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Kursk

Kursk is a city and the administrative center of Kursk Oblast, located at the confluence of the Kur and Seym rivers. The area around Kursk was the site of a turning point in the Soviet–German struggle during World War II and the site of the largest tank battle in history. Population: 415,159 . Archaeology indicates that the site of Kursk was settled in the 5th or 4th century BCE; the settlement was fortified and included Slavs at least as early as the 8th century CE. The first written record of Kursk is dated 1032, it was mentioned as one of Severian towns by Prince Igor in The Tale of Igor's Campaign: "Saddle, your swift steeds. As to mine, they are ready; the city was rebuilt no than 1283. It was ruled by Grand Duchy of Lithuania between 1360 and 1508. Kursk joined the centralized Russian state in 1508, it was an important center of the corn trade with Ukraine and hosted an important fair, which took place annually under the walls of the monastery of Our Lady of Kursk. However, a century the city re-emerged in a new place.

In 1596 a new fortress was built, in 1616. At the beginning of the 17th century Kursk was attacked by Polish-Lithuania, the Crimean Tatars, the Nogai horde, but Kursk fortress was never taken. Residents of Oryol and other southern Russian cities were resettled in Kursk; the city developed due to its advantageous geographical position on the shortest route from Moscow to the Crimea and from Kiev to the Crimea. It was raided by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Crimean Khanate until the late 17th century and was ruled by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth between 1611 and 1618, it was successively part of the Kiev Governorate, Belgorod Governorate, Kursk Viceroyalty. Town status was granted to Kursk in 1779, it became the administrative center of Kursk Governorate in 1797. After a fire in 1781 devastated Kursk, a new plan for the city was developed in which a market center would be at the heart of the city. In 1768 the Voskirsensko Ilinskaya Church was built. In 1778 both the Sergiev Cathedral Kazan Cathedral Baroque and Trinity Sergius Cathedral were completed.

The city opened its first school for the nobility in 1783. A men's gymnasium was opened in 1808 and a seminary in 1817. A women's gymnasium was opened in 1870. At the beginning of the 20th century Kursk played a dominant role in the food industry and in other industries as well. Organized several engineering enterprises. Working conditions in the factories of Kursk were harsh and resulted in strikes. Kursk workers participated in the general political strike during the 1905 Russian Revolution. On November 26 1917 the Soviets took power. Kornilovites came to Kursk in September 20, 1919. On September 20, 1919, troops under the command of General Denikin entered the city. On November 19, 1919, the Red Army took Kursk; the Soviet government valued Kursk for rich deposits of iron ore and developed it into one of the major railroad hubs in the Russian southwest. In 1932 in the Kursk was included Yamskaya Sloboda. In 1935 a tram system began operating in the city. In 193?, the territory of the city of Kursk was divided into Leninsky District, Dzerzhinsky District and Kirov District.

In 1937 Stalinsky District was formed in the southern outskirts of the city. During World War II, Kursk was occupied by Germany between November 4, 1941 and February 8, 1943. In July 1943, the Germans launched Operation Citadel in an attempt to recapture Kursk. During the resulting Battle of Kursk, the village of Prokhorovka near Kursk became the center of a major armoured engagement – the Battle of Prokhorovka – between Soviet and German forces, considered to have been one of the largest tank battles in history. Operation Citadel was the last major German offensive against the Soviet Union. Rebuilding efforts in the city began in February 1944; the cultural life recovered as well: on 19 February the cinema reopened and on February 27 the drama theatre. In 1953 the tram system began operating. By 1950 the urban economy had been restored. On August 17, 1956, Stalinsky District was renamed Promishlenost District, Dzerzhinsky District was abolished and its territory divided between Promishlenost and Leninsky Districts.

In 2009, for the first time in 90 years at the site of Theotokos of Kursk, the most revered icon in the Russian Orthodox Church, received the name Hodigitria Russian diaspora. Until 2010, Kursk had the status of historica

RBG: Revolutionary but Gangsta

RBG: Revolutionary but Gangsta is the second studio album by hip-hop duo dead prez. It was released March 2004 on Sony Records. RBG was described by M-1 as a movement that "comes off the back of the Honorable Marcus Garvey." According to him, "RBG means Red and Green," the traditional African colors created by the UNIA, which are featured on the album cover. With this album Dead Prez "made it Revolutionary But Gangsta."On RBG: Revolutionary but Gangsta, Dead Prez talks about ending poverty and depression, of "pimping the system" as a means to this end and to the cause of liberation. On "Hell Yeah," Dead Prez declare "Fuck welfare / we say reparations". Inside the album liner notes, RBG is variously described as standing for; the song "Radio Freq" first appeared on Turn Off the Radio: The Mixtape Vol. 1 as "Turn Off the Radio" and is considered an homage to Ice Cube's song "Turn Off The Radio". In 2003, the song, "Hell Yeah" was featured on the 2 Fast 2 Furious soundtrack. Note tracks 13-19 are each five seconds of silence, are followed by two more unlisted tracks, 20: "Twenty" and 21: "Hell Yeah" Stic.man – track 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11 Tahir Jamal – track 3 Dead Prez and Downbeat Production Collective – track 5, 12 Sean Cane – track 9 It’s Bigger than Hip Hop: An Interview with Mutulu Olugbala of Dead Prez

Svenska Aero

Svenska Aero AB was a Swedish aircraft manufacturer on Hästholmen in Lidingö. The company was founded September 1921, to license build Caspar-Werke and Heinkel aircraft; the company was bought by ASJA in 1932. After World War I, the German aircraft industry had several problems. German airlines was forbidden to operate multi engined aircraft and during a period all manufacturing of aircraft in Germany was banned. By 1921, some of the restrictions was lifted, civilian aircraft could be made after approval of an international control commission if they fulfilled certain requirements. In order to bypass these rules and to be able to make whatever aircraft they wanted, several aircraft manufacturers moved abroad. In 1921, Carl Clemens Bücker handled the purchase of a reconnaissance aircraft from Caspar-Werke in Travemünde; because they expected problems due to the rules in the peace treaty regarding the export of German fighter aircraft, Bücker explored the possibility to smuggle the parts out of Germany and assemble the aircraft in Sweden.

To make the purchase easier, Ernst Heinkel and Bücker started Svenska Aero in Lidingö in 1921. The contract on the aircraft was transferred from Caspar to Svenska Aero. Heinkel and some German assembly workers temporarily moved to Lidingö to assemble the aircraft. Bücker, who at the time was hired as test pilot by the navy airforce at TDS, quit to become CEO and the only board member of the new company; the first aircraft was assembled from components from Caspar-Werke in Travemünde. Some assembly was carried out at Svenska Aero's facilities, but they were finished by TDS as some the facilities of Svenska were unsuitable for production. In reality only rudders and pontoons were made in Sweden, the rest of the components were secretly manufactured by Caspar in several locations in Germany, to avoid detection by the allies. During 1922 to 1923, the company moved into a former shipyard in Skärsätra on Lidingö since the company had received additional orders from the navy's airforce; the parts for those aircraft was made in Sweden by Svenska Aero, but assembled by TDS.

In 1928, the navy ordered four J 4 as a fighter with pontoons. That delivery came to be the last license built aircraft by Svenska Aero. In the mid-1920s, Svenska Aero created their own design department to be able to make their own aircraft models. Sven Blomberg, earlier employed by Heinkel Flugzeugwerke, was hired as head of design. In 1930, he was joined by Anders Johan Andersson from Messerschmitt. Despite that, Svenska Aero made six different models on their own; the manufacturing was not the success Bücker counted on, as the airforce was only interested in buying prototypes and building them themselves in their workshops TDS and CFM. This led to financial problems for the company. In 1932, Bücker decided to sell the company with staff to ASJA for 250,000 SEK. After the company had been sold, Bücker started Bücker Flugzeugbau. Together, they created several internationally well known aircraft like Bücker Bü 181 Bestmann and Bücker Bü 133 Jungmeister. At the outbreak of World War II, Autumn 1939, Andersson returned to Sweden where he led the design of the twin engine Saab 18.

Including licence-built and own designs, Svenska Aero made a total of 58 aircraft. Seven were exported to one to Norway. Between 1926 and 1932, the Swedish air force bought 15 different types of aircraft. Svenska Aero SA-10 Piraten Svenska Aero SA-11 Jaktfalken Svenska Aero SA-12 Skolfalken Svenska Aero SA-13 Övningsfalken Svenska Aero SA-14 Jaktfalken II Svenska Aero SA-15 prototype manufactured by ASJA Heinkel He 1 Hansa Brandenburg type 31 earlier called Caspar S. I Heinkel He 1 - Hansa Brandenburg type 32 Heinkel He 2 Hansa Brandenburg type 42 earlier called HE S. II Heinkel He 4 Hansa Brandenburg type 47 earlier called HE S. IIa Heinkel He 5 Hansa Heinkel HD 19 Heinkel HD 24 Heinkel HD 35 trainer Heinkel He 3 Heinkel HD 14 Heinkel HD 16 Heinkel HD 33 Andersson, Lennart. "Heinkels for Sweden: Svenska Aero AB and Heinkel Types". Air Enthusiast, No. 78, November/December 1998. Pp. 57–67. Gunston, Bill. World Encyclopedia of Aircraft Manufacturers, 2nd Edition. Phoenix Mill, England, UK: Sutton Publishing Limited.

ISBN 0-7509-3981-8