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Kumis is a fermented dairy product traditionally made from mare's milk. The drink remains important to the peoples of the Central Asian steppes, of Huno-Bulgar and Mongol origin: Kazakhs, Kalmyks, Kyrgyz and Yakuts. Kumis was consumed by the Khitan and Han Chinese of North China as well. Kumis is a dairy product similar to kefir, but is produced from a liquid starter culture, in contrast to the solid kefir "grains"; because mare's milk contains more sugars than cow's or goat's milk, when fermented, kumis has a higher, though still mild, alcohol content compared to kefir. In the areas of the world where kumis is popular today, mare's milk remains a limited commodity. Industrial-scale production, therefore uses cow's milk, richer in fat and protein, but lower in lactose than the milk from a horse. Before fermentation, the cow's milk is fortified in one of several ways. Sucrose may be added to allow a comparable fermentation. Another technique adds modified whey to better approximate the composition of mare's milk.

Kumis comes from the Turkic word kımız. Kurmann derives the word from the name of the Kumyks, one of many Turkic peoples, although this appears to be a purely speculative claim. Clauson notes that kımız is found throughout the Turkic language family, cites the 11th-century appearance of the word in Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk written by Kaşgarlı Mahmud in the Karakhanid language. In Mongolia, the drink is called airag or, in some areas, tsegee. William of Rubruck in his travels calls the drink cosmos and describes its preparation among the Mongols. A 1982 source reported 230,000 horses were kept in the Soviet Union for producing milk to make into kumis. Rinchingiin Indra, writing about Mongolian dairying, says "it takes considerable skill to milk a mare" and describes the technique: the milker kneels on one knee, with a pail propped on the other, steadied by a string tied to an arm. One arm is wrapped behind the other in front. A foal starts the milk flow and is pulled away by another person, but left touching the mare's side during the entire process.

In Mongolia, the milking season for horses traditionally runs between mid-June and early October. During one season, a mare produces 1,000 to 1,200 litres of milk, of which about half is left to the foals. Kumis is made by fermenting raw unpasteurized mare's milk over the course of hours or days while stirring or churning.. During the fermentation, lactobacilli bacteria acidify the milk, yeasts turn it into a carbonated and mildly alcoholic drink. Traditionally, this fermentation took place in horse-hide containers, which might be left on the top of a yurt and turned over on occasion, or strapped to a saddle and joggled around over the course of a day's riding. Today, plastic barrel may be used in place of the leather container. In modern controlled production, the initial fermentation takes two to five hours at a temperature of around 27 °C; the finished product contains between 2.5 % alcohol. Kumis itself has a low level of alcohol, comparable to small beer, the common drink of medieval Europe that helps to avoid the consumption of contaminated water.

Kumis can, however, be strengthened through freeze distillation, a technique Central Asian nomads are reported to have employed. It can be made into the distilled beverage known as araka or arkhi. Archaeological investigations of the Botai culture of ancient Kazakhstan have revealed traces of milk in bowls from the site of Botai, suggesting the domestication of the animal. No specific evidence for its fermentation has yet been found, but considering the location of the Botai culture and the nutritional properties of mare's milk, the possibility is high. Kumis is an ancient beverage. Herodotus, in his 5th-century BC Histories, describes the Scythians processing of mare's milk: Now the Scythians blind all their slaves, to use them in preparing their milk; the plan they follow is to thrust tubes made of bone, not unlike our musical pipes, up the vulva of the mare, to blow into the tubes with their mouths, some milking while the others blow. They say that they do this because when the veins of the animal are full of air, the udder is forced down.

The milk thus obtained is poured into deep wooden casks, about which the blind slaves are placed, the milk is stirred round. That which rises to the top is drawn off, considered the best part; this is believed to be the first description of ancient kumis-making. Apart from the idiosyncratic method of mare-milking, it matches up well enough with accounts, such as this one given by 13th-century traveller William of Rubruck: This cosmos, mare's milk, is made in this wise; when they have got together a great quantity of milk, as sweet as cow's as long as it is fresh, they pour it into a big skin or bottle, they set to churning it with a stick and when they have beaten it it begins to boil up like new wine and to sour or ferment, they continue to churn it until they have extracted the butter. They taste it, when it is mildly pungent, they drink it, it is pungent on the tongue like rapé wine when drunk, when a man has finished drinking, it leaves a taste of milk of almonds on the tongue, it makes the inner man most joyful and intoxicates weak heads, provokes urine.

Rubruk mentions that the Mongols prized a particular variety of

List of 1994 Contract with America signers

The Contract with America was signed by the following list of 367 Republican candidates for U. S. Congress on the steps of the U. S. Capitol on September 27, 1994. All candidates had won the Republican nomination in their respective districts and were candidates in the 1994 U. S. Congressional general elections. Three days after the signing of the Contract with America, Democratic Congresswoman from Georgia, Cynthia McKinney stated in the Congressional Record that the list of signers had not been made public; the list of Contract With America signers was released to the public by the organizers of the Contract with America including Newt Gingrich, Dick Armey, Ed Gillespie and Bob Schellhas, the Republican National Committee, the National Republican Congressional Committee. It was published between October and December 1994 with three different publishers in paperback editions all using the same title, Contract With America. Michael Castle Amata Coleman Radewagen Jan Berkhout Barbara Cubin Contract With America Republican Revolution United States House of Representatives elections, 1994 104 U.

S. Congress Republican Contract With America. Washington, D. C.: Republican National Committee and Three Rivers Press, 1994. Gingrich and Richard K Armey, Ed Gillespie, Bob Schellhas. Contract With America. New York: Times Books, 1994. Gillespie, Ed and Bob Schellhas. Contract with America. New York: Random House, 1994. Klinkner, Philip A. Midterm: The Elections of 1994 in Context. Westview Press, 1996

Carl Perkins

Carl Lee Perkins was an American singer-songwriter who recorded most notably at the Sun Studio, in Memphis, beginning in 1954. Amongst his best-known songs are "Blue Suede Shoes", "Matchbox" and "Everybody's Trying to Be My Baby". According to Charlie Daniels, "Carl Perkins' songs personified the rockabilly era, Carl Perkins' sound personifies the rockabilly sound more so than anybody involved in it, because he never changed." Perkins's songs were recorded by artists as influential as Elvis Presley, the Beatles, Jimi Hendrix, Johnny Cash and Eric Clapton which further established his place in the history of popular music. Paul McCartney claimed that "if there were no Carl Perkins, there would be no Beatles."Called "the King of Rockabilly", he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, the Rockabilly Hall of Fame, the Memphis Music Hall of Fame, the Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame. He received a Grammy Hall of Fame Award. Perkins was born near Tiptonville, the son of poor sharecroppers and Louise Perkins.

He grew up hearing southern gospel music sung by white friends in church and by African-American field workers when he worked in the cotton fields. Beginning at the age of six, during spring and autumn, school days would be followed by a few hours of work in the fields. In the summer, workdays were 12 to 14 hours, "from can to can't." Perkins and his brother Jay together would earn 50 cents a day. All his family members worked, so there was enough money for beans and potatoes, tobacco for Perkins's father, the luxury of a five-cent bag of hard candy. On Saturday nights Perkins would listen to the Grand Ole Opry on his father's radio. Roy Acuff's broadcasts inspired him to ask his parents for a guitar. Since they could not afford one, his father made one from a broomstick. A neighbor in hard times offered to sell his dented and scratched Gene Autry model guitar with worn-out strings. Buck Perkins bought it for his son for a couple of dollars. Perkins taught himself parts of Acuff's "Great Speckled Bird" and "The Wabash Cannonball", having heard them played on the Opry.

He cited Bill Monroe's fast playing and vocals as an early influence. Perkins learned more about the guitar from John Westbrook, an African-American field worker in his sixties. "Uncle John", as Perkins called him, played blues and gospel music on an old acoustic guitar. Westbrook advised Perkins to "Get down close to it. You can feel it travel down the strangs, come through your head and down to your soul where you live. You can feel it. Let it vib-a-rate." Perkins could not afford new strings, when they broke he had to retie them. The knots cut his fingers when he would slide to another note, so he began bending the notes, stumbling onto a type of blue note. Perkins was recruited to be a member of the Lake County Fourth Grade Marching Band. Since his family was too poor to afford them, Lee McCutcheon, the woman in charge of the band, gave him a new white shirt, cotton pants, a white band cap and a red cape. In January 1947, the Perkins family moved from Tennessee, to Madison County, Tennessee. A new radio that ran on house current rather than a battery and the closeness to Memphis exposed Perkins to a greater variety of music.

At age fourteen, using the I-IV-V chord progression common in country music of the day, he wrote a song that came to be known around Jackson as "Let Me Take You to the Movie, Magg". Perkins and his brother Jay had their first paying job as entertainers at the Cotton Boll tavern on Highway 45, twelve miles south of Jackson, starting on Wednesday nights during late 1946. Perkins was 14 years old. One of the songs they played was an up-tempo country blues shuffle version of Bill Monroe's "Blue Moon of Kentucky". Free drinks were one of the perks of playing in a tavern, Perkins drank four beers that first night. Within a month Carl and Jay began playing Friday and Saturday nights at the Sand Ditch tavern, near the western boundary of Jackson. Both places were the scene of occasional fights, both of the Perkins brothers gained a reputation as fighters. During the next couple of years the Perkins brothers began playing other taverns around Bemis and Jackson, including El Rancho, the Roadside Inn, the Hilltop, as they became better known.

Carl persuaded his brother Clayton to play the upright bass to complete the sound of the band. Perkins began performing on WTJS in Jackson during the late 1940s as a sometime member of the Tennessee Ramblers, he appeared on Hayloft Frolic, on which he performed two songs, sometimes including "Talking Blues" as done by Robert Lunn on the Grand Ole Opry. Perkins and his brothers began appearing on The Early Morning Farm and Home Hour. Positive listener response resulted in a 15-minute segment sponsored by Mother's Best Flour. By the end of the 1940s, the Perkins Brothers were the best-known band in the Jackson area. Perkins had day jobs during most of these early years, picking cotton and working at Day's Dairy in Malesus, at a mattress factory and in a battery plant, he worked as a pan greaser for the Colonial Baking Company in 1951 and 1952. In January 1953, Perkins married Valda Crider; when his job at the bakery was reduced to part-time, who had her own job, encouraged Perkins to begin working the taverns full-time.

He began playing six nights a week. The same year he added W. S. "Fluke" Holland to the band as a drummer. Holland had a good sense of rhythm. Malcolm Yelvington, who remembered the Perkins Brothers when they played in Covington, Tennessee, in

Carrolltown, Pennsylvania

Carrolltown is a borough in Cambria County, United States. The population was 853 at the 2010 census, down from 1,049 at the 2000 census, it is part of Pennsylvania Metropolitan Statistical Area. Carrolltown is located in northern Cambria County at 40°36′N 78°43′W, about 20 miles west of Altoona. U. S. Route 219 passes through the borough, leading northwest 6 miles to Northern Cambria and south 8 miles to Ebensburg, the county seat. According to the United States Census Bureau, Carrolltown has a total area of 0.69 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,049 people, 407 households, 295 families living in the borough; the population density was 1,583.8 people per square mile. There were 440 housing units at an average density of 664.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 99.62% White, 0.19% African American, 0.19% from two or more races. There were 407 households, out of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.0% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.5% were non-families.

25.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 17.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.06. In the borough the population was spread out, with 22.2% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 23.7% from 45 to 64, 19.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 102.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.1 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $32,833, the median income for a family was $39,792. Males had a median income of $33,056 versus $17,500 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $16,250. About 6.2% of families and 8.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.7% of those under age 18 and 9.8% of those age 65 or over. Bishop John Carroll Peter Henry Lemke, Roman Catholic missionary Victoria Lipnic, Commissioner of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Carrolltown official website

Mark Mobius

Joseph Bernhard Mark Mobius is an American emerging markets fund manager and founder of Mobius Capital Partners LLP. Joseph Benhard Mark Mobius was born to German and Puerto Rican parents in New York, he earned his B. A. and M. S. in Communications from Boston University, received a Ph. D in economics from MIT in 1964, he studied at the University of Wisconsin, University of New Mexico, Kyoto University in Japan. Mobius was executive chairman of Templeton Emerging Markets Group, having joined Templeton in 1987. At Templeton, he established and directed the research team based in 18 global emerging markets offices and managed more than $50 billion in emerging markets portfolios. In 2015, after leading the company for over a quarter of a century, Mark Mobius decided to step down as the lead manager of the Templeton Emerging Markets Investment Trust and handed over control of the fund to Carlos Hardenberg. In 2018, Franklin Templeton announced Mobius' retirement from Franklin Templeton effective January 31, 2018.

In March 2018, Mobius launched Mobius Capital Partners together with his former Templeton colleagues Carlos von Hardenberg and Greg Konieczny. The emerging and frontier markets asset manager is focused on a single long-only strategy based on partnering with portfolio companies to improve their corporate governance and to deliver a clear ESG pathway. Before joining Templeton, Mobius worked at international securities firm Vickers-da-Costa, was president of International Investment Trust Company in Taipei, Taiwan, he once ran an independent consulting company that marketed, among other things, Snoopy cartoon merchandise. Born a U. S. citizen, Mobius was entitled to German citizenship by descent. He renounced his U. S. is now a German citizen. Mobius has been a key figure in developing international policy for emerging markets. In 1999, he was selected to serve on the World Bank's Global Corporate Governance Forum as a member of the Private Sector Advisory Group and as co-chair of the Investor Responsibility Taskforce.

He has been featured as a speaker for the World Bank in 1999 and has given seminars for many other groups, including for the Asian Development Bank in 2002 and as a motivational speaker for London Speaker Bureau. As a recognized industry expert, Mobius appears on financial industry television shows and networks, including Bloomberg, CNBC, MSNBC, CNN, has given/written thousands of interviews and opinion pieces over the years. After more than 40 years in global emerging markets, Mobius has received numerous industry awards, including being named one of Bloomberg Markets Magazine's "50 Most Influential People" in 2011, "Emerging Markets Equity Manager of the Year 2001" by International Money Marketing, "Ten Top Money Managers of the 20th Century" in a 1999 Carson Group survey, "Number One Global Emerging Market Fund" in a 1998 Reuters Survey, "1994 First in Business Money Manager of the Year" by CNBC, "Closed-End Fund Manager of the Year" in 1993 by Morningstar, "Investment Trust Manager of the Year 1992" by the Sunday Telegraph.

Mobius has been given various humorous nicknames over the years, including the "Pied Piper of emerging markets", the "dean of emerging markets", a world "globetrotter", the Yul Brynner of Wall Street due to his signature bald head look. Mobius is a regular monthly columnist for the Asia Tatler group of magazines, wherein he authors a column on "Wealth"A comic book on the life of Mark Mobius was published in 2007: "Mark Mobius — An Illustrated Biography of the Father of Emerging Markets Funds" is translated into six languages and available in numerous countries. Mobius appears in Erwin Wagenhofer's documentary "Let's Make Money", where he frankly details his thoughts on financial markets and capitalism. Mobius has written several books, including "Trading with China," "The Investor's Guide to Emerging Markets," "Mobius on Emerging Markets," "Passport to Profits," "Equities—An Introduction to the Core Concepts," "Mutual Funds—An Introduction to the Core Concepts," "The Little Book of Emerging Markets," and "Mark Mobius: An Illustrated Biography."

He writes about his travels on his personal website: Invest for Good - A Healthier World and a Wealthier You, 2019. ISBN 9-781-47296267-6 Debt Markets, 2008. ISBN 0-470-82147-7 Risk Management, 2008. ISBN 0-470-82149-3 Derivatives, 2008. ISBN 0-470-82146-9 Foreign Exchange and Money Markets, 2007. ISBN 0-470-82145-0 Technical Analysis: An Introduction To The Core Concepts, 2007. ISBN 0-470-82148-5 Mutual Funds: An Introduction To The Core Concepts, 2007. ISBN 0-470-82143-4 Equities: An Introduction To The Core Concepts, 2006. ISBN 0-470-82144-2 Passport to Profits, 1999. ISBN 0-446-52251-1 Mobius on Emerging Markets, 1996. ISBN 0-273-62284-6 The Investor's Guide to Emerging Markets, 1994. ISBN 0-273-60327-2 Trading With China, 1973. ISBN 0-668-02908-0 Notes from Mark Mobius Templeton Blog 2009 PBS In-depth interview Philosophy of emerging markets. May 2001. Franklin Templeton Global Perspectives. Overview on Emerging Markets, March 2008 BBC interview Investing in emerging markets, June 2008 Investors Chronicle interview Mark Mobius tips Turkey, S. Africa, July 2008 Podcast: Mark Mobius Ten top investment tips, June 2009

Texas Tech Alumni Association

The Texas Tech Alumni Association is the alumni association for former students of Texas Tech University. The organization was founded in 1927 and sponsors multiple programs for Texas Tech University and its alumni; the Alumni Association of Texas Technological College, more known as the Texas Tech Alumni Association, was founded on May 30, 1927 after the first commencement exercises were held by Texas Technological College. All 26 graduates joined the organization, marking the first and last time that all graduates of the school belonged to the organization. In April 1935, the organization changed its name to "Alumni and Ex-Students Association" to include both graduates, non-graduates. By 1939, chapters of the organization were located in Amarillo, Dallas, El Paso, Fort Worth, San Antonio and Waco, in 1940 reached a benchmark of 800 members. In September 1949, a second name change occurred, this time to "Ex-Students Association." By the 1960s, Texas Technological College had expanded its offerings to more than just technical subjects and the Faculty Advisory Committee proposed changing the institution's name to "Texas State University."

While most students and faculty supported the change, the Board of Directors was pressured by the Ex-Students Association and alumni, wanting to preserve the Double T, opposed the change. The Board of Directors appeased the Ex-Students Association members by choosing "Texas Tech University" instead, preserving the Double T, submitted the name change to the state legislature in 1964 and received the legislature's approval in 1969; the same year, the Texas Tech Ex-Students Association office relocated from the Administration Building where it had been housed since 1937 to the former President's House. The two-story building provided enough room for the organization to host receptions and meetings in addition to space for a larger staff. In 1980, the association had 6,278 members; the growth in membership resulted in 11 new chapters bringing the total to 70 in 1982. In February 2002, the organization changed its name to the current incarnation, Texas Tech Alumni Association, the colloquial name for the organization under its original name.

The Texas Tech Alumni Association has been headquartered in McKenzie-Merket Alumni Center since 1969. The building was The President's Residence from 1925 until 1959, it was one of the original structures built on campus in 1924. The facility underwent a $4 million expansion in 2010 that added the Bill and Peggy Dean Grand Reception Hall, the McKenzie Ballroom, the Shinn-Wylie Bridal Suite, expanded catering capabilities and an outdoor courtyard with gazebo. McKenzie-Merket Alumni Center is booked for university and community meetings and special events, is in such demand on weekends that brides wanting to book the facility for weddings and receptions are told to "plan on a long engagement." In 1998, the Texas Tech Alumni Association built the Frazier Alumni Pavilion, a meeting space near Jones AT&T Stadium. The pavilion is a popular gathering spot on home football game days and hosts meetings and special events. While the class ring had used a universal design, by the late 20th century various styles were available.

In 1999, the university reverted to a single ring design for the university's graduates. The new Official Texas Tech Alumni Association Class Ring symbolically captures the essence of Texas Tech with the prominent Double T surrounded by the school’s full name and date of foundation. By tradition, undergraduates wear the ring with the Double T facing themselves. Upon graduation, the ring is turned. One shoulder of the ring displays an image of the Administration Building, with the bells which represent victory; the other shoulder contains the university seal: an American eagle perched above a book, representing the church. These elements are separated by a cross featuring ten cotton bolls, one each for Lubbock and its nine surrounding cotton-producing counties. In 2010, the ring was cast in a six-foot-tall bronze sculpture and set in place on a Leaders Plaza on the grounds of McKenzie-Merket Alumni Center. Billed as "Two Tons of Tradition," the ring sculpture has become one of the most popular photo spots on campus on graduation days.

The organization published its first alumni publication, Texas Tech Magazine, in October 1937. The periodical contained articles about stories and events about Texas Tech, the alumni association, general interest articles. Due to World War II, the publication was suspended in the spring of 1943; the alumni association's second periodical, Texas Techsan, was first published in February 1950. The periodical was released eight times annually, like its predecessor Texas Tech Magazine, game Texas Tech alumni updates of campus events and the activities of some of its former students. List of Texas Tech University alumni List of Texas Tech University alumni Official website Alumni Association-Texas Techsan collection at the Texas Tech University Libraries' Digital Collections