Henri Émile Benoît Matisse was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman and sculptor, but is known as a painter. Matisse is regarded, along with Pablo Picasso, as one of the artists who best helped to define the revolutionary developments in the visual arts throughout the opening decades of the twentieth century, responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture; the intense colorism of the works he painted between 1900 and 1905 brought him notoriety as one of the Fauves. Many of his finest works were created in the decade or so after 1906, when he developed a rigorous style that emphasized flattened forms and decorative pattern. In 1917 he relocated to a suburb of Nice on the French Riviera, the more relaxed style of his work during the 1920s gained him critical acclaim as an upholder of the classical tradition in French painting. After 1930, he adopted a bolder simplification of form; when ill health in his final years prevented him from painting, he created an important body of work in the medium of cut paper collage.
His mastery of the expressive language of colour and drawing, displayed in a body of work spanning over a half-century, won him recognition as a leading figure in modern art. Matisse was born in Le Cateau-Cambrésis, in the Nord department in Northern France, the oldest son of a prosperous grain merchant, he grew up in Bohain-en-Vermandois, France. In 1887 he went to Paris to study law, working as a court administrator in Le Cateau-Cambrésis after gaining his qualification, he first started to paint in 1889, after his mother brought him art supplies during a period of convalescence following an attack of appendicitis. He discovered "a kind of paradise" as he described it, decided to become an artist disappointing his father. In 1891 he returned to Paris to study art at the Académie Julian and became a student of William-Adolphe Bouguereau and Gustave Moreau, he painted still lifes and landscapes in a traditional style, at which he achieved reasonable proficiency. Matisse was influenced by the works of earlier masters such as Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, Nicolas Poussin, Antoine Watteau, as well as by modern artists, such as Édouard Manet, by Japanese art.
Chardin was one of the painters Matisse most admired. In 1896, Matisse, an unknown art student at the time, visited the Australian painter John Russell on the island Belle Île off the coast of Brittany. Russell introduced him to Impressionism and to the work of Vincent van Gogh—who had been a friend of Russell—and gave him a Van Gogh drawing. Matisse's style changed completely, he said "Russell was my teacher, Russell explained colour theory to me." The same year, Matisse exhibited five paintings in the salon of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, two of which were purchased by the state. With the model Caroline Joblau, he had a daughter, born in 1894. In 1898 he married Amélie Noellie Parayre. Marguerite and Amélie served as models for Matisse. In 1898, on the advice of Camille Pissarro, he went to London to study the paintings of J. M. W. Turner and went on a trip to Corsica. Upon his return to Paris in February 1899, he worked beside Albert Marquet and met André Derain, Jean Puy, Jules Flandrin.
Matisse immersed himself in the work of others and went into debt from buying work from painters he admired. The work he hung and displayed in his home included a plaster bust by Rodin, a painting by Gauguin, a drawing by van Gogh, Cézanne's Three Bathers. In Cézanne's sense of pictorial structure and colour, Matisse found his main inspiration. Many of Matisse's paintings from 1898 to 1901 make use of a Divisionist technique he adopted after reading Paul Signac's essay, "D'Eugène Delacroix au Néo-impressionisme", his paintings of 1902–03, a period of material hardship for the artist, are comparatively somber and reveal a preoccupation with form. Having made his first attempt at sculpture, a copy after Antoine-Louis Barye, in 1899, he devoted much of his energy to working in clay, completing The Slave in 1903. Fauvism as a style began around 1900 and continued beyond 1910; the movement as such lasted only a few years, 1904–1908, had three exhibitions. The leaders of the movement were André Derain.
Matisse's first solo exhibition was without much success. His fondness for bright and expressive colour became more pronounced after he spent the summer of 1904 painting in St. Tropez with the neo-Impressionists Signac and Henri-Edmond Cross. In that year he painted the most important of his works in the neo-Impressionist style, Calme et Volupté. In 1905 he travelled southwards again to work with André Derain at Collioure, his paintings of this period are characterised by flat shapes and controlled lines, using pointillism in a less rigorous way than before. Matisse and a group of artists now known as "Fauves" exhibited together in a room at the Salon d'Automne in 1905; the paintings expressed emotion with wild dissonant colours, without regard for the subject's natural colours. Matisse showed Open Woman with the Hat at the Salon. Critic Louis Vauxcelles commented on a lone sculpture surround by an "orgie of pure tones" as "Donatello chez les fauves", referring to a Renaissance-type sculpture that shared the room with them.
His comment was printed on 17 October 1905 in Gil Blas, a daily newspaper, passed
Oscar-Claude Monet was a French painter, a founder of French Impressionist painting and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature as applied to plein air landscape painting. The term "Impressionism" is derived from the title of his painting Impression, soleil levant, exhibited in 1874 in the first of the independent exhibitions mounted by Monet and his associates as an alternative to the Salon de Paris. Monet's ambition of documenting the French countryside led him to adopt a method of painting the same scene many times in order to capture the changing of light and the passing of the seasons. From 1883, Monet lived in Giverny, where he purchased a house and property and began a vast landscaping project which included lily ponds that would become the subjects of his best-known works. In 1899, he began painting the water lilies, first in vertical views with a Japanese bridge as a central feature and in the series of large-scale paintings, to occupy him continuously for the next 20 years of his life.
Claude Monet was born on 14 November 1840 on the fifth floor of 45 rue Laffitte, in the 9th arrondissement of Paris. He was the second son of Claude Adolphe Monet and Louise Justine Aubrée Monet, both of them second-generation Parisians. On 20 May 1841, he was baptized in the local parish church, Notre-Dame-de-Lorette, as Oscar-Claude, but his parents called him Oscar. Despite being baptized Catholic, Monet became an atheist. In 1845, his family moved to Le Havre in Normandy, his father wanted him to go into the family's ship-chandling and grocery business, but Monet wanted to become an artist. His mother was a singer, supported Monet's desire for a career in art. On 1 April 1851, Monet entered Le Havre secondary school of the arts. Locals knew him well for his charcoal caricatures. Monet undertook his first drawing lessons from Jacques-François Ochard, a former student of Jacques-Louis David. On the beaches of Normandy around 1856 he met fellow artist Eugène Boudin, who became his mentor and taught him to use oil paints.
Boudin taught Monet "en plein air" techniques for painting. Both received the influence of Johan Barthold Jongkind. On 28 January 1857, his mother died. At the age of sixteen, he left school and went to live with his widowed, childless aunt, Marie-Jeanne Lecadre; when Monet traveled to Paris to visit the Louvre, he witnessed painters copying from the old masters. Having brought his paints and other tools with him, he would instead go and sit by a window and paint what he saw. Monet was in Paris for several years and met other young painters, including Édouard Manet and others who would become friends and fellow Impressionists. After drawing a low ballot number in March 1861, Monet was drafted into the First Regiment of African Light Cavalry in Algeria for a seven-year period of military service, his prosperous father could have purchased Monet's exemption from conscription but declined to do so when his son refused to give up painting. While in Algeria Monet did only a few sketches of casbah scenes, a single landscape, several portraits of officers, all of which have been lost.
In a Le Temps interview of 1900 however he commented that the light and vivid colours of North Africa "contained the germ of my future researches". After about a year of garrison duty in Algiers, Monet contracted typhoid fever and went absent without leave. Following convalescence, Monet's aunt intervened to remove him from the army if he agreed to complete a course at an art school, it is possible that the Dutch painter Johan Barthold Jongkind, whom Monet knew, may have prompted his aunt on this matter. Disillusioned with the traditional art taught at art schools, in 1862 Monet became a student of Charles Gleyre in Paris, where he met Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Frédéric Bazille and Alfred Sisley. Together they shared new approaches to art, painting the effects of light en plein air with broken colour and rapid brushstrokes, in what came to be known as Impressionism. In January 1865 Monet was working on a version of Le déjeuner sur l'herbe, aiming to present it for hanging at the Salon, which had rejected Manet's Le déjeuner sur l'herbe two years earlier.
Monet's painting was large and could not be completed in time. Monet submitted instead a painting of Camille or The Woman in the Green Dress, one of many works using his future wife, Camille Doncieux, as his model. Both this painting and a small landscape were hung; the following year Monet used Camille for his model in Women in the Garden, On the Bank of the Seine, Bennecourt in 1868. Camille became pregnant and gave birth to their first child, Jean, in 1867. Monet and Camille married on 28 June 1870, just before the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War, after their excursion to London and Zaandam, they moved to Argenteuil, in December 1871. During this time Monet painted various works of modern life, he and Camille lived in poverty for most of this period. Following the successful exhibition of some maritime paintings, the winning of a silver medal at Le Havre, Monet's paintings were seized by creditors, from whom they were bought back by a shipping merchant, a patron of Boudin. From the late 1860s, Monet and other like-minded artists met with rejection from the conservative Académie des Beaux-Arts, which held its annual exhibition at the Salon de Paris.
During the latter part of 1873, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Camille Pissarro, Alfred Sisley organized the Société anonyme des
Lucian Michael Freud, OM was a British painter and draftsman, specializing in figurative art, is known as one of the foremost 20th-century portraitists. He was born in the son of Jewish architect Ernst L. Freud and the grandson of Sigmund Freud, his family moved to Britain in 1933 to escape the rise of Nazism. From 1942 -- 43 he attended London, he enlisted in the Merchant Navy during the Second World War. His early career as a painter was influenced by surrealism, but by the early 1950s his stark and alienated paintings tended towards realism. Freud was an intensely private and guarded man, his paintings, completed over a 60-year career, are of friends and family, they are sombre and thickly impastoed set in unsettling interiors and urban landscapes. The works are noted for their psychological penetration and discomforting examination of the relationship between artist and model. Freud worked from life studies, was known for asking for extended and punishing sittings from his models. Born in Berlin, Freud was the son of a German Jewish mother, an Austrian Jewish father, Ernst L. Freud, an architect.
He was a grandson of Sigmund Freud, elder brother of the broadcaster and politician Clement Freud and the younger brother of Stephan Gabriel Freud. The family emigrated to London, in 1933 to escape the rise of Nazism. Lucian became a British subject in 1939, having attended Dartington Hall School in Totnes and Bryanston School, for a year before being expelled due to disruptive behaviour. Freud studied at the Central School of Art in London, from 1939 to 1942 with greater success at Cedric Morris' East Anglian School of Painting and Drawing in Dedham, relocated in 1940 to Benton End, a house near Hadleigh, Suffolk, he attended Goldsmiths' College, part of the University of London, in 1942–43. He served as a merchant seaman in an Atlantic convoy in 1941 before being invalided out of service in 1942. In 1943, the poet and editor Meary James Thurairajah Tambimuttu commissioned the young artist to illustrate a book of poems by Nicholas Moore entitled The Glass Tower, it was published the following year by Editions Poetry London and comprised, among other drawings, a stuffed zebra and a palm tree.
Both subjects reappeared in The Painter's Room on display at Freud's first solo exhibition in 1944 at the Lefevre Gallery. In the summer of 1946, he travelled to Paris before continuing to Greece for several months to visit John Craxton. In the early fifties he was a frequent visitor to Dublin where he would share Patrick Swift's studio, he remained a Londoner for the rest of his life. Freud was part of a group of figurative artists named "The School of London"; this was more a loose collection of individual artists who knew each other, some intimately, were working in London at the same time in the figurative style. The group was led by figures such as Francis Bacon and Freud, included Frank Auerbach, Michael Andrews, Leon Kossoff, Robert Colquhoun, Robert MacBryde, Reginald Gray and Kitaj himself, he was a visiting tutor at the Slade School of Fine Art of University College London from 1949 to 1954. Freud's early paintings, which are very small, are associated with German Expressionism and Surrealism in depicting people and animals in unusual juxtapositions.
Some early works anticipate the varied flesh tones of his mature style, for example Cedric Morris, but after the end of the war he developed a thinly painted precise linear style with muted colours, best known in his self-portrait Man with Thistle and a series of large-eyed portraits of his first wife, Kitty Garman, such as Girl with a Kitten. These were painted with tiny sable brushes and evoke Early Netherlandish painting. From the 1950s, he began to focus on portraiture nudes, to the complete exclusion of everything else, by the middle of the decade developed a much more free style using large hogs-hair brushes, concentrating on the texture and colour of flesh, much thicker paint, including impasto. Girl with a white dog, 1951–1952, is an example of a transitional work in this process, sharing many characteristics with paintings before and after it, with tight brushwork and a middling size and viewpoint, he would clean his brush after each stroke when painting flesh, so that the colour remained variable.
He started to paint standing up, which continued until old age, when he switched to a high chair. The colours of non-flesh areas in these paintings are muted, while the flesh becomes highly and variably coloured. By about 1960, Freud had established the style that he would use, with some changes, for the rest of his career; the portraits use an over life-size scale, but are of relatively small heads or in half-lengths. Portraits are much larger. In his late career he followed a portrait by producing an etching of the subject in a different pose, drawing directly onto the plate, with the sitter in his view. Freud's portraits depict only the sitter, sometimes sprawled naked on the floor or on a bed or alternatively juxtaposed with something else, as in Girl With a White Dog and Naked Man With Rat. According to Edward Chaney, "The distinctive, recumbent manner in which Freud poses so many of his sitters suggests the conscious or unconscious influence both of his grandfather's psychoanalytical couch and of the Egyptian mummy, his dream
Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen is an art museum in Rotterdam in the Netherlands. It is located at the Museumpark in the district Rotterdam Centrum, close to the Kunsthal and the Natural History Museum; the museum opened in 1849. It houses the collections of Daniël George van Beuningen. In the collection, ranging from medieval to contemporary art, are works of Rembrandt, Claude Monet, Vincent van Gogh, Salvador Dalí. In 2013, the museum was the 14th most visited museum in the Netherlands; the museum was established in 1849 as Museum Boymans with the collection of Frans Jacob Otto Boijmans. The painter and art dealer, Arie Johannes Lamme, was named the museum's first Director. Much of the museum's original collection was destroyed in a fire in 1864; the collection of businessman Daniël George van Beuningen was added in 1958, at which point the museum acquired the name Museum Boymans-van Beuningen. The spelling was changed to Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen in 1996; the museum has a diverse collection ranging from medieval to contemporary art, with somewhat of a focus on Dutch art.
Much of the collection came to the museum through the two private collections mentioned above, but many others have contributed throughout the years. Among the best-known artists that are exhibited in the permanent exhibition of the museum are Hieronymus Bosch, Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Claude Monet, Wassily Kandinsky, Vincent van Gogh, Maurizio Cattelan, Paul Cézanne, René Magritte, Salvador Dalí, Mark Rothko, Edvard Munch, Willem de Kooning, Yayoi Kusama; the collection includes one of the richest assembly of works on paper in the world from the Middle Ages to the present times. The Glorification of the Virgin by Geertgen tot Sint Jans The Wayfarer by Hieronymus Bosch Nest of Owls by Hieronymus Bosch The "Little" Tower of Babel by Pieter Bruegel the Elder Titus at his Desk by Rembrandt Hut of the Douaniers with Varengeville Claude Monet Portrait of Armand Roulin by Vincent van Gogh On the Threshold of Liberty by René Magritte Not to be Reproduced René Magritte Impressions of Africa Salvador Dalí Shirley Temple, The Youngest, Most Sacred Monster of the Cinema in Her Time Salvador Dalí The Face of War Salvador Dalí The Education Department of the Museum organises children's activities, courses and tours.
ARTtube is a website with videos about design. ARTtube is produced by Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, M HKA Antwerp, Gemeentemuseum Den Haag, Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, De Pont, Centraal Museum Utrecht, Museum Jan Cunen and Centrum Beeldende Kunst Rotterdam. Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen produces, together with a television series on art. Boijmans TV is based on an idea by Wilfried de Jong. Boijmans TV is created by a team of creative specialists in different disciplines, it is more than an art magazine. Each episode of Boijmans TV can be viewed on ArtTube. Sjarel Ex has been the museum director since 2004; the museum had 292,711 visitors in 2013. That year it was the most visited museum in Rotterdam and the 14th most visited museum in the Netherlands, it had an estimated 270,000 visitors in 2015. Media related to Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Pablo Ruiz Picasso was a Spanish painter, printmaker, stage designer and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France. Regarded as one of the most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, Guernica, a dramatic portrayal of the bombing of Guernica by the German and Italian airforces during the Spanish Civil War. Picasso demonstrated extraordinary artistic talent in his early years, painting in a naturalistic manner through his childhood and adolescence. During the first decade of the 20th century, his style changed as he experimented with different theories and ideas. After 1906, the Fauvist work of the older artist Henri Matisse motivated Picasso to explore more radical styles, beginning a fruitful rivalry between the two artists, who subsequently were paired by critics as the leaders of modern art.
Picasso's work is categorized into periods. While the names of many of his periods are debated, the most accepted periods in his work are the Blue Period, the Rose Period, the African-influenced Period, Analytic Cubism, Synthetic Cubism referred to as the Crystal period. Much of Picasso's work of the late 1910s and early 1920s is in a neoclassical style, his work in the mid-1920s has characteristics of Surrealism, his work combines elements of his earlier styles. Exceptionally prolific throughout the course of his long life, Picasso achieved universal renown and immense fortune for his revolutionary artistic accomplishments, became one of the best-known figures in 20th-century art. Picasso was baptized Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso, a series of names honouring various saints and relatives. Ruiz y Picasso were included for his father and mother as per Spanish law. Born in the city of Málaga in the Andalusian region of Spain, he was the first child of Don José Ruiz y Blasco and María Picasso y López.
Though baptized a Catholic, Picasso would on become an atheist. The surname "Picasso" comes from a coastal region of north-western Italy. There was a painter from the area named Matteo Picasso, born in Recco, of late neoclassical style portraiture, though investigations have not definitively determined his kinship with the branch of ancestors related to Pablo Picasso; the direct branch from Sori, can be traced back to Tommaso Picasso. His son Giovanni Battista, married to Isabella Musante, was Pablo's great-great-grandfather. Of this marriage was born Tommaso. Pablo's maternal great-grandfather, Tommaso Picasso moved to Spain around 1807. Picasso's family was of middle-class background, his father was a painter who specialized in naturalistic depictions of other game. For most of his life Ruiz was a professor of art at the School of Crafts and a curator of a local museum. Ruiz's ancestors were minor aristocrats. Picasso showed a skill for drawing from an early age. According to his mother, his first words were "piz, piz", a shortening of lápiz, the Spanish word for "pencil".
From the age of seven, Picasso received formal artistic training from his father in figure drawing and oil painting. Ruiz was a traditional academic artist and instructor, who believed that proper training required disciplined copying of the masters, drawing the human body from plaster casts and live models, his son became preoccupied with art to the detriment of his classwork. The family moved to A Coruña in 1891, where his father became a professor at the School of Fine Arts, they stayed four years. On one occasion, the father found his son painting over his unfinished sketch of a pigeon. Observing the precision of his son's technique, an apocryphal story relates, Ruiz felt that the thirteen-year-old Picasso had surpassed him, vowed to give up painting, though paintings by him exist from years. In 1895, Picasso was traumatized when his seven-year-old sister, died of diphtheria. After her death, the family moved to Barcelona, where Ruiz took a position at its School of Fine Arts. Picasso thrived in the city.
Ruiz persuaded the officials at the academy to allow his son to take an entrance exam for the advanced class. This process took students a month, but Picasso completed it in a week, the jury admitted him, at just 13; as a student, Picasso lacked discipline but made friendships that would affect him in life. His father rented a small room for him close to home so he could work alone, yet he checked up on him numerous times a day, judging his drawings; the two argued frequently. Picasso's father and uncle decided to send the young artist to Madrid's Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, the country's foremost art school. At age 16, Picasso set off for the first time on his own, but he disliked formal instruction and stopped attending classes soon after enrollment. Madrid held many other attractions; the Prado housed paintings by Diego Velázquez, Francisco Goya, Francisco Zurbarán. Picasso admired the works of El Greco. Picasso's training under his father began before 1890, his progress can be traced in the collection
NRC Handelsblad abbreviated to NRC, is a daily evening newspaper published in the Netherlands by NRC Media. It is accepted as the country's newspaper of record. NRC Handelsblad was first published on 1 October 1970 after a merger of the Amsterdam newspaper Algemeen Handelsblad and the Rotterdam Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant; the paper's motto is Libertas -- Light and Freedom. In February 2006, NRC Handelsblad started a morning newspaper, nrc•next, to attract educated readers who do not read a newspaper every day. Editor Folkert Jensma was succeeded on 12 December 2006, by Birgit Donker. After a dispute with the new owners Donker had to step down on 26 April 2010 and was replaced by Belgian Peter Vandermeersch. On 7 March 2011 the paper changed its format from broadsheet to tabloid; the circulation of NRC Handelsblad in 2014 was 188,500 copies, putting it in 4th place among the national dailies. In 2015 the NRC Media group was acquired by the Belgian company Mediahuis. While they consider themselves one of the Dutch national "quality" newspapers next to de Volkskrant and Trouw, NRC Handelsblad sees itself as the most internationally oriented of those three, has been labeled left liberal.
Journalists who work or have worked for NRC Handelsblad include: Henk Hofland, Hans van Mierlo, Marc Chavannes, Geert Mak, Karel van Wolferen, Jérôme Louis Heldring, Joris Luyendijk, Marjon van Royen, Derk Jan Eppink, Adriaan van Dis, Ben Knapen, Paul Marijnis. Official website
Museumpark is an urban park in Rotterdam, located between the Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Westersingel and the complex of the Erasmus MC, a medical centre affiliated with the Erasmus University. The park lies on the former land of the Hoboken family, who lived in the building, now the Natuurhistorisch Museum Rotterdam; the park was laid out in 1927 to the design of the architect Witteveen. On the south side of the pond in the park a monument for Gerrit Jongh, director of municipal works in Rotterdam. There are several artworks in the park, so it serves as a sculpture garden. There are a number of museums located in the vicinity of the park, hence the name: The Netherlands Architecture Institute Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen The Chabot Museum The Kunsthal Villa Sonneveld Natuurhistorisch Museum Rotterdam Museumpark + Witte de Withstraat = Kunst-As Museumpark Parkeergarage Rotterdam