Kurt Josef Waldheim was an Austrian diplomat and politician. Waldheim was the fourth Secretary-General of the United Nations from 1972 to 1981, President of Austria from 1986 to 1992. While he was running for the latter office in the 1986 election, the revelation of his service in Thessaloniki, Greece and in Yugoslavia, as an intelligence officer in Nazi Germany's Wehrmacht during World War II raised international controversy. Waldheim was born in Sankt Andrä-Wördern, near Vienna, on 21 December 1918, his father was a Roman Catholic school inspector of Czech origin named Watzlawick who changed his name that year as the Habsburg monarchy collapsed. Waldheim served in the Austrian Army and attended the Vienna Consular Academy, where he graduated in 1939. Waldheim's father was active in the Christian Social Party. Waldheim himself was politically unaffiliated during these years at the Academy. Three weeks after the German annexation of Austria in 1938, Waldheim applied for membership in the National Socialist German Students' League, a division of the Nazi Party.
Shortly thereafter he became a registered member of the mounted corps of the SA. On 19 August 1944, he married Elisabeth Ritschel in Vienna. A son and another daughter, followed. In early 1941, Waldheim was drafted into the Wehrmacht and posted to the Eastern Front where he served as a squad leader. In December, he was wounded but returned to service in 1942, his service in the Wehrmacht from 1942 to 1945 was the subject of international review in 1985 and 1986. In his 1985 autobiography, he stated that he was discharged from further service at the front and, for the remainder of the war, finished his law degree at the University of Vienna, in addition to marrying in 1944. After publication and witnesses came to light that revealed Waldheim’s military service continued until 1945, during which time he rose to the rank of Oberleutnant. Waldheim's functions within the staff of German Army Group E from 1942 until 1945, as determined by the International Commission of Historians, were: Interpreter and liaison officer with the 5th Alpine Division in Pljevlja from 22 March 1942 to July 1942.
O2 to the 1b with Kampfgruppe West in Bosnia in June/August 1942, Interpreter with the liaison staff attached to the Italian 9th Army in Tirana in early summer 1942, O1 to the 1a in the German liaison staff with the Italian 11th Army and in the staff of the Army Group South in Greece in July/October 1943, O3 to the 1c officer on the staff of Army Group E in Arksali, Kosovska Mitrovica and Sarajevo from October 1943 to January/February 1945. By 1943, Waldheim was serving in the capacity of an aide-de-camp in Army Group E, headed by General Alexander Löhr. In 1986, Waldheim said that he had served only as an interpreter and a clerk and had no knowledge either of reprisals against local Serb civilians or of massacres in neighboring provinces of Yugoslavia, he said that he had known about some of the things that had happened, had been horrified, but could not see what else he could have done. Much historical interest has centred on Waldheim's role in Operation Kozara in 1942. According to one post-war investigator, prisoners were shot within only a few hundred meters of Waldheim's office, 35 kilometres away at the Jasenovac concentration camp.
Waldheim stated that "he did not know about the murder of civilians there". Waldheim's name appears on the Wehrmacht's "honour list" of those responsible for the militarily successful operation; the Nazi puppet state, the Independent State of Croatia, awarded Waldheim the Medal of the Crown of King Zvonimir in silver with an oak branches cluster. Decades during the lobbying for his election as U. N. Secretary General, Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito, who had led anti-German forces during the war, awarded Waldheim one of the highest Yugoslav orders, not knowing of his prior military service. Waldheim denied that he knew war crimes were taking place in Bosnia at the height of the battles between the Nazis and Tito's partisans in 1943. According to Eli Rosenbaum, in 1944, Waldheim reviewed and approved a packet of anti-Semitic propaganda leaflets to be dropped behind Soviet lines, one of which ended: "Enough of the Jewish war, kill the Jews, come over." In 1945, Waldheim surrendered to British forces in Carinthia, at which point he said he had fled his command post within Army Group E, where he was serving with General Löhr, seeking a special deal with the British.
Waldheim joined the Austrian diplomatic service in 1945, after finishing his studies in law at the University of Vienna. He served as First Secretary of the Legation in Paris from 1948, in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs in Vienna from 1951 to 1956. In 1956 he was made Ambassador to Canada, returning to the Ministry in 1960, after which he became the Permanent Representative of Austria to the United Nations in 1964. For two years beginning in 1968, he was the Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs for the Austrian People's Party, before going back as Permanent Representative to the U. N. in 1970. Shortly afterwards, he was defeated in the 1971 Austrian presidential elections. After losing the presidential election, Waldheim ran for Secretary-General of the United Nations in the 1971 selection. Waldheim was led the first two rounds of voting. However, he was opposed by China, the United Kingdom, the United States. Waldheim won an accidenta
In the National Football League, training camp refers to the time before the season commences. During this time, teams will sometimes congregate at an outside location a university, to conduct training camp for at least the first few weeks; this is similar to baseball's spring training. Training camp is used in several different ways. New players and coaches use it to acclimate themselves to new systems. For younger players, it serves as a period of evaluation. Training camp is divided into several different components; the first is scrimmages. These are pseudo-games. Sometimes, two practice sessions are held on the same day; this concept is referred to as two-a-days. Other parts of training camp include drills, meetings with coaches and other players at one's position, weight training, pre-season games; the latter half of training camp leads directly into the exhibition season. With NFL training camps starting in late-July, the biggest concern has been dehydration. In 2001, Minnesota Vikings player Korey Stringer died of a medical condition based from dehydration and heatstroke.
The death of Stringer prompted the NFL to change their training policies. At each practice, every team must have the team doctor and trainers on the field. With NFL training camps beginning in late July, severe weather can affect practice and exhibition games. In 2002, a Cleveland Browns exhibition game ended due to lightning near Cleveland Browns Stadium, severe storms have been known to disrupt training camps. Fans are able to visit their favorite team's training camp to catch an early look at the players. NFL teams sell souvenirs and concessions at camp sites along with offering activities and events to make training camp a more fan-friendly experience. Official NFL training camps should be distinguished from private training camps for certain tactics or positions; the NFL has let teams have off-season training sessions called "organized team activities". Many teams use the OTAs to help make them better; these training sessions are in early June. The OTAs are the only practices between the end of the previous season and the start of training camp.
Players new to the NFL lectures organized by the NFL from mid-June to mid-July. For veteran players, they use the off-time to sponsor football camps for children, golf outings for charity, or some family time. Unlike Major League Baseball spring training, where teams congregate at locations in two states, NFL teams train all over the United States. However, an increasing number of teams do so in the same facilities at which they practice all year long – 19 teams in 2014, 20 in 2015, up from five in 2000. Most teams have abandoned remote locations to "come home" for training camp for practicality reasons. Many clubs have constructed state-of-the-art headquarters and practice facilities, replete with amenities that can not be provided or matched at other distant locations. Most if not all of these newer team practice facilities were in fact designed with hosting training camp in mind, they are able to accommodate the expanded training camp roster sizes; some feature permanent bleachers for spectators.
In addition, the cost of temporarily relocating and accommodating the entire team organization to another location is substantial. The attitudes about how to run training camp have evolved - leading more teams to stay home. Furthermore, restrictions dictated by the CBA limit contact and prohibit such things two-a-days, which reduces on-field activity during camp. With Organized Team Activities, mini-camps, conditioning during the off-season, players remain in top physical shape year-round; the focus of training camp is no longer getting players back in shape, but more of fostering camaraderie and delving into game prep. For example, the Lions' camp was long held at Saginaw Valley State College, the Broncos trained at the University of Northern Colorado, the Patriots at Bryant University in Smithfield, Rhode Island, the Redskins moved in from Dickinson College, the former site of Carlisle Indian School. Tampa Bay used to train at the University of Tampa at the ESPN Wide World of Sports Complex before moving permanently back to their headquarters.
After many years on the road, the Jets and the Giants both moved back to team headquarters. There are still a handful of teams that use somewhat distant locations at the fringes of their markets to promote their team. For instance, the Buffalo Bills moved their training camp from SUNY Fredonia to Saint John Fisher College in suburban Rochester; the Dallas Cowboys have hosted their training camp in locales distant from their home market before they were given the moniker
St. Clair is a township in southwestern Ontario, Canada south of Sarnia in Lambton County, along the eastern shores of the St. Clair River; the township comprises the communities of Avonry, Babys Point, Bickford, Brigden, Colinville, Corunna, Duthill, Frog Point, Kimball, Moore Centre, Osborne, Port Lambton, Sombra, Thornyhurst, Vye's Grove, West Becher, Wilkesport. The township administrative offices are located in Mooretown; the Ojibwe First Nation occupied this area for thousands of years prior to European encounter. As French traders and farmers spread out from the Atlantic coast along the waterways, some French and French-Canadian colonists began to settle here in the mid-1700s, they rented land from the Ojibwe. To the south of the Detroit River, their early community was known as Petite Côte. Early maps show the typical colonial French lots, with narrow frontage along the river, they were located near a Huron settlement. In 1823, Lord Hicks was directed on an expedition to survey lands, he surveyed the town site of Corunna.
William Carr Beresford was sent on a mission to find a suitable capital for a future union between the colonies of Upper Canada and Lower Canada. He had served in Spain during the Napoleonic Wars; the town's name indirectly honors Beresford's commander in that battle, Sir John Moore, mortally wounded at Corunna, Spain, in a fight with French forces as the English tried to embark on their ships for retreat to Great Britain. Corunna was not chosen for the new capital, as it was considered vulnerable due to being too close to the Canada–US border. In the 1820s–1830s, the prospect of an Irish Fenian raid from the United States was considered a serious threat to the British colonies. Today, a small stone cairn stands along Baird Street, near the CSX north-south train track that divides the town; the cairn marks the spot where Beresford's survey crews had proposed to build St. George's Square, an area to house parliament buildings. Beresford named most of the streets after military officers; the dimensions of these streets that now make up the downtown: Beckwith, Baird, Paget, Cameron, Colborne, Murray, etc. follow some of the original specifications set out by Beresford's survey crew as part of the plans to create a capital.
From the 1820s on in the nineteenth century, decades after the British took over Canada after their defeat of France in the Seven Years' War, Corunna was settled by a wave of British settlers Scots-Irish. One early settler was James Cruickshank, who settled in 1834 south of Corunna on the Eighth Line near Kimball Side Road. A plaque to commemorate his early contribution to the township was installed in a Corunna park on Beresford Street, on land donated by his descendants. New residents developed grist mills, saw mills, taverns, all considered integral to the new community. Entrepreneurs wanted to build a canal through Corunna, but it was abandoned soon after construction, as operators could not maintain consistent water levels; the early history of the town is spotty, but some accounts suggest a brewery operated here. In the 1920s and 1930s, the village supported some local retail stores. A general store was on the west side of Lyndoch, north of Hill, where an Esso station stood; the site now has a dentist's office.
Billy Locke ran Billy's Bunnery. Billy Garoch had another general store on the Hill corner where the liquor store is now; this was known as MacRae's store and closed in the early 1960s. Billy Garoch had an ice house to the east of his store, in the old school, moved from Lyndoch near the present Roses Variety Store; some historic structures remain in Corunna. The town's Roman Catholic church, St. Joseph's, was built in 1862, its wooden structure is bolstered by enormous trunks of the area's original trees, which were squared off and put in place to build the church. Several 1800s-vintage homes remain in the town as well. Amber's statue stands located near the water along St. Clair Parkway. Baby's Point is the extreme southern point of Lambton County. Kayla Baby owned all the land from this point, all of Port Lambton site, which he inherited from his grandfather in 1742, his brother James Baby lived there. In 1848 Edward Kelly was appointed as the first postmaster at Baby's Point. After 1812, more French Canadians started to settle along the St. Clair River.
They did not have legal title to the land, as the border with the United States was under dispute by Great Britain. When Irish immigrants began to move in about 1833, the French sold their squatters rights; the First Nations people, long the original inhabitants of all this area, were prevented by the Province from selling their land without official approval. Soon after 1812, the Province arranged for legal land sales to people along the St. Clair River. In the spring of 1820, Duncan McDonald built the first frame house. A post office opened in 1871, was at one time known as Lambton Village. Rural mail was first delivered in 1908, all mail routes completed in January 1909; the first Sacred Heart Church was built at Baby's Butt Point around 1825. It burned. Fr. Monocq was drowned January 12, 1861, his body was found in 1862. Fr. Monocq was buried beneath the altar of the first Port Lambton Church, his memorial plaque was on the right hand of the side altar. The Sacred Heart Church, Port Lambton, was built in 1877.
Martin Regan was the first person baptised there, in December 1877. In the 1960s the church was demolished