Kabuki is a classical Japanese dance-drama. Kabuki theatre is known for the stylization of its drama and for the elaborate make-up worn by some of its performers; the individual kanji, from left to right, mean sing and skill. Kabuki is therefore sometimes translated as "the art of singing and dancing"; these are, ateji characters which do not reflect actual etymology. The kanji of'skill' refers to a performer in kabuki theatre. Since the word kabuki is believed to derive from the verb kabuku, meaning "to lean" or "to be out of the ordinary", kabuki can be interpreted as "avant-garde" or "bizarre" theatre; the expression kabukimono referred to those who were bizarrely dressed. It is translated into English as "strange things" or "the crazy ones", referred to the style of dress worn by gangs of samurai. In 2005, the Kabuki theatre was proclaimed by UNESCO as an intangible heritage possessing outstanding universal value. In 2008, it was inscribed in the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
The history of kabuki began in 1603 when Izumo no Okuni a miko of Izumo-taisha, began performing a new style of dance drama in the dry riverbeds of Kyoto. It originated in the 17th century. Japan was under the control of the Tokugawa shogunate, enforced by Tokugawa Ieyasu; the name of the Edo period derives from the relocation of the Tokugawa regime from its former home in Kyoto to the city of Edo, present-day Tokyo. Female performers played both women in comic playlets about ordinary life; the style was popular, Okuni was asked to perform before the Imperial Court. In the wake of such success, rival troupes formed, kabuki was born as ensemble dance and drama performed by women—a form different from its modern incarnation. Much of its appeal in this era was due to the suggestive themes featured by many troupes. For this reason, kabuki was called "遊女歌舞妓" during this period. Kabuki became a common form of entertainment in the ukiyo, or Yoshiwara, the registered red-light district in Edo. A diverse crowd gathered under something that happened nowhere else in the city.
Kabuki theaters were a place to see and be seen as they featured the latest fashion trends and current events. The stage provided good entertainment with exciting new music, patterns and famous actors. Performances went from morning until sunset; the teahouses surrounding or connected to the theater provided meals and good company. The area around the theatres was filled with shops selling kabuki souvenirs. Kabuki, in a sense, initiated pop culture in Japan; the shogunate was never partial to kabuki and all the mischief it brought the variety of the social classes which mixed at kabuki performances. Women’s kabuki, called onna-kabuki, was banned in 1629 for being too erotic. Following onna-kabuki, young boys performed in wakashū-kabuki, but since they too were eligible for prostitution, the shōgun government soon banned wakashū-kabuki as well. Kabuki switched to adult male actors, called yaro-kabuki, in the mid-1600s. Male actors played both male characters; the theatre remained popular, remained a focus of urban lifestyle until modern times.
Although kabuki was performed all over ukiyo and other portions for the country, the Nakamura-za, Ichimura-za and Kawarazaki-za theatres became the top theatres in ukiyo, where some of the most successful kabuki performances were and still are held. The modern all-male kabuki, known as yarō-kabuki, was established during these decades. After women were banned from performing, cross-dressed male actors, known as onnagata or oyama, took over. Young men were preferred for women's roles due to their less masculine appearance and the higher pitch of their voices compared to adult men. In addition, wakashū roles, played by young men selected for attractiveness, became common, were presented in an erotic context. Along with the change in the performer's gender came a change in the emphasis of the performance: increased stress was placed on drama rather than dance. Performances were ribald, the male actors too were available for prostitution. Audiences became rowdy, brawls broke out, sometimes over the favors of a handsome young actor, leading the shogunate to ban first onnagata and wakashū roles.
Both bans were rescinded by 1652. During the Genroku era, kabuki thrived; the structure of a kabuki play was formalized during this period. Conventional character types were established. Kabuki theater and ningyō jōruri, the elaborate form of puppet theater that came to be known as bunraku, became associated with each other, each has since influenced the other's development; the famous playwright Chikamatsu Monzaemon, one of the first professional kabuki playwrights, produced several influential works, though the piece acknowledged as his most significant, Sonezaki Shinjū, was written for bunraku. Like many bunraku plays, it was adapted for kabuki, it spawned many imitators—in fact, it and similar plays caused so many real-life "copycat" suicides that the government banned shinju mono in 1723. Ichikawa Danjūrō I lived during this time. Male actors played both male characters. In the 1840s, fires started to affect E
A prop, formally known as property, is an object used on stage or on screen by actors during a performance or screen production. In practical terms, a prop is considered to be anything movable or portable on a stage or a set, distinct from the actors, scenery and electrical equipment. Consumable food items appearing in the production are considered props; the earliest known use of the term "properties" in English to refer to stage accessories is in the 1425 CE morality play, The Castle of Perseverance. The Oxford English Dictionary finds the first usage of "props" in 1841, while the singular form of "prop" appeared in 1911. During the Renaissance in Europe, small acting troupes functioned as cooperatives, pooling resources and dividing any income. Many performers provided their own costumes, but special items—stage weapons, furniture or other hand-held devices—were considered "company property"; some experts however seem to think that the term comes from the idea that stage or screen objects "belong" to whoever uses them on stage.
There is no difference between props such as theatre, film, or television. Bland Wade, a properties director, says, "A coffee cup onstage is a coffee cup on television, is a coffee cup on the big screen." He adds, "There are different responsibilities and different vocabulary." The term "theatrical property" originated to describe an object used in a stage play and similar entertainments to further the action. Technically, a prop is any object that gives the scenery, actors, or performance space specific period, place, or character; the term comes from live-performance practice theatrical methods, but its modern use extends beyond the traditional plays and musical, novelty and public-speaking performances, to film and electronic media. Props in a production originate from off stage unless they have been preset on the stage before the production begins. Props are stored on a prop table backstage near the actor's entrance during production generally locked in a storage area between performances.
The person in charge of handling the props is called the "props master". Other positions include coordinators, production assistants and interns as may be needed for a specific project; the term has transferred to television, motion picture and video game production, where they are referred to by the phrase movie prop, film prop or prop. In recent years, the increasing popularity of movie memorabilia has added new meaning to the term "prop", broadening its existence to include a valuable after-life as a prized collector's item. Not available until after a film's premiere, movie props appearing on-screen are called "screen-used", can fetch thousands of dollars in online auctions and charity benefits. Many props are ordinary objects. However, a prop must "read well" from the house or on-screen, meaning it must look real to the audience. Many real objects are poorly adapted to the task of looking like themselves to an audience, due to their size, durability, or color under bright lights, so some props are specially designed to look more like the actual item than the real object would look.
In some cases, a prop is designed to behave differently from how the real object would for the sake of safety. Examples of special props are: A prop sack representing a burlap bag, might have another black fabric bag sewn, discreetly inside the burlap, giving it strength, hiding the contents and creating a visual void to the audience view. A prop mop, representing a string mop, but built out of a rectangular shape covered with fabric, so the mop can be slid across the stage to another actress as part of a musical number. A prop weapon that looks functional, but lacks the intentional harmfulness of the corresponding real weapon. In the theater, prop weapons are always either non-operable replicas, or have safety features to ensure they are not dangerous. Guns fire caps or noisy blanks, swords are dulled, knives are made of plastic or rubber. In film production functional weapons are used, but only with special smoke blanks with blank adapted guns instead of real bullets. Real cartridges with bullets removed are still dangerously charged which has caused several tragic instances when used on stage or film.
The safety and proper handling of real weapons used as movie props is the premiere responsibility of the prop master. ATF and other law enforcement agencies may monitor the use of real guns for film and television, but this is not necessary with stage props as these guns are permanently "plugged". Breakaway objects, or stunt props, such as balsa-wood furniture, or sugar glass whose breakage and debris look real but cause injury due to their light weight and weak structure. For such safe props often a stunt double will replace the main actor for shots involving use of breakaway props. Rubber bladed-weapons and guns are examples of props used by stuntmen to minimize injury, or by actors where the action requires a prop which minimizes injury. "Hero" props are the more detailed pieces intended for close inspection by the audience. The hero prop may have legible writing, moving parts, or other attributes or functions missing from a standard prop; the term is used on occasion for any of the items that a main character wou
Scissor Sisters is an American pop/rock band formed in 2001. Forged in the "gay nightlife scene of New York", the band took its name from the female same-sex sexual activity tribadism, its members include Jake Shears and Ana Matronic as vocalists, Babydaddy as multi-instrumentalist, Del Marquis as lead guitar/bassist, Randy Real as drummer. Scissor Sisters incorporates diverse and eclectic styles in their music, but tends to sway towards pop rock, glam rock, nu-disco, electroclash; the band came to prominence following the release of their Grammy-nominated and chart-topping disco version of "Comfortably Numb" and subsequent debut album Scissor Sisters. The album was a success in the UK where it reached number one, was the best-selling album of 2004, was certified platinum by the BPI, accrued them three BRIT Awards in 2005. All five of its singles reached positions within the top 20 of the UK Singles Chart while "Filthy/Gorgeous" scored the band their first number one on Billboard's Hot Dance Club Songs, despite the album's meager success in their native US.
The album continued its success in countries around Europe, in Australia and in Canada before the release of the band's second studio album Ta-Dah, their second consecutive UK number one album which produced their first UK number one single "I Don't Feel Like Dancin'". Their third studio album Night Work displayed a shift towards a more club-oriented sound, charting at number two on the UK Albums Chart, number one on Billboard's Top Independent Albums chart and in the top 10 of several international territories; the band released their fourth studio album Magic Hour in May 2012. Scissor Sisters has performed around the world and have become recognized for their controversial and transgressive live performances, they collaborated with a number of other well-known pop musicians, including Elton John and Kylie Minogue. In 2004, lead vocalist of rock band U2, described Scissor Sisters as "the best pop group in the world", they have collaborated with Global Cool in 2007 on one of their green lifestyle campaigns.
Named Dead Lesbian and the Fibrillating Scissor Sisters, the final two words of the latter being derived from the lesbian sexual act tribadism, the band was founded in 2000 after friends Jason "Jake Shears" Sellards and Scott "Babydaddy" Hoffman both moved to New York City, enjoying its open and gay-friendly ethos. They began producing music together, with Babydaddy composing music and Shears writing lyrics; the duo released a couple of singles to little success and began appearing at underground clubs on New York's Lower East Side. On a trip to Disneyland, the pair met Ana "Matronic" Lynch at a screening of Michael Jackson's Captain EO. During a subsequent teacup ride, they discovered. Shears remarked, "I thought she was a freak but when I started singing "Another Part of Me" she showed me the best moonwalk I've seen."Ana Matronic ran a weekly cabaret event known as Knock Off at a club called the Slipper Room in New York, where she liked to hire eccentric and alternative acts. Matronic invited the pair to appear at Knock Off, which they did on September 21, 2001.
Shears dressed as his character "Jason the Amazing Back-Alley Late Term Abortion" whilst Matronic, dressed as a reject from Andy Warhol's Factory, joined the pair on stage and sang. Shears and Babydaddy felt she was effective and asked her to join the band on a permanent basis, to which she agreed; the trio began appearing at other clubs, dropping the word "Fibrillating" from their name. They played electroclash, popular at the time in the underground club scene of New York with bands like Peaches and Chicks on Speed, they were soon joined by Derek "Del Marquis" Gruen on lead guitar, who had known Shears from when they both worked at the IC Guys club where Shears had been a stripper. They were joined by a fifth member, Patrick "Paddy Boom" Seacor, on drums who felt the need to explain to his mother that "it's not a gay band... There gay members. It's about the music and about performance."In 2002, the band signed with a small New York record company called A Touch of Class for a two-single deal.
Their first single "Electrobix" dealt with gay men's obsessions with working out but proved to be less popular than its B-side, a cover version of Pink Floyd's progressive rock classic "Comfortably Numb". Matronic commented, "It's one of those songs that people were either gonna love or hate, that's really powerful, because it means you're evoking a reaction in everyone; the first time I heard it, I thought that if it doesn't make us famous, it'll make us infamous because somebody will shoot us!" Their version of "Comfortably Numb" became a hit in many dance clubs and, after sending Pink Floyd themselves a copy, the Scissor Sisters received positive remarks from the song's original writers Roger Waters and David Gilmour. The song proved to be popular in the UK, where various record labels soon took an interest in the band. In 2003, they decided they would tour Europe where they believed audiences would be more receptive of them and their music than their native US. "Comfortably Numb" came to the attention of British label Polydor, who signed the group to a contract.
Their first single for the label "Laura" (with two different mu
Theatrical scenery is that, used as a setting for a theatrical production. Scenery may be just about anything, from a single chair to an elaborately re-created street, no matter how large or how small, whether the item was custom-made or is the genuine item, appropriated for theatrical use; the history of theatrical scenery is as old as the theatre itself, just as obtuse and tradition bound. What we tend to think of as'traditional scenery', i.e. two-dimensional canvas-covered'flats' painted to resemble a three-dimensional surface or vista, is a recent innovation and a significant departure from the more ancient forms of theatrical expression, which tended to rely less on the actual representation of space senerial and more on the conveyance of action and mood. By the Shakespearean era, the occasional painted backdrop or theatrical prop was in evidence, but the show itself was written so as not to rely on such items to convey itself to the audience. However, this means that today's set designers must be that much more careful, so as to convey the setting without taking away from the actors.
Our more modern notion of scenery, which dates back to the 19th century, finds its origins in the dramatic spectacle of opera buffa, from which the modern opera is descended. Its elaborate settings were appropriated by the'straight', or dramatic, through their use in comic operettas, burlesques and the like; as time progressed, stage settings grew more realistic, reaching their peak in the Belasco realism of the 1910-'20s, in which complete diners, with working soda fountains and freshly made food, were recreated onstage. As a reaction to such excess and in parallel with trends in the arts and architecture, scenery began a trend towards abstraction, although realistic settings remained in evidence, are still used today. At the same time, the musical theatre was evolving its own set of scenic traditions, borrowing from the burlesque and vaudeville style, with occasional nods to the trends of the'straight' theatre. Everything came together in the 1980s and 1990s and, continuing to today, until there is no established style of scenic production and pretty much anything goes.
Modern stagecraft has grown so complex as to require the specialized skills of hundreds of artists and craftspeople to mount a single production. The construction of theatrical scenery is one of the most time-consuming tasks when preparing for a show; as a result, many theatres have a place for storing scenery so that it can be used for multiple shows. Since future shows are not known far in advance, theatres will construct stock scenery that can be adapted to fit a variety of shows. Common stock scenery types include: Curtains Flats Platforms Scenery wagons Production sets Scenic design Set construction Scenography
Hitoshi Matsumoto, or Matchan as he is known, is one of Japan's most popular comedians and TV hosts. He is one half of the comedy duo Downtown alongside Masatoshi Hamada. Like Hamada, Matsumoto was raised in Amagasaki, Hyōgo Prefecture. Matsumoto has directed several movies beginning in 2007 with Big Man Japan, in several of which he starred as the main character. Matsumoto was born in Hyōgo, to a poor family, he has one older sister and one older brother, Takahiro Matsumoto, an established folk guitarist who released an autobiographical book titled "Matsumoto's Older Brother". He has expressed his feelings about growing up in a poor household in a poem titled Chicken Rice which Hamada turned into a song in 2004. In his poem, he wrote, he credits his poverty for giving him a good imagination and sense of play, as it forced him to invent his own games to entertain himself. His favorite manga as a child was Tensai Bakabon by Fujio Akatsuka, he aspired to become a manga artist. He attended Ushio Elementary School.
He graduated from Amagasaki Technical High School in 1982. Although he secured a job at a printing office, to pursue his dream of becoming a comedian, he was invited by Hamada in 1982 to enter Yoshimoto Kōgyō. Together, they became Downtown, made their major debut in 1983. Matsumoto remained single with no history of marriage for years after his comedy partner, was married with children, he stated that he was not into romance, finding acts such as sharing a bed or bathing with someone else bothersome and unnecessary. It was revealed in July 2008 that Matsumoto was dating 25-year-old tarento Ihara Rin. In the evening of May 17, 2009, it was announced that Matsumoto's official bachelorhood had ended with a secret marriage ceremony between himself and the aforementioned Ihara. Ihara, a former weather announcer for the Japanese news program "ズームイン!! Super" is nineteen years Matsumoto's junior, became pregnant by Matsumoto, prompting the marriage; the announcement of the marriage came via fax by Matsumoto's managing organization to several media outlets, including a personal message by Matsumoto himself: "My partner will quit her job and is pregnant.
As this is a delicate time, I would like this to be dealt with as as possible. It would be best to hold a press conference, however I'm too embarrassed to, so I won't."On October 6, 2009, Matsumoto and Ihara Rin became parents to a daughter. At the time, Matsumoto was in South Korea for the screening of the film "Symbol." Matsumoto's hobbies include driving and video games. As an admirer of Vincent van Gogh, he has gone to Amsterdam to visit The Van Gogh Museum; these trips were filmed for a special NHK BS documentary series. Another figure he respects is Kanbi Fujiyama, he owns DVD box sets of series such as Kamen Rider and Giant Robo. He has parodied tokusatsu a number of times on his previous show, Downtown no Gottsu Ee Kanji, in his directorial film debut, Dainipponjin, he has demonstrated good physical fitness on Gaki no Tsukai. He defeated his comedy partner Hamada in a high jump competition by clearing 1.40m on the first try. In 1999, he outran Hōsei Yamasaki and both members of Cocorico in a 100-meter race.
Three years he performed notably better than them in a long jump competition. Although he claims to have no interest in sports, he has dabbled in boxing as he is friends with former world boxing champion Joichiro Tatsuyoshi. Once a heavy cigarette smoker, he quit in 2003. On June 28, 2010, Yoshimoto Kogyo announced that Matsumoto would not be performing on any shows for two months due to an injury on his left hip, which required surgery. For two episodes, the remaining Gaki no Tsukai cast members discussed his condition, with Matsumoto returning to hosting on August 31, 2010. In subsequent segments of the show requiring rigorous physical activities, such as the annual New Year's Eve 24-Hour Batsu Games of recent years, he is exempted and instead given idle or captive roles, in spite of the injuries. During the 2012 Gaki no Tsukai batsu game involving the group becoming airline assistants, Matsumoto revealed he had suffered a stress fracture preparing for said batsu game, despite doctor's orders, he still participated in the batsu game.
Comic shorts: Tōzu Sundome Kaikyō Visualbum Vol. Apple – Promise Visualbum Vol. Banana – Kindness Visualbum Vol. Grape – Relief Sasuke Zassā Full-length movies: Big Man Japan Symbol Saya Zamurai R100 Violence Voyager, narrator Hitori gottsu Densetsu no kyōshi Ashita ga aru sa Hōsō-shitsu Hitoshi Matsumoto no suberanai hanashi Matsumoto Hitoshi no Konto Hitoshi Matsumoto Presents Documental Isho ISBN 978-4-02-256809-0 Matsumoto ISBN 978-4-02-256898-4 Matsumoto Hitoshi Ai ISBN 978-4-02-257300-1 Matsumoto Bōzu ISBN 978-4-947599-62-9 Zukan ISBN 978-4-02-257550-0 Matsumoto Cinema Bōzu ISBN 978-4-8222-1733-4 Matsumoto Saiban ISBN 978-4-86052-002-1 Te
A stagehand is a person who works backstage or behind the scenes in theatres, television, or location performance. Their work include setting up the scenery, sound, props and special effects for a production. Head Professional Stagehands Audio engineer Assistant audio Video engineer Electricians Lighting technician Light board operator Followspot operator Carpenters Theatrical technician Property Master/Mistress Rigger Wardrobe/costume quick changers Deck Audio Deck Carpentry Deck Lighting Stage Manager Assistant Stage Manager Utility Projectionist Stagehands are skilled in multiple disciplines, including rigging, stage electrics, stage lighting, video/projection, props. Stagehands are responsible for operating the systems during shows or taping and for the repair and maintenance of the equipment. Most stagehands have a general knowledge of all the phases of a production, but tend to develop specialties and focus on specific areas. Riggers are in charge of the things; this may include building structures.
They use safety gear similar to that used for mountain climbing. Carpenters set up scenery, they may move scenery on stage during a show. Electricians, or more known as "Lighting technicians", set up all the lights, program the light design in the lighting console and run the follow spot. Stagehands are employed on a show-by-show basis, although most major theaters and studios maintain staff heads of departments and assistants, they are union members part of the I. A. T. S. E. in North America or ABTT in the UK. Stagehands may work in many different venues, including both large and small traditional theatrical spaces, convention centers, outdoor venues, concert arenas, film sets, television studios and others. Skilled stagehands know how to work in a wide range of theaters and other venues to support successful shows. Different disciplines experience different risks; the most serious injury risk for riggers is falling. The primary risks for carpenters are things being injured by power tools. Electrocution is the most serious risk for stagehands working with power.
When a show travels or goes on tour, some stagehands travel with the show and others work to support the shows at each new venue. Everything the show needs is transported from venue to venue in trucks. Local stagehands load-in a tour under the direction of the road crew known as roadies. After the show, which can be one day or as long as a month, they take it all apart and load back onto the fleet of trucks to haul it to the next city; when a show is produced locally, stagehands build and set up the scenery, hang all the lights, set up sound systems. Stagehands work with the directors, lighting designers, set designers, costume designers, sound designers to ensure their visions are realized; some stagehands work conventional hours but more they work nights and weekends. Employment can be intermittent due to the seasonal nature of theatrical production work. Many production companies and venues have union contracts. Stagehands in the United States and Canada are represented by the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees.
In smaller productions, stagehands are not all paid, many are volunteers, theatre students or unpaid interns. Running crew Theatrical technician Fly captain
Noh, derived from the Sino-Japanese word for "skill" or "talent", is a major form of classical Japanese musical drama, performed since the 14th century. Developed by Kan'ami and his son Zeami, it is the oldest major theatre art, still performed today. Traditionally, a Noh program includes five Noh plays with comedic kyōgen plays in between. An okina play may be presented in the beginning at New Year and other special occasions. Nō together with Kyōgen is part of Nōgaku theatre. Noh is based on tales from traditional literature with a supernatural being transformed into human form as a hero narrating a story. Noh integrates masks and various props in a dance-based performance, requiring trained actors and musicians. Emotions are conveyed by stylized conventional gestures while the iconic masks represent the roles such as ghosts, women and the elderly. Written in ancient Japanese language, the text "vividly describes the ordinary people of the twelfth to sixteenth centuries". Having a strong emphasis on tradition rather than innovation, Noh is codified and regulated by the iemoto system.
The word Noh is a borrowing from Middle Chinese nong 能, means "skill", "craft", or "talent" in the field of performing arts in this context. The word Noh may be used alone or with gaku to form the word nōgaku. Noh is a classical tradition, valued by many today; when used alone, Noh refers to the historical genre of theatre originated from sarugaku in the mid 14th century and continues to be performed today. Noh and kyōgen "originated in the 8th century. At the time, the term sangaku referred to various types of performance featuring acrobats and dance as well as comic sketches, its subsequent adaptation to Japanese society led to its assimilation of other traditional art forms."Various performing art elements in sangaku as well as elements of dengaku, shirabyōshi, gagaku evolved into Noh and kyōgen. Studies on genealogy of the Noh actors in 14th century indicate they were members of families specialized in performing arts. Sociological research by Yukio Hattori reveals that the Konparu School, arguably the oldest school of Noh, is a descendant of Mimashi, the performer who introduced gigaku, now-extinct masked drama-dance performance, into Japan from Kudara Kingdom in 612.
Another theory by Shinhachirō Matsumoto suggests Noh originated from outcastes struggling to claim higher social status by catering to those in power, namely the new ruling samurai class of the time. The transferral of the shogunate from Kamakura to Kyoto at the beginning of Muromachi period marked the increasing power of the samurai class and strengthened the relationship between the shogunate and the court; as Noh became the shōgun's favorite art form, Noh was able to become a courtly art form through this newly formed relationship. In 14th century, with strong support and patronage from shōgun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, Zeami was able to establish Noh as the most prominent theatre art form of the time. Kan'ami Kiyotsugu and his son Zeami Motokiyo brought Noh to what is its present-day form during the Muromachi period. Kan'ami was a renowned actor with great versatility fulfilling roles from graceful women and 12-year-old boys to strong adult males; when Kan'ami first presented his work to 17-year-old Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, Zeami was a child actor in his play, around age 12.
Yoshimitsu fell in love with Zeami and his position of favor at court caused Noh to be performed for Yoshimitsu thereafter. During the Edo period Noh continued to be aristocratic art form supported by the shōgun, the feudal lords, as well as wealthy and sophisticated commoners. While kabuki and joruri popular to the middle class focused on new and experimental entertainment, Noh strived to preserve its established high standards and historic authenticity and remained unchanged throughout the era. To capture the essence of performances given by great masters, every detail in movements and positions was reproduced by others resulting in an slow, ceremonial tempo over time; the fall of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1868 and the formation of a new modernized government resulted in the end of financial support by the government, the entire field of Noh experienced major financial crisis. Shortly after the Meiji Restoration both the number of Noh performers and Noh stages diminished; the support from the imperial government was regained due to Noh's appeal to foreign diplomats.
The companies that remained active throughout the Meiji era significantly broadened Noh's reach by catering to the general public, performing at theatres in major cities such as Tokyo and Osaka. In 1957 the Japanese Government designated nōgaku as an Important Intangible Cultural Property, which affords a degree of legal protection to the tradition as well as its most accomplished practitioners; the National Noh Theatre founded by the government in 1983 stages regular performances and organizes courses to train actors in the leading roles of nōgaku. Noh was inscribed in 2008 on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Human