SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Kuomintang

The Kuomintang often alternatively translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a major political party in the Republic of China based in Taipei. Formed in 1919, the KMT was the sole ruling party of the Republic of China from 1928 to 2000 and is an opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan; the predecessor of the Kuomintang, the Revolutionary Alliance, was one of the major advocates of the overthrow of the Qing dynasty and the subsequent revolt in 1911 and proclamation of the Republic of China. The KMT was founded by Song Jiaoren and Sun Yat-sen shortly after the Xinhai Revolution of 1911. Sun was the provisional President, but he ceded the presidency to Yuan Shikai. Led by Chiang Kai-shek, the KMT formed the National Revolutionary Army and succeeded in its Northern Expedition to unify much of mainland China in 1928, ending the chaos of the Warlord Era, it was the ruling party in mainland China until 1949, when it lost the Chinese Civil War to the rival Communist Party of China. The KMT fled to Taiwan.

This government retained China's United Nations seat until 1971. Taiwan ceased to be a single-party state in 1986 and political reforms beginning in the 1990s loosened the KMT's grip on power; the KMT remains one of Taiwan's main political parties, with Ma Ying-jeou, elected in 2008 and re-elected in 2012, being the seventh KMT member to hold the office of the presidency. In the 2016 general and presidential election, the KMT was defeated in both elections and the Democratic Progressive Party gained control of both the Legislative Yuan and the presidency, Tsai Ing-wen being elected President; the party's guiding ideology is the rebel-unionist Three Principles of the People, advocated by Sun Yat-sen. The KMT is a member of the International Democrat Union. Together with the People First Party and New Party, the KMT forms what is known as the Taiwanese Pan-Blue Coalition which supports eventual unification with the mainland. However, the KMT has been forced to moderate its stance by advocating the political and legal status quo of modern Taiwan as political realities make the reunification of China unlikely.

The KMT holds to the one-China policy in that it considers that there is only one China, but that the Republic of China rather than the People's Republic of China is its legitimate government under the 1992 Consensus. To ease tensions with the PRC, the KMT has since 2008 endorsed the Three Noes policy as defined by Ma Ying-jeou, namely no unification, no independence and no use of force; the KMT traces its ideological and organizational roots to the work of Sun Yat-sen, a proponent of Chinese nationalism and democracy who founded Revive China Society at the capital of the Republic of Hawaii, Honolulu on 24 November 1894. In 1905, Sun joined forces with other anti-monarchist societies in Tokyo, Empire of Japan to form the Tongmenghui on 20 August 1905, a group committed to the overthrow of the Qing dynasty and the establishment of a republic style government; the group planned and supported the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and the founding of the Republic of China on 1 January 1912. However, Sun did not have military power and ceded the provisional presidency of the republic to Yuan Shikai, who arranged for the abdication of Puyi, the last Emperor, on 12 February.

On 25 August 1912, the Nationalist Party was established at the Huguang Guild Hall in Peking, where Tongmenghui and five smaller pro-revolution parties merged to contest the first national elections. Sun was chosen as the party chairman with Huang Xing as his deputy; the most influential member of the party was the third ranking Song Jiaoren, who mobilized mass support from gentry and merchants for the Nationalists to advocate a constitutional parliamentary democracy. The party sought to check the power of Yuan; the Nationalists won an overwhelming majority of the first National Assembly election in December 1912. However, Yuan soon began to ignore the parliament in making presidential decisions. Song Jiaoren was assassinated in Shanghai in 1913. Members of the Nationalists led by Sun Yat-sen suspected that Yuan was behind the plot and thus staged the Second Revolution in July 1913, a poorly planned and ill-supported armed rising to overthrow Yuan, failed. Yuan, claiming subversiveness and betrayal, expelled adherents of the KMT from the parliament.

Yuan dissolved the Nationalists in November and dismissed the parliament early in 1914. Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself emperor in December 1915. While exiled in Japan in 1914, Sun established the Chinese Revolutionary Party on 8 July 1914, but many of his old revolutionary comrades, including Huang Xing, Wang Jingwei, Hu Hanmin and Chen Jiongming, refused to join him or support his efforts in inciting armed uprising against Yuan. To join the Revolutionary Party, members had to take an oath of personal loyalty to Sun, which many old revolutionaries regarded as undemocratic and contrary to the spirit of the revolution; as a result, he became sidelined within the Republican movement during this period. Sun returned to China in 1917 to establish a military junta at Canton to oppose the Beiyang government, but was soon forced out of office and exiled to Shanghai. There, with renewed support, he resurrected the KMT on 10 October 1919, under the name Kuomintang of China and established its headquarters in Canton in 1920.

In 1923, the KMT and its Canton government accepted aid from the Soviet Union after being denied recognition by the western powers. Soviet advisers—the most prominent of whom was Mikhail Borodin, an agent of the Comintern—arrived in China in 1923 to aid in the reo

Arturo Brion

Arturo Dizon Brion is a former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines. He took his oath as a member of the Supreme Court on March 17, 2008. From 2006 until his appointment to the Supreme Court, Brion served in the Cabinet of President Macapagal-Arroyo as the Secretary of the Department of Labor and Employment. Brion was born on December 1946 in the city of Manila, Philippines, he is the son of Edon B. Brion and Laura S. Dizon, he grew up and undertook his primary and part of his tertiary studies in San Pablo City, Laguna. He obtained his Bachelor of Arts, major in Mathematics, from San Pablo Colleges in 1970, he earned his Bachelor of Laws from Ateneo de Manila University Law School in 1974, graduating as cum laude and class valedictorian. He was a member of the Fraternal Order of Utopia. Brion took the 1974 Philippine Bar Examinations and placed first with a bar general average of 91.65%. He thereafter practiced law at the Siguon Reyna and Ongsiako Law Offices, he earned a Master of Laws, with concentration in Labor and Employment Law, from Osgoode Hall Law School of York University in Toronto, Canada, in 1994.

He obtained a Bachelor of Laws Equivalency Programme from the same law school. He was admitted to the Law Society of Upper Canada and to the practice of law in the province of Ontario in 1992. Brion has worked from associate attorney to senior partner levels in various law offices, he was the Director of the Institute of Labor and Manpower Studies from 1982 to 1984. He served as an Assemblyman in the Philippine National Assembly from 1984 to 1986, he was appointed as Deputy Minister in the Ministry of Employment during the same period. In Canada, he served as Counsel in the Ministry of the Attorney General in Ontario, from 1992 to 1995, he was appointed as Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals. In 2006, President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo appointed him as Secretary of Labor and Employment, a cabinet position vacated by Patricia Santo Tomas, made Chairperson of the Development Bank of the Philippines. Brion was among the nominees of the Judicial and Bar Council to fill the vacancies in the Supreme Court left by the successive retirements of Associate Justices Romeo Callejo, Sr. Cancio Garcia, Angelina Sandoval-Gutierrez.

On March 17, 2008, he was named to the Supreme Court by President Macapagal-Arroyo to succeed Justice Sandoval-Gutierrez. Brion taught law at the Ateneo Law School from 1976 to 1982, 1986 to 1987, 1995 to 1997, he authored an article entitled The Right to Refuse Unsafe Work in Ontario, archived in the libraries of York University. His specializations lie in the following fields—Labor Laws, Public Law, Occupational Health and Safety. Brion is an active member of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines, he served as President of the IBP Laguna Chapter from 1981 to 1983. He was a member of the Law Society of Upper Canada from 1992 to 1995, he is a member of the Fraternal Order of Utopia, an Ateneo Law School based fraternity established in 1964 which has produced 40 bar topnotchers since 1964, three of which have placed number one in the Philippine Bar Exams, one of, Brion. Utopia has two members who are seated in the highest tribunal of the Philippines, one is Brion, the other is Justice Roberto Abad.

Brion is married to Antonietta C. Articona; the couple has two children. Antonietta is a chemist-lawyer, his son Arturo, Jr. is a computer engineer-lawyer engaged in Intellectual Property Law practice in Ottawa. His daughter Antonella is a B. S. History graduate of York University, an interior designer and a published poet and Toronto-based book designer. In the Araw ng Maynila's 437th founding anniversary on June 29, 2008, Brion was named "Outstanding Manilan" in law, he was the master of ceremonies of Reynato Puno's July 1 "Forum on Increasing Access to Justice: Bridging Gaps and Removing Roadblocks." Department of Labor and Employment, Republic of the Philippines Office of the President of the Philippines Osgoode Hall Law School of York University Ateneo de Manila University Law School

Tony Tillman

Tony Daniel Frazier, who goes by the stage name Tony Tillman or Brothatone, is an American Christian hip hop musician. As Brothatone, he released an EP in The Gift; as Tony Tillman, Mic Check was released by Reflection Music in 2013, it is his breakthrough release on the Billboard charts. He followed, his second studio album, charted on two Billboard magazine charts. Tony Tillman was born, Tony Daniel Frazier, on January 1981, in Camden, Arkansas. Raised in a single-parent home, Tony Tillman was faced with many challenges urban youths face today; as a youth Tony joined the Crips but left due to religious influence. He began traveling with Seventh Day Slumber, opening shows for several CCM and Hip-Hop artists, he has released two successful projects, will soon release his first official studio album, called Camden, in summer 2015. The album is based on his previous gang involvement. Tillman serves with Fellowship Bible in Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Tony Tillman started making music in 2006 as Brothatone, releasing The Gift EP.

Tony Tillman started using that moniker in 2012. He signed to Reflection Music and released, an album Mic Check and a follow-up EP The Tillman EP both in 2013 that charted on Billboard charts, his second studio album, was released on August 7, 2015, from Reflection Music Group. The album charted on two Billboard magazine charts, where it peaked at No. 25 on Christian Albums, No. 19 on Heatseekers Albums