click links in text for more info


Kurdistan or Greater Kurdistan is a defined geo-cultural historical region wherein the Kurdish people form a prominent majority population and Kurdish culture and national identity have been based. Kurdistan encompasses the northwestern Zagros and the eastern Taurus mountain ranges; the territory corresponds to Kurdish irredentist claims. Contemporary use of the term refers to the following areas: southeastern Turkey, northern Syria, northern Iraq, northwestern Iran; some Kurdish nationalist organizations seek to create an independent nation state consisting of some or all of these areas with a Kurdish majority, while others campaign for greater autonomy within the existing national boundaries. Iraqi Kurdistan first gained autonomous status in a 1970 agreement with the Iraqi government, its status was re-confirmed as an autonomous entity within the federal Iraqi republic in 2005. There is a province by the name of Kurdistan in Iran. Kurds fighting in the Syrian Civil War were able to take control of large sections of northern Syria as government forces, loyal to President Bashar al-Assad, withdrew to fight elsewhere.

Having established their own government, they called for autonomy in a federal Syria after the war. The exact origins of the name Kurd are unclear; the suffix -stan is Persian for land. Literal translation "Land of Kurds". "Kurdistan" was formerly spelled Curdistan. One of the ancient names of Kurdistan is Corduene. Various groups, among them the Guti, Hurrians and Armenians, lived in this region in antiquity; the original Mannaean homeland was situated east and south of the Lake Urmia centered around modern-day Mahabad. The region came under Persian rule during the reign of Cyrus the Great and Darius I; the Kingdom of Corduene, which emerged from the declining Seleucid Empire, was located to the south and south-east of Lake Van between Persia and Mesopotamia and ruled northern Mesopotamia and southeastern Anatolia from 189 BC to AD 384 as vassals of the vying Parthian and Roman empires. Corduene became a vassal state of the Roman Republic in 66 BC and remained allied with the Romans until AD 384.

After 66 BC, it passed another 5 times between Persia. Corduene was situated to the east of Tigranocerta, that is, to the east and south of present-day Diyarbakır in south-eastern Turkey; some historians have correlated a connection between Corduene with the modern names of Kurds and Kurdistan. Some of the ancient districts of Kurdistan and their corresponding modern names: Corduene or Gordyene Sophene Zabdicene or Bezabde Basenia Moxoene Nephercerta Artemita One of the earliest records of the phrase land of the Kurds is found in an Assyrian Christian document of late antiquity, describing the stories of Assyrian saints of the Middle East, such as Abdisho; when the Sasanian Marzban asked Mar Abdisho about his place of origin, he replied that according to his parents, they were from Hazza, a village in Assyria. However, they were driven out of Hazza by pagans, settled in Tamanon, which according to Abdisho was in the land of the Kurds. Tamanon lies just north of the modern Iraq-Turkey border, while Hazza is 12 km southwest of modern Erbil.

In another passage in the same document, the region of the Khabur River is identified as land of the Kurds. According to Al-Muqaddasi and Yaqut al-Hamawi, Tamanon was located on the south-western or southern slopes of Mount Judi and south of Cizre. Other geographical references to the Kurds in Syriac sources appear in Zuqnin chronicle, writings of Michael the Syrian and Bar hebraeus, they mention city of Qardu and country of Qardawaye. In the tenth and eleventh centuries, several Kurdish principalities emerged in the region: in the north the Shaddadids and the Rawadids, in the east the Hasanwayhids and the Annazids and in the west the Marwanids to the south of Diyarbakır and north of Jazira. Kurdistan in the Middle Ages was a collection of semi-independent and independent states called emirates, it was nominally under indirect religious influence of Khalifs or Shahs. A comprehensive history of these states and their relationship with their neighbors is given in the text of Sharafnama, written by Prince Sharaf al-Din Bitlisi in 1597.

The emirates included Baban, Soran and Garmiyan in the south. The earliest medieval attestation of the toponym Kurdistan is found in a 12th-century Armenian historical text by Matteos Urhayeci, he described a battle near Siverek in 1062 as to have taken place in Kurdistan. The second record occurs in the prayer from the colophon of an Armenian manuscript of the Gospels, written in 1200. A use of the term Kurdistan is found in Empire of Trebizond documents in 1336 and in Nuzhat-al-Qulub, written by Hamdollah Mostowfi in 1340. According to Sharafkhan Bitlisi in his Sharafnama, the boundaries of the Kurdish land begin at the Strait of Hormuz in the Persian Gulf and stretch on an line to the end of Malatya and Marash. Evliya Çelebi, who traveled in Kurdistan b


Cenkuttuvan Cera the Good Cera, identified with Katal Pirakottiya Vel Kezhu Kuttuvan, was the most celebrated ruler of the Cera dynasty in early historic south India. The kuttuvan is eulogized by Paranar in the fifth decad of Patitrupattu of the Ettutokai anthology; the kuttuvan intervened in a succession dispute in the Cola country and established his relative on the Cola throne. The Kadambas ― helped by the Yavanas ―attacked the kuttuvan by sea, but the Cera ruler destroyed their fleet, he is said to have defeated the Kongu people and a warrior called Mokur Mannan. Under his reign, the Cera territory extended from Kollimalai near Karur Vanci in the east to Tondi and Mantai on the western coast. Military achievements of Cenkuttuvan are described, albeit in an exaggerated manner, in the medieval Tamil epic poem Cilappatikaram. A method, known as Gajabahu Synchronism/Triple Synchronism, based on text proper, canto 30:160 of the epic, is used by scholars to date Cenkuttuvan Cera to c. 2nd century AD.

The kuttuvan is eulogized by Paranar in the fifth decad of Patitrupattu of the Ettutokai anthology. Purananuru 343 refers to the hill products and sea products pearls, of Cenkuttuvan and to the Yavana gold that reached ashore by boats, in exchange; the kuttuvan's mastery over the sea might have led to the used title Katal Pirakottiya, which translates as "One who Lagged the Sea Behind". Paranar praised the kuttuvan for his naval powers - Paranar praised kuttuvan's military prowess - Kuttuvan was the son of the Cera ruler Netum Ceralatan and Nalconai; the wife of Cenkuttuvan was Illanko Venmal. Cenkuttuvan ruled the Cera country for 55 years. Warriors of the Kuttuvan used bull-hide shields to protect themselves from the enemy darts. Kuttuvan intervened in a succession dispute in the Cola territory and established his relative Killi on the Cola throne; the rivals of Killi were defeated in the battle of Uraiyur. The Kadambas are described as the arch enemies of the kuttuvan; the kuttuvan was able to defeat them in the battle of Valayur.

The "fort" of Kotukur in which the Kadamba warriors took shelter was stormed. The Kadambas attacked kuttuvan by sea, but the Cera ruler destroyed their fleet. Kuttuvan defeated the Kongu people. Kuttuvan defeated; the patikam to Patitrupattu, decad V mentions Ilanko Atikal and the expedition of Cenkuttuvan to north India to bring a stone from which to carve the Pattini idol Authorship of Cilappatikaram is traditionally ascribed to prince Ilanko Atikal, who appears in the work as the younger brother of Cenkuttuvan Cera. The third part of Cilappatikaram deals with Cenkuttuvan's expedition to bring the virakkallu from the Himalayas for an idol of Kannaki/Pattini. According to the patikam of Cilappatikaram, the royal astrologer at the court of Cera king predicted that Ilanko would succeed the king, which angered the elder prince Cenkuttuvan. Ilanko at once chose to live a life of an Jain ascetic, he shifted to a monastery on the outskirts of Vanci. The Bhagavati Temple, in Kotungallur, Kerala, is claimed to be the Kannaki temple thus consecrated.

A method known as Gajabahu synchronism/Triple Synchronism is used by some scholars to date Cenkuttuvan Cera to 2nd century AD. According to Cilappatikaram, severals neighbouring kings were invited by Cenkuttuvan to the installation of Kannaki-Pattini at Vanci.the Arya kings Kanaka and Vijaya Kongu king of Kutaku Kayavaku, the king of Lanka Kayavaku,the king of Lanka is identified with Gajabahu I, king of Sri Lanka. In this context, Cenkuttuvan can be dated to either the first or last quarter of the 2nd century AD. Despite its dependency on numerous conjectures, the method is considered as the sheet anchor for the purpose of dating the events in the early historic Tamil texts

Major Bowes Amateur Hour

The Major Bowes Amateur Hour was an American radio talent show broadcast in the 1930s and 1940s, created and hosted by Edward Bowes. Selected performers from the program participated in touring vaudeville performances, under the "Major Bowes" name; the program transitioned to television under host Ted Mack. Bowes brought his amateur hour to the New York City radio station WHN in April 1934. On March 24, 1935, on NBC, Chase and Sanborn chose this show to fill The Sanborn Hour; this arrangement lasted until September 1936, when the show moved to the CBS Radio Network. The show remained on CBS for the remainder of its run on radio; each week, Bowes would listen to their performances. Bowes sent the more talented contestants on "Major Bowes" vaudeville tours with several units roaming the country simultaneously. Bowes presided over his radio program until his death on his 72nd birthday, June 14, 1946. Frank Sinatra was the best-known alumnus of the Bowes program, having appeared as part of the Hoboken Four quartet.

Maria Callas appeared on the program at age 11, performing as Nina Foresti when she sang a selection from Madame Butterfly. In 1945-1946, CBS presented "an extension series" of the original program. In addition to new talent, it featured performances by winners on the original program who had achieved some additional success. Major Bowes Amateur Hour toured the US under the name Major Bowes Jamboree in 1938; the following performers appeared on the stage of Shea's Buffalo:"It is composed of 12 prize winning acts which have never before appeared in Buffalo, with Ted Mack, former conductor of Shea's Buffalo Orchestra, returning in the role of master of ceremonies. On the screen will be Mickey Rooney, the delightful star of the Judge Hardy family series, in his newest role, Hold That Kiss with Maureen O'Sullivan and Dennis O'Keefe, Shea's Buffalo News will conclude the bill." "In the stage show, Major Bowes has booked some of the outstanding acts heard over his weekly radio program, most of which have just won honors within the past weeks.

Among these are the Three Chords who startled the studio audience and radio listeners with their uncanny imitations of musical instruments and favorite bands, on the May 12 broadcast." "Bobby Blakeman, choir boy, called the Bobby Breen of the Major's hour, brings an unparalleled sweet voice to the program. Louise Boyd, the amateur Eleanor Powell, has a reputation for never missing a tap in her difficult routine. A young 10 year old named Tommy DeVito would appear in 1938 to sing and play guitar to "Red River Valley, would rise to fame as the founder and lead guitarist of the Four Seasons rock/pop band famous in the 1960s, whose life was portrayed in the Broadway musical "Jersey Boys" and the film of the same name. "Other entertainers include Ding and Dell, harmony trio. Ted Mack, who joined the Bowes operation in 1935, was "first assistant in the talent selection and direction" for Bowes, became the interim host of the radio show and a few months moved it to the fledgling medium of television.

It was intermittently broadcast on the DuMont Television Network during 1947 and began regular weekly programs January 18, 1948, still using Bowes' name in the title, Major Bowes' Original Amateur Hour. The TV show subsequently moved to each of the four commercial networks ending up on its original network, CBS, where the radio show continued to run until 1952.:262Starting with the 1950-51 season, both the radio and television versions became Original Amateur Hour and in 1955, the TV version was renamed Ted Mack and The Original Amateur Hour. Future stars who appeared on the show included Gladys Knight; each episode featured eight acts. Viewers selected the winner, casting votes for their favorites by mail; each segment's winner was announced the next week. All contestants who won for three consecutive weeks appeared in an annual championship episode. Mack's style was decidedly more charitable than that of Bowes; the Major made a strong impression on a young Alan King, who had appeared on the Bowes program as a teen.

He was discussing Bowes with Johnny Carson once, stomped on the floor and yelled, "Can you hear me down there, Major Bowes?" Suggesting that the late radio host had been consigned to Hell as punishment for his treatment of young performers. In his comic monologue on his album Sinatra at the Sands, Frank Sinatra describes how his vocal group The Hoboken Four's appearances were so popular on Major Bowes Amateur Hour in the mid-1930s that they were brought back week after week, under a different name each time. On January 26, 1992, the Family Channel launched its version of the program, The New Original Amateur Hour, with Willard Scott as host. OTRRpedia: Old Time Radio Researchers Database of People and Programs YouTube - Adolph Robinson in Major Bowes' Harmony Broadcast - 1935

Gulumaal: The Escape

Gulumaal: The Escape is a 2009 Malayalam comedy film directed by V. K. Prakash and written by Rajesh Y. V, it was shot in digital format by cinematographer Fowzia Fathima, starred Kunchacko Boban and Jayasurya in leading roles. The film is an unofficial remake of classic Argentinian Crime-thriller film Nine Queens. Jerry, a con man known for his high-stakes scams, his criminal actions create a rift in his family when he attempts to steal the family business from his sister. While planning a heist on a petrol station, Jerry helps Ravi Varma. Ravi had been caught performing similar heists with a similar con man. Ravi Varma convinces Jerry to plan a formidable heist. An old acquaintance, tells Jerry of a forged painting that can be used to con a non-resident Indian out of ₹50 lakhs; the information creates a rift in the newly formed friendship as both Ravi Varma and Jerry attempt to outdo each other in order to take the money. Coincidentally, Jerry's sister is an employee at the hotel where the NRI is staying, both Ravi Varma and the NRI fall in love with her.

Ravi Varma and Jerry lose the painting and decide to buy the original by pooling their money. They sell it to the NRI for ₹3 crore. However, Jerry's father finds out about the plot and tells Jerry's sister, which further drives the siblings apart; when Jerry and Ravi Varma realize that the check given to them is invalid, they fight and decide to part ways. Jerry runs into the master con man, who offers to help him resolve the situation, takes Jerry to the wedding of Ravi Varma and Jerry's sister. Jerry learns that the entire sequence of events, starting from the gas station incident, had been staged as a form of gentle revenge in return for the scam that had sent Ravi Varma's father to jail. Jerry leaves the wedding; as the credits roll, Jerry is seen pondering another scam. The film was described as being similar to Fabián Bielinsky's 2000 Argentine crime drama film Nine Queens. V. K. Prakash said: "I discovered the Nine Queens connection only after I liked the subject of Gulumaal". stated that "with a tighter script, better music and lesser length the film could have been more entertaining", but added, "The best thing about the film could be its unconventional narrative style." called it "stylish and crazy entertainment", praising the film's "intense believability" and "unstoppable flow of brilliantly witty one-liners", but criticized the poor selection of voices in Manu Rameshan's songs. VN of gave the film 2.5 out of 5, praising "the amazing camaraderie that its lead actors share" but finding fault with the "cacophony" and substandard picturization of the songs. VN stated that Gulumal was "a straight lift off the Argentinian film Nueve Reinas"; the film was commercial success. The film's soundtrack contains 4 songs, all composed by Manu Ramesan, with lyrics by S. Ramesan Nair and Saimon Palvaay. Gulumaal: The Escape on IMDb

18 Tauri

18 Tauri is a single star in the zodiac constellation of Taurus, located 444 light years away from the Sun. It is visible to the naked eye as a faint, blue-white hued star with an apparent visual magnitude of 5.66. The star is moving further from the Earth with a heliocentric radial velocity of +4.8. It is a member of the Pleiades open cluster, positioned near the ecliptic and thus is subject to lunar occultations; this is a B-type main-sequence star with a stellar classification of B8 V, is about halfway through its main sequence lifetime. It displays an infrared excess, suggesting the presence of an orbiting debris disk with a black body temperature of 75 K at a separation of 137.8 AU from the host star. The star has 2.89 times the Sun's radius. It is radiating 160 times the Sun's luminosity from its photosphere at an effective temperature of 13,748 K. 18 Tauri has a high rate of spin, showing a projected rotational velocity of 212 km/s

Charles H. Kimball

Charles H. Kimball was an American architect from Maine. Kimball was born in Lovell in 1852, was the son of a dentist, his family moved to Portland when he was young. Kimball graduated from Portland High School in 1869. By 1871 he was working for a local architect. In 1874 he left Portland for Lewiston and established a practice with George M. Coombs, a native of that city. Kimball & Coombs dissolved that year, Kimball had opened his own office in Portland by 1875, he practiced alone until his death. He never married, he is notable as one of the only Maine architects to embrace the Stick Style. His buildings in this mode include the original Deering High School, the Church of the New Jerusalem in Fryeburg, the former Kezar Falls M. E. Church. 1874 - Albert F. Ames House, 73 Talbot Ave, Maine 1875 - P. Fox Varnum Houses, Varnum St, MaineDemolished. 1876 - James E. Wengren House, 11 Mellen St, Maine 1877 - Deering High School, 432 Stevens Ave, MaineDemolished. 1877 - George C. Frye House, 296 Congress St, MaineDemolished.

1877 - Marble Block, 129 Main St, Maine 1878 - Church of the New Jerusalem, 4 Oxford St, Maine 1880 - Frank L. Bartlett House, 27 Pine St, Maine 1880 - Daniel M. Bonney House, 8 Court St, Maine 1881 - Shailer School, 58 North St, Maine 1882 - Frontier National Bank Building, 30 Water St, Maine 1883 - Kezar Falls M. E. Church, 5 School St, Kezar Falls, Maine 1884 - James H. Waugh House, 252 Main St, Maine