capitol of the new territory in Rancho Rincon del Diablo, he envisioned a railroad connecting San Diego to Fort Yuma through an area about two miles south of the current Escondido site, heading east through San Pasqual. With a series of deeds in 1855 and 1856, the rancho was transferred from the heirs of Juan Bautista Alvarado to Witherby, he planned to profit from the town that he believed would be established from the dividing point on the railroad below the eastern hills. The proposal for splitting the state and creating the new territory passed in the California legislature, but died in Congress in the run-up to the Civil War, it was killed in 1861 when Congress organized the Territory of Colorado in the area occupied by the Jefferson Territory. With Witherby's vision of owning a bustling state capitol unrealized, he set up a mining operation on the rancho instead.
In 1868, Witherby sold the rancho for $8000 to Edward McGeary and John and Matthew Wolfskill. McGeary owned half the rancho, while the three Wolfskill brothers each owned an equal share of the other half. John Wolfskill farmed sheep and cattle on the rancho for a number of years. Wolfskill had frequent conflicts with the Couts family, owners of the neighboring Guajome, Buena Vista, San Marcos ranchos, over grazing lands and watering holes. In October 1883, a group of Los Angeles investors purchased Rancho Rincon del Diablo; this group sold the land to the newly formed Escondido Company in 1884. On December 18, 1885, investors incorporated the Escondido Land and Town Company, in 1886 this company purchased the 12,814-acre area for $100,000. Two years in 1888, Escondido was incorporated as a city. Railroads such as the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific were laid in the 1880s; the opening of U. S. Route 395 in 1930 boosted economic growth in Escondido. Escondido was an agricultural community, growing muscat grapes initially.
After a dam was built in 1894-5 to form what is known today as Lake Wohlford and lemon trees were planted in large numbers, as were olive and walnut trees. By the 1960s, avocados became the largest local crop. Since the 1970s, Escondido has lost most of its agricultural land to housing developments. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 37.0 square miles. 36.8 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. The total area is 0.48% water. The city is growing at a rapid rate with new communities like Hidden Trails appearing at the east end of East Valley Parkway; the city proper is surrounded by several sparsely populated unincorporated communities. These include Jesmond Hidden Meadows to the north. Residents of these communities have Escondido mailing addresses and zip codes, their children are sometimes assigned to Escondido schools, but residents of these communities cannot participate in city elections; the city contains several neighborhoods including: Downtown Escondido centers on Grand Avenue between Centre City Parkway and Palomar Hospital.
The city's general plan defines the Downtown Specific Plan Area as 460 acres (1
The Quechan are a Native American tribe who live on the Fort Yuma Indian Reservation on the lower Colorado River in Arizona and California just north of the Mexican border. Members are enrolled into the Quechan Tribe of the Fort Yuma Indian Reservation; the federally recognized Quechan tribe's main office is located in Arizona. Its operations and the majority of its reservation land are located in United States; the historic Yuman-speaking people in this region were skilled warriors and active traders, maintaining exchange networks with the Pima in southern Arizona and with peoples of the Pacific coast. The first significant contact of the Quechan with Europeans was with the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza and his party in the winter of 1774. Relations were friendly. On Anza's return from his second trip to Alta California in 1776, the chief of the tribe and three of his men journeyed to Mexico City to petition the Viceroy of New Spain for the establishment of a mission; the chief Palma and his three companions were baptized in Mexico City on February 13, 1777.
Palma was given the Spanish baptismal name Salvador Carlos Antonio. Spanish settlement among the Quechan did not go smoothly, they attacked and damaged the Spanish mission settlements of San Pedro y San Pablo de Bicuñer and Puerto de Purísima Concepción, killing many. The following year, the Spanish retaliated with military action against the tribe. After the United States annexed the territories after winning the Mexican–American War, it engaged in the Yuma War from 1850 to 1853. During which, the historic Fort Yuma was built across the Colorado River from the present day Yuma, Arizona. Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. Alfred L. Kroeber put the 1770 population of the Quechan at 2,500. Jack D. Forbes compiled historical estimates and suggested that before they were first contacted, the Quechan had numbered 4,000 or a few more. Kroeber estimated the population of the Quechan in 1910 as 750. By 1950, there were reported to be just under 1,000 Quechan living on the reservation and more than 1,100 off it.
The 2000 census reported a resident population of 2,376 persons on the Fort Yuma Indian Reservation, only 56.8 percent of whom said they were of Native American heritage. More than 27 percent of these persons identified as white; the Quechan language is part of the Yuman language family. The Fort Yuma Indian Reservation is a part of the Quechan's traditional lands. Established in 1884, the reservation, at 32°47′N 114°39′W, has a land area of 178.197 km2 in southeastern Imperial County and western Yuma County, near the city of Yuma, Arizona. Both the county and city are named for the tribe. Quechan traditional narratives Quechan language Fort Yuma Blythe geoglyphs Indigenous peoples of the Americas Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas Native Americans in the United States Forbes, Jack D.. Warriors of the Colorado: The Yumas of the Quechan Nation and Their Neighbors. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Kroeber, A. L.. Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin.
78. Washington, DC. Pritzker, Barry M.. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Zappia, Natale A.. Traders and Raiders: The Indigenous World of the Colorado Basin, 1540-1859. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. "Yuma Reservation, California/Arizona". United States Census Bureau. Quechan Tribal Council, official website Fort Yuma-Quechan Tribe, Inter Tribal Council of Arizona
San Diego River
The San Diego River is a river in San Diego County, California. It originates in the Cuyamaca Mountains northwest of the town of Julian flows to the southwest until it reaches the El Capitan Reservoir, the largest reservoir in the river's watershed at 112,800 acre feet. Below El Capitan Dam, the river runs west through San Diego. While passing through Tierrasanta it goes through Mission Trails Regional Park, one of the largest urban parks in America; the river discharges into the Pacific Ocean near the entrance to Mission Bay. The river has changed its course several times in recorded history; when the first European settlers arrived in the late 18th century it emptied into False Bay, the present day Mission Bay. At some point in the 1820s it altered course and began to empty into San Diego Bay, which continued for nearly 50 years; because of fears that the harbor would silt up, the river was diverted to its present course in 1877 by a dam and the straightening of the channel to the ocean. The river travels 52 miles from its headwaters to the ocean.
The river's tributaries include: Oak Canyon Creek Spring Canyon Creek Forester Creek Los Coches Creek San Vicente Creek Wildcat Canyon Creek Chocolate Creek Conejos Creek Sand Creek Isham Creek Boulder Creek Cedar Creek Ritchie Creek Dye Canyon Creek Iron Springs Canyon Creek Temescal Creek Sentenac Creek Coleman Creek Baily Creek Jim Green Creek Boring Creek Marriette Creek Eastwood CreekFour additional reservoirs lie in the river's watershed. Cuyamaca Reservoir is located on Boulder Creek and San Vicente Reservoir is fed by San Vicente Creek. Lake Jennings and Lake Murray are formed by the damming of canyons; the San Diego River Park Foundation was founded in 2001 and is dedicated to conserving the water, recreation and community involved with the San Diego River. The San Diego River Conservancy was established by an act of the California Legislature to preserve and enhance the San Diego River area; the Conservancy is a non-regulatory agency of the state government with an independent nine-member governing board.
It is tasked to acquire and conserve land and to protect or provide recreational opportunities, open space, wildlife species and habitat, water quality, natural flood conveyance, historical/cultural resources, educational opportunities. One important goal is to help create a river-long park and hiking trail, stretching the full length of the river from its headwaters in the Cuyamaca Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. From mouth to source: San Diego River Watershed Management Plan Lakeside's River Park Conservancy
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l