Kwanzaa is an annual celebration of African-American culture held from December 26 to January 1, culminating in gift-giving and a feast of faith, called Karamu Ya Imani. It was created by Maulana Karenga and first celebrated in 1966. Kwanzaa has spread outside the United States and become more commercialized while observance of the holiday has waned. American Maulana Karenga created Kwanzaa in 1966 during the aftermath of the Watts riots as a African-American holiday. Karenga said his goal was to "give Blacks an alternative to the existing holiday and give Blacks an opportunity to celebrate themselves and their history, rather than imitate the practice of the dominant society." Kwanzaa is a celebration in Black separatism. For Karenga, a major figure in the Black Power movement of the 1960s and 1970s, the creation of such holidays underscored the essential premise that "you must have a cultural revolution before the violent revolution; the cultural revolution gives identity and direction."According to Karenga, the name Kwanzaa derives from the Swahili phrase matunda ya kwanza, meaning "first fruits of the harvest".
A more conventional translation would be "first fruits". The choice of Swahili, an East African language, is ahistoric, as most of the Atlantic slave trade that brought African people to America originated in West Africa. First fruits festivals exist in Southern Africa, celebrated in December/January with the southern solstice, Karenga was inspired by an account he read of the Zulu festival Umkhosi Wokweshwama, it was decided to spell the holiday's name with an additional "a" so that it would have a symbolic seven letters. During the early years of Kwanzaa, Karenga said, he believed Jesus was psychotic and Christianity was a "White" religion that Black people should shun. As Kwanzaa gained mainstream adherents, Karenga altered his position so practicing Christians would not be alienated stating in the 1997 Kwanzaa: A Celebration of Family and Culture, "Kwanzaa was not created to give people an alternative to their own religion or religious holiday." Many African Americans who celebrate Kwanzaa do so in addition to observing Christmas.
Kwanzaa celebrates what its founder called Nguzo Saba. They were developed in 1965, a year before Kwanzaa itself; these seven principles comprise Kawaida, a Swahili word meaning "common". Each of the seven days of Kwanzaa is dedicated to one of the following principles, as follows: Umoja: To strive for and to maintain unity in the family, community and race. Kujichagulia: To define and name ourselves, as well as to create and speak for ourselves. Ujima: To build and maintain our community together and make our brothers' and sisters' problems our problems and to solve them together. Ujamaa: To build and maintain our own stores and other businesses and to profit from them together. Nia: To make our collective vocation the building and developing of our community in order to restore our people to their traditional greatness. Kuumba: To do always as much as we can, in the way we can, in order to leave our community more beautiful and beneficial than we inherited it. Imani: To believe with all our hearts in our people, our parents, our teachers, our leaders, the righteousness and victory of our struggle.
Kwanzaa celebratory symbols include a mat on which other symbols are placed: a Kinara, Mishumaa Saba, Mahindi, a Kikombe cha Umoja for commemorating and giving shukrani to African Ancestors, Zawadi. Supplemental representations include a Nguzo Saba poster, the black and green bendera, African books and artworks – all to represent values and concepts reflective of African culture and contribution to community building and reinforcement. Ears of corn represent the children corn may be part of the holiday meal. Families celebrating Kwanzaa decorate their households with objects of art, colorful African cloth such as kente the wearing of kaftans by women, fresh fruits that represent African idealism, it is customary to include children in Kwanzaa ceremonies and to give respect and gratitude to ancestors. Libations are shared with a common chalice, Kikombe cha Umoja, passed around to all celebrants. Non-African Americans celebrate Kwanzaa; the holiday greeting is "Joyous Kwanzaa". A Kwanzaa ceremony may include drumming and musical selections, libations, a reading of the African Pledge and the Principles of Blackness, reflection on the Pan-African colors, a discussion of the African principle of the day or a chapter in African history, a candle-lighting ritual, artistic performance, a feast of faith.
The greeting for each day of Kwanzaa is Habari Gani?, Swahili for "How are you?"At first, observers of Kwanzaa avoided the mixing of the holiday or its symbols and practice with other holidays, as doing so would violate the principle of kujichagulia and thus violate the integrity of the holiday, intended as a reclamation of important African values. Today, some African American families celebrate Kwanzaa along with New Year's. Cultural exhibitions include the Spirit of Kwanzaa, an annual celebration held at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts featuring interpretive dance, African dance and poetry; the popularity of celebration of Kwanzaa has declined with the waning of th
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Haide Delia Giri is a former Argentine Senator for Córdoba Province. She is a member of the Argentine Justicialist Party. Giri was born and raised in the city of General Pico, La Pampa Province, She moved to Córdoba during her youth to study at the University, she graduated as a surgeon at the Medical Science Faculty of the National University of Córdoba, a title, co-validated by the University of Madrid. Between the years 1974 and 1976, she served as Under-Secretary of Social Action at the Córdoba City Council. In 1993 she was elected Provincial Senator for the Capital Department and formed an own parliamentary group until the end of her mandate in 1997. Two years Giri joined the Ministry of Health of the Province of Córdoba as a Director of Social Action and Director of the Support Unit of the Integral Assistance Program of Córdoba, dependent to the General Government Secretary. In 2001 she was appointed as the General Director of Medical Attention; this same year she took the position of Health Secretary of the Province and Health Secretary of the City of Córdoba.
In 2002 she was designated as General Secretary for the Government of the Province of Córdoba. In July 2003, Giri was named President of DACYT until December of that same year, when she was sworn in as National Senator. Since she has been part of the Front for Victory parliamentary group in support of the President, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, she was a vice president of the Health and Sport Committee and a member of the National Defense, Infrastructure and Transport, Mining and Fuel, Tourism and Population and Human Development Committees. Her mandate expired on December 10, 2009. In the Province of Córdoba, Giri is a member of the Women Provincial Council Executive Board, she was an active member of the Parliamentarian Group of Friendship with the people of Greece. Since the year 2005 she has been a permanent member of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, her legislative activities include: Law Project regarding Prevention from and Protection Against Domestic Violence. Law Project against Labour Violence.
Law Project to modify Commercial Loyalty law. Sanctioned November 29 of 2006. Promulgated by the National Executive Power on December 19 of 2006. Law nº 26.179. Law Project to transfer, free of charge, a real estate national property Marcos Juarez Council in the Province of Córdoba. Sanctioned by the National Congress with number 26.201. Promulgated by the National Executive Power January 9, 2007. Law Project regarding Tattoos and other Body Techniques. Law Project Against Crime of Slave Trade and for an Information and Protection System for the Victim. Law Project regarding the Application of Assisted Human Reproduction. Law Project for the Regulation of Tobacco-derived Products' Commercialization and to Control the effect of active and passive consumption on human health. Law Project to designate the year 2008 as “Year of the Fight Against Domestic Violence” in the Argentine Republic. Senate profile Senate Personal Web Page