Kumyk language

Kumyk is a Turkic language, spoken by about 426,212 speakers — the Kumyks — in the Dagestan, North Ossetia, Chechen republics of the Russian Federation. Kumyk is a part of Kipchak-Cuman language subfamily of the Kipchak family of the Turkic languages. It's a descendant of the Khazar languages; the closest languages to Kumyk are Karachay-Balkar, Crimean Tatar, Karaim. The Kumyk language formed during the 7th-10th centuries out of Khazar and Bulgar substrata, mixed afterwards with Oghuz and Kipchak. Based on his research on a famous scripture Codex Cimanicus, Nikolay Baskakov included Kumyk, Karachai-Balkar, Crimean Tatar and Mamluk Kipchak in the Cuman-Kipchak family. Samoylovich considered Cuman-Kipchak close to Kumyk and Karachai-Balkar. Kumyk was a lingua franca in part of the Northern Caucasus from Dagestan to Kabarda until the 1930s. In 1848, Timofey Makarov, a professor of "Caucasian Tatar", published the first grammar of the language. Irchi Kazak is considered to be the greatest poet of the Kumyk language.

The first regular Kumyk newspapers and magazines appeared in 1917–18 under the editorship of Kumyk poet, writer and theatre figure Temirbolat Biybolatov. The newspaper Ёлдаш, the successor of the Soviet-era Ленин ёлу, prints around 5,000 copies 3 times a week. More than 90% of Kumyks speak Russian, those in Turkey speak Turkish. † къ represents at the beginning of words, elsewhere. Kumyk has been used as a literary language in Caucasus for some time. During the 20th century the writing system of the language was changed twice: in 1929 the traditional Arabic script was first replaced by a Latin script at first, replaced in 1938 by a Cyrillic script. Saodat Doniyorova and Toshtemirov Qahramonil. Parlons Koumyk. Paris: L'Harmattan, 2004. ISBN 2-7475-6447-9. Kumyks video and music Kumyk language newspaper "Ёлдаш" published in Dagestan Kumyk language on the website "Minority languages of Russia on the Net" Russian-Kumyk dictionary Holy Scriptures in the Kumyk language Kumyk information portal

Steven Anzovin

Steven E. Anzovin was an author and editor of reference and computer books, a computer journalist, the co-founder of Anzovin Studio, a computer animation company, he wrote and edited 25 books and more than 300 magazine articles and was a pioneering advocate for green computing. Anzovin was born in Hartford, Connecticut, on September 10, 1954, his parents were Beverly French, of Flat Rock, North Carolina, Russell Ames. Anzovin grew up in Wethersfield, where he attended the public schools, he studied at the University of Connecticut and graduated from Connecticut College with a Bachelor of Arts in studio art, cum laude, in 1976. In 1980 he received his Master of Fine Arts in New Media from Pratt Institute. From 1981 to 2005, Anzovin and his wife, Janet Podell, ran a freelance writing and editing business, first in Englewood, NJ, in Amherst, MA, they specialized in compiling historical reference books, including many volumes in H. W. Wilson Company's Famous First Facts About the Presidents series.

For 14 years, they compiled Art in America's Annual Guide to Galleries and Artists for Brant Publications. Anzovin was senior contributing editor for MacAddict Magazine, East Coast editor for Computer Entertainment News, contributing editor and columnist for CD-ROM Today, columnist and feature writer for Compute Magazine, his book The Green PC: Making Choices That Make a Difference drew attention to the impact of personal computing on the environment and encouraged readers to take steps to combat computer-generated pollution. In 2000, Anzovin and his son Raf founded Anzovin Studio in the basement of their home in Amherst, Massachusetts. Anzovin served as President and CEO. Anzovin Studio provided animated content to numerous commercials and made-for-DVD productions, including “GI Joe: Valor vs Venom” and “Halo 2.” Anzovin and his son produced several short films during this time, including Duel and Java Noir, all of which won numerous awards at international animation festivals. Facts about the Presidents Speeches of the American Presidents Famous First Facts About American Politics The green PC: making choices that make a difference Famous First Facts: First Happenings and Inventions in the United States Anzovin died at his home in Amherst of colon cancer on December 25, 2005, at the age of 51.

In addition to his wife and son, Steven was survived by two daughters, as well as his brother and mother

Injective cogenerator

In category theory, a branch of mathematics, the concept of an injective cogenerator is drawn from examples such as Pontryagin duality. Generators are objects which cover other objects as an approximation, cogenerators are objects which envelope other objects as an approximation. More precisely: A generator of a category with a zero object is an object G such that for every nonzero object H there exists a nonzero morphism f:G → H. A cogenerator is an object C such that for every nonzero object H there exists a nonzero morphism f:H → C.. Assuming one has a category like that of abelian groups, one can in fact form direct sums of copies of G until the morphism f: Sum →His surjective. For example, the integers are a generator of the category of abelian groups; this is the origin of the term generator. The approximation here is described as generators and relations; as an example of a cogenerator in the same category, we have Q/Z, the rationals modulo the integers, a divisible abelian group. Given any abelian group A, there is an isomorphic copy of A contained inside the product of |A| copies of Q/Z.

This approximation is close to what is called the divisible envelope - the true envelope is subject to a minimality condition. Finding a generator of an abelian category allows one to express every object as a quotient of a direct sum of copies of the generator. Finding a cogenerator allows one to express every object as a subobject of a direct product of copies of the cogenerator. One is interested in projective generators and minimal injective cogenerators. Both examples above have these extra properties; the cogenerator Q/Z is useful in the study of modules over general rings. If H is a left module over the ring R, one forms the character module H* consisting of all abelian group homomorphisms from H to Q/Z. H* is a right R-module. Q/Z being a cogenerator says that H* is 0 if and only if H is 0. More is true: the * operation takes a homomorphism f:H → Kto a homomorphism f*:K* → H*,and f* is 0 if and only if f is 0, it is thus a faithful contravariant functor from left R-modules to right R-modules.

Every H* is pure-injective. One can consider a problem after applying the * to simplify matters. All of this can be done for continuous modules H: one forms the topological character module of continuous group homomorphisms from H to the circle group R/Z; the Tietze extension theorem can be used to show that an interval is an injective cogenerator in a category of topological spaces subject to separation axioms