SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Kuwait City

Kuwait City is the capital and largest city of Kuwait. Located at the heart of the country on the shore of the Persian Gulf, containing Kuwait's National Assembly, most governmental offices, the headquarters of most Kuwaiti corporations and banks, it is the indisputable political and economical centre of the emirate, it is considered a global city. Kuwait City's trade and transportation needs are served by Kuwait International Airport, Mina Al-Shuwaik and Mina Al Ahmadi. In 1613, the town of Kuwait was founded in modern-day Kuwait City. In 1716, the Bani Utubs settled in Kuwait. At the time of the arrival of the Utubs, Kuwait was inhabited by a few fishermen and functioned as a fishing village. In the eighteenth century, Kuwait prospered and became the principal commercial center for the transit of goods between India, Muscat and Arabia. By the mid 1700s, Kuwait had established itself as the major trading route from the Persian Gulf to Aleppo. During the Persian siege of Basra in 1775–1779, Iraqi merchants took refuge in Kuwait and were instrumental in the expansion of Kuwait's boat-building and trading activities.

As a result, Kuwait's maritime commerce boomed. Between the years 1775 and 1779, the Indian trade routes with Baghdad, Aleppo and Constantinople were diverted to Kuwait; the East India Company was diverted to Kuwait in 1792. The East India Company secured the sea routes between Kuwait and the east coasts of Africa. After the Persian Magii withdrew from Basra in 1779, Kuwait continued to attract trade away from Basra. Kuwait was the center of boat building in the Persian Gulf region. During the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, ship vessels made in Kuwait carried the bulk of trade between the ports of India, East Africa and the Red Sea. Kuwaiti ship vessels were renowned throughout the Indian Ocean. Regional geopolitical turbulence helped foster economic prosperity in Kuwait in the second half of the 18th century. Kuwait became prosperous due to Basra's instability in the late 18th century. In the late 18th century, Kuwait functioned as a haven for Basra's merchants fleeing Ottoman government persecution.

According to Palgrave, Kuwaitis developed a reputation as the best sailors in the Persian Gulf. During the reign of Mubarak Al-Sabah, Kuwait was dubbed the "Marseilles of the Gulf" because its economic vitality attracted a large variety of people. In the first decades of the twentieth century, Kuwait had a well-established elite: wealthy trading families who were linked by marriage and shared economic interests; the elite were long-settled, urban and Shia families.the majority of which claim descent from the original 30 Bani Utubi families. The wealthiest families were trade merchants who acquired their wealth from long-distance commerce and pearling, they were a cosmopolitan elite, they traveled extensively to India and Europe. The elite educated their sons abroad more than other Gulf Arab elite. Western visitors noted that the Kuwaiti elite used European office systems and followed European culture with curiosity; the richest families were involved in general trade. The merchant families of Al-Ghanim and Al-Hamad were estimated to be worth millions before the 1940s.

In 1937, Freya Stark wrote about the extent of poverty in Kuwait at the time:Poverty has settled in Kuwait more since my last visit five years ago, both by sea, where the pearl trade continues to decline, by land, where the blockade established by Saudi Arabia now harms the merchants. Some prominent merchant families left Kuwait in the early 1930s due to the prevalence of economic hardship. At the time of the discovery of oil in 1937, most of Kuwait's inhabitants were impoverished. From 1946 to 1982, Kuwait experienced a period of prosperity driven by oil and its liberal atmosphere. In popular discourse, the years between 1946 and 1982 are referred to as the "Golden Era". In 1950, a major public-work programme began to enable Kuwaitis to enjoy a modern standard of living. By 1952, the country became the largest oil exporter in the Persian Gulf region. In the following year, the country's annual oil income grew to $169 million; this massive growth attracted many foreign workers from Palestine and India and helped finance the development of a new master plan, which the state approved in 1952.

In June 1961, Kuwait became independent with the end of the British protectorate and the sheikh Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah became an Emir. Under the terms of the newly drafted constitution, Kuwait held its first parliamentary elections in 1963. Kuwait was the first Persian Gulf country to establish a parliament. In the 1960s and 1970s, Kuwait was the most developed country in the region. Kuwait was the pioneer in the Middle East in diversifying its earnings away from oil exports; the Kuwait Investment Authority is the world's first sovereign wealth fund. From the 1970s onward, Kuwait scored highest of all Arab countries on the Human Development Index. Kuwait University was established in 1966. Kuwait's theatre industry was well-known throughout the Arab world. In the 1960s and 1970s, Kuwait's press was described as one of the freest in the world. Kuwait was the pioneer in the literary renaissance in the Arab region. In 1958, Al Arabi magazine was first published, the magazine went on to become the most popular magazine in the Arab world.

Many Arab writers moved to Kuwait for freedom of expression because Kuwait had greater freedom of expression than elsewhere in the Arab world. Kuwait was a haven for journalists from all parts of the Middle East; the Iraqi poet Ahmed Matar left Iraq in the 1970s to take refuge in the more liberal environment of Kuwait. Kuwaiti society embraced libe

Kota Junction railway station

Kota Junction railway station is a railway station on the West Central railway network of India which serves Kota in Rajasthan. It is the headquarters of Kota railway division of West Central Railway zone. Kota is an important station on the New Delhi–Mumbai main line and has direct connectivity with all major cities in the country. More than 170 trains make a halt at the station. Many important trains originate from Kota including Kota - Damoh Passenger, Kota - Indore Intercity Express, Kota - Patna Express and Kota - Sriganganagar Express. Kota city is served by another railway station called Dakaniya Talav station located in opposite of Rajeev Gandhi nagar in southern part of the city; the Kanwalpura-Kota and Gurla-Kota sections were electrified in the financial year of 1987-88 under Western Railways. Kota is amongst the top hundred booking stations of Indian Railway. Kota travel guide from Wikivoyage

Edward Littleton (colonial administrator)

Sir Edward Littleton was an administrator of the English East India Company. He served as President of Bengal in the early eighteenth century. Littleton was the eldest son of 2nd Baronet, he studied at The Queen's College, in 1671 married Susannah, daughter of Sir Theophilus Biddulph. From 1685 until 1689, he sat as Member of Parliament for Staffordshire. Littleton was expelled from the East India Company in 1682, he was a founding director of the New East India Company, was sent out to Bengal to act as President in its interest. He was knighted early in 1699. In that year he was at Calcutta, opposing John Beard of the old Company in Indian matters, it was some years before the two companies were amalgamated