Mount Cameroon is an active volcano in Cameroon near the Gulf of Guinea. Mount Cameroon is known as Cameroon Mountain or Fako or by its native name Mongo ma Ndemi, it is the highest point in sub-Saharan western and central Africa, the fourth-most prominent peak in Africa, the 31st-most prominent in the world. The mountain is part of the area of volcanic activity known as the Cameroon Volcanic Line, which includes Lake Nyos, the site of a disaster in 1986; the most recent eruption occurred on February 3, 2012. Mount Cameroon is one of Africa's largest volcanoes, rising to 4,040 metres above the coast of west Cameroon, it rises from the coast through tropical rainforest to a bare summit, cold and dusted with snow. The massive steep-sided volcano of dominantly basaltic-to-trachybasaltic composition forms a volcanic horst constructed above a basement of Precambrian metamorphic rocks covered with Cretaceous to Quaternary sediments. More than 100 small cinder cones fissure-controlled parallel to the long axis of the massive 1,400-cubic-kilometre volcano, occur on the flanks and surrounding lowlands.
A large satellitic peak, Etinde, is located on the southern flank near the coast. Mount Cameroon has the most frequent eruptions of any West African volcano; the first written account of volcanic activity could be the one from the Carthaginian Hanno the Navigator, who may have observed the mountain in the 5th century BC. Moderate explosive and effusive eruptions have occurred throughout history from both summit and flank vents. A 1922 eruption on the southwestern flank produced a lava flow. A lava flow from a 1999 south-flank eruption stopped 200 m from the sea, cutting the coastal highway; the peak is ascended by hikers. The annual Mount Cameroon Race of Hope scales the peak in around 4½ hours. Sarah Etonge, who has won the race seven times and is a tour operator, has become known as queen of the mountain. English explorer Mary Kingsley, one of the first Europeans to scale the mountain, recounts her expedition in her 1897 memoir Travels in West Africa. Impatiens etindensis and I. grandisepala are plant species known only from Mount Cameroon.
There are no trees in this area. Debundscha List of volcanoes in Cameroon DeLancey, M. W. and M. D. DeLancey.. Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cameroon. Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press. "Cameroon". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2009-01-14. Mount Cameroon Research Foundation
League of Nations
The League of Nations, abbreviated as LN or LoN, was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace, its primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing wars through collective security and disarmament and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. Other issues in this and related treaties included labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants and drug trafficking, the arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, protection of minorities in Europe. At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it had 58 members; the diplomatic philosophy behind the League represented a fundamental shift from the preceding hundred years. The League lacked its own armed force and depended on the victorious Great Powers of World War I to enforce its resolutions, keep to its economic sanctions, or provide an army when needed.
The Great Powers were reluctant to do so. Sanctions could hurt League members, so they were reluctant to comply with them. During the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, when the League accused Italian soldiers of targeting Red Cross medical tents, Benito Mussolini responded that "the League is well when sparrows shout, but no good at all when eagles fall out."After some notable successes and some early failures in the 1920s, the League proved incapable of preventing aggression by the Axis powers in the 1930s. The credibility of the organization was weakened by the fact that the United States never joined the League and the Soviet Union joined late and only briefly. Germany withdrew from the League, as did Japan, Italy and others; the onset of the Second World War showed that the League had failed its primary purpose, to prevent any future world war. The League lasted for 26 years; the concept of a peaceful community of nations had been proposed as far back as 1795, when Immanuel Kant's Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch outlined the idea of a league of nations to control conflict and promote peace between states.
Kant argued for the establishment of a peaceful world community, not in a sense of a global government, but in the hope that each state would declare itself a free state that respects its citizens and welcomes foreign visitors as fellow rational beings, thus promoting peaceful society worldwide. International co-operation to promote collective security originated in the Concert of Europe that developed after the Napoleonic Wars in the 19th century in an attempt to maintain the status quo between European states and so avoid war; this period saw the development of international law, with the first Geneva Conventions establishing laws dealing with humanitarian relief during wartime, the international Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 governing rules of war and the peaceful settlement of international disputes. As historians William H. Harbaugh and Ronald E. Powaski point out, Theodore Roosevelt was the first American President to call for an international league. At the acceptance for his Nobel Prize, Roosevelt said: "it would be a masterstroke if those great powers bent on peace would form a League of Peace."The forerunner of the League of Nations, the Inter-Parliamentary Union, was formed by the peace activists William Randal Cremer and Frédéric Passy in 1889 The IPU was founded with an international scope, with a third of the members of parliaments serving as members of the IPU by 1914.
Its foundational aims were to encourage governments to solve international disputes by peaceful means. Annual conferences were established to help governments refine the process of international arbitration, its structure was designed as a council headed by a president, which would be reflected in the structure of the League. At the start of the First World War the first schemes for international organisation to prevent future wars began to gain considerable public support in Great Britain and the United States. Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson, a British political scientist, coined the term "League of Nations" in 1914 and drafted a scheme for its organisation. Together with Lord Bryce, he played a leading role in the founding of the group of internationalist pacifists known as the Bryce Group the League of Nations Union; the group became more influential among the public and as a pressure group within the governing Liberal Party. In Dickinson's 1915 pamphlet After the War he wrote of his "League of Peace" as being an organisation for arbitration and conciliation.
He felt that the secret diplomacy of the early twentieth century had brought about war and thus could write that, "the impossibility of war, I believe, would be increased in proportion as the issues of foreign policy should be known to and controlled by public opinion." The ‘Proposals’ of the Bryce Group were circulated both in England and the US, where they had a profound influence on the nascent international movement. Within two weeks of the start of the war, feminists began to mobilise against the war. Having been barred from participating in prior peace organizations, American women formed a Women
Veneration of the dead
The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased. In some cultures, it is related to beliefs that the dead have a continued existence, may possess the ability to influence the fortune of the living; some groups venerate their familial ancestors. Certain sects and religions, in particular the Roman Catholic Church, venerate saints as intercessors with God, as well as pray for departed souls in Purgatory. In Europe and Oceania, in some African and Afro-diasporic cultures, the goal of ancestor veneration is to ensure the ancestors' continued well-being and positive disposition towards the living, sometimes to ask for special favours or assistance; the social or non-religious function of ancestor veneration is to cultivate kinship values, such as filial piety, family loyalty, continuity of the family lineage. Ancestor veneration occurs in societies with every degree of social and technological complexity, it remains an important component of various religious practices in modern times.
Ancestor reverence is not the same as the worship of deities. In some Afro-diasporic cultures, ancestors are seen as being able to intercede on behalf of the living as messengers between humans and the gods; as spirits who were once human themselves, they are seen as being better able to understand human needs than would a divine being. In other cultures, the purpose of ancestor veneration is not to ask for favors but to do one's filial duty; some cultures believe that their ancestors need to be provided for by their descendants, their practices include offerings of food and other provisions. Others do not believe that the ancestors are aware of what their descendants do for them, but that the expression of filial piety is what is important. Most cultures who practice ancestor veneration do not call it "ancestor worship". In English, the word worship refers to the reverent love and devotion accorded a deity or God. However, in other cultures, this act of worship does not confer any belief that the departed ancestors have become some kind of deity.
Rather, the act is a way to respect and look after ancestors in their afterlives as well as seek their guidance for their living descendants. In this regard, many cultures and religions have similar practices; some may visit the graves of their parents or other ancestors, leave flowers and pray to them in order to honor and remember them, while asking their ancestors to continue to look after them. However, this would not be considered as worshipping them since the term worship shows no such meaning. In that sense the phrase ancestor veneration may convey a more accurate sense of what practitioners, such as the Chinese and other Buddhist-influenced and Confucian-influenced societies, as well as the African and European cultures see themselves as doing; this is consistent with the meaning of the word veneration in English, great respect or reverence caused by the dignity, wisdom, or dedication of a person. Although there is no accepted theory concerning the origins of ancestor veneration, this social phenomenon appears in some form in all human cultures documented so far.
David-Barrett and Carney claim that ancestor veneration might have served a group coordination role during human evolution, thus it was the mechanism that led to religious representation fostering group cohesion. Although some historians claim that ancient Egyptian society was a "death cult" because of its elaborate tombs and mummification rituals, it was the opposite; the philosophy that "this world is but a vale of tears" and that to die and be with God is a better existence than an earthly one was unknown among the ancient Egyptians. This was not to say; the Egyptian people loved the culture and religion of their daily lives so much that they wanted to continue them in the next—although some might hope for a better station in the Beautiful West. Tombs were housing in the Hereafter and so they were constructed and decorated, just as homes for the living were. Mummification was a way to preserve the corpse so the ka of the deceased could return to receive offerings of the things s/he enjoyed while alive.
If mummification was not affordable, a "ka-statue" in the likeness of the deceased was carved for this purpose. The Blessed Dead were collectively called the akhu, or "shining ones", they were described as "shining as gold in the belly of Nut" and were indeed depicted as golden stars on the roofs of many tombs and temples. The process by which a ka became an akh was not automatic upon death. However, if the ka was not properly prepared, this journey could be fraught with dangerous pitfalls and strange demons. If the heart was in balance with the Feather of Ma'at, the ka passed judgment and was granted access to the Beautiful West as an akh, ma’a heru to dwell among the gods and other akhu. At this point only was the ka deemed worthy to be venerated by the living through rites and offerings; those who became lost in the duat or deliberately tried to avoid judgment became the unfortunate mutu, t
Cooking bananas are banana cultivars in the genus Musa whose fruits are used in cooking. They may be eaten ripe or unripe and are starchy. Many cooking bananas are referred to as plantains or green bananas, although not all of them are true plantains. Bananas are treated as a starchy fruit with a neutral flavour and soft texture when cooked. Bananas fruit all year round. Cooking bananas are a major food staple in West and Central Africa, the Caribbean islands, Central America, northern, coastal parts of South America. Members of the genus Musa are indigenous to the tropical regions of Southeast Asia and Oceania, including the Malay Archipelago and Northern Australia. Africa is considered a second centre of diversity for Musa cultivars: West Africa for some plantains and the central highlands for East African Highland bananas, most of which are cooked, although some are used to make beer; the term "plantain" is loosely applied to any banana cultivar, cooked before it is eaten. However, there is no botanical distinction between plantains.
Cooking is a matter of custom, rather than necessity, for many bananas. In fact, ripe plantains can be eaten raw. In some countries, where only a few cultivars of banana are consumed, there may be a clear distinction between plantains and bananas. In other countries, where many cultivars are consumed, there is no distinction in the common names used. In botanical usage, the term "plantain" is used only for true plantains, while other starchy cultivars used for cooking are called "cooking bananas". All modern true plantains have three sets of chromosomes. Many are hybrids derived from the cross of Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana; the accepted scientific name for all such crosses is Musa × paradisiaca. Using Simmonds and Shepherds' 1955 genome-based nomenclature system, cultivars which are cooked belong to the AAB Group, although some belong to the AAA Group, others belong to the ABB Group. Fe'i bananas from the Pacific Islands are eaten roasted or boiled, thus informally referred to as "mountain plantains."
However, they do not belong to either of the two species that all modern banana cultivars are descended from. Plantains contain more starch and less sugar than dessert bananas, therefore they are cooked or otherwise processed before being eaten, they are always fried when eaten green. At this stage, the pulp is hard and the peel so stiff that it has to be cut with a knife to be removed. Mature, yellow plantains can be peeled like typical dessert bananas, they can be eaten raw, but are not as flavourful as dessert bananas, so are cooked. When mature, yellow plantains are fried, they tend to caramelize, they can be boiled, microwaved or grilled over charcoal, either peeled or unpeeled. Plantains are a staple food in the tropical regions of the world, ranking as the tenth most important staple food in the world; as a staple, plantains are treated in much the same way as potatoes and with a similar neutral flavour and texture when the unripe fruit is cooked by steaming, boiling or frying. Since they fruit all year round, plantains are a reliable all-season staple food in developing countries with inadequate food storage and transportation technologies.
In Africa and bananas provide more than 25 percent of the carbohydrate requirements for over 70 million people. Musa spp. Do not stand high winds well, however, so plantain plantations are liable to destruction by hurricanes. An average plantain is a good source of potassium and dietary fiber; the sap from the fruit peel, as well as the entire plant, can stain clothing and hands, can be difficult to remove. Linnaeus classified bananas into two species based only on their uses as food: Musa paradisiaca for plantains and Musa sapientum for dessert bananas. Both are now known to be hybrids between the species Musa Musa balbisiana; the earlier published name, Musa × paradisiaca, is now used as the scientific name for all such hybrids. Most modern plantains are sterile triploids belonging to the AAB Group, sometimes known as the "Plantain group". Other economically important cooking banana groups include the East African Highland bananas of the AAA Group and the Pacific plantains of the AAB Group. In countries in Central America and the Caribbean, the plantain is either fried, boiled or made into plantain soup.
In Ghana, West Africa, boiled plantain is eaten with kontomire stew, cabbage stew or fante-fante stew. The boiled plantain can be mixed with groundnut paste, pepper and palm oil to make eto, eaten with avocado. Ripe plantains can be fried and eaten with black eyed beans cooked in palm oil – a popular breakfast dish. Kelewele, a Ghanaian snack, is spiced ripe plantain deep fried in vegetable oil. In Nigeria, plantain is eaten fried or roasted. In Guatemala, ripe plantains are eaten boiled, fried, or in a special combination where they are boiled and stuffed with sweetened black beans. Afterwards, they are deep fried in corn oil; the dish is call
Guiyang Longdongbao International Airport
Guiyang Longdongbao International Airport is an airport serving Guiyang, the capital of Guizhou Province. Guiyang Longdongbao Airport was opened on May 28, 1997 and adopted its current name on Jan 19, 2006, it is located 11 km southeast from Guiyang's city center. It is about 4 square kilometers and has a 3200-meter long, 45-meter wide runway, which can accommodate Boeing 747, Airbus A330 widebodied aircraft; the terminal is about available for over 2000 passengers departing and arriving per hour. In 2017, Guiyang Longdongbao International Airport was the 22nd busiest airport in the mainland China with 18,109,610 passengers. Guiyang airport in 2010 exceeded its design capacity of 5 million passengers; the airport expansion project was authorized and started in Sept, 2010, with the total annual passenger capability of 15.5 millions and annual cargo traffic of 220 thousand tons per year. The total investment on it will be about 3.4 billion yuan. Hainan Airlines began a weekly flight to Paris, France on March 24, 2019, opening up Guiyang and Guizhou Province to international long-haul air travel for the first time.
In June 2017, Guiyang airport launched cooperation with the aviation data service company VariFlight regarding the installation of Airport Collaborative Decision Making system. The main purpose of such system is to improve on-time performance and safety of the airport's operations. China Express Airlines was headquartered on the grounds of Guiyang Longdongbao International Airport. List of airports in China List of the busiest airports in China World Aero Data
Inheritance is the practice of passing on property, debts and obligations upon the death of an individual. The rules of inheritance have changed over time. In law, an heir is a person, entitled to receive a share of the deceased's property, subject to the rules of inheritance in the jurisdiction of which the deceased was a citizen or where the deceased died or owned property at the time of death; the inheritance may be either under the terms of a will or by intestate laws if the deceased had no will. However, the will must comply with the laws of the jurisdiction at the time it was created or it will be declared invalid and the intestate laws apply. A person does not become an heir before the death of the deceased, since the exact identity of the persons entitled to inherit is determined only then. Members of ruling noble or royal houses who are expected to become heirs are called heirs apparent if first in line and incapable of being displaced from inheriting by another claim. There is a further concept of joint inheritance, pending renunciation by all but one, called coparceny.
In modern law, the terms inheritance and heir refer to succession to property by descent from a deceased dying intestate. Takers in property succeeded to under a will are termed beneficiaries, devisees for real property, bequestees for personal property, or legatees for money. Except in some jurisdictions where a person cannot be disinherited, a person who would be an heir under intestate laws may be disinherited under the terms of a will. Detailed anthropological and sociological studies have been made about customs of patrilineal inheritance, where only male children can inherit; some cultures employ matrilineal succession, where property can only pass along the female line, most going to the sister's sons of the decedent. Some ancient societies and most modern states employ egalitarian inheritance, without discrimination based on gender and/or birth order; the inheritance is patrilineal. The father —that is, the owner of the land— bequeaths only to his male descendants, so the Promised Land passes from one Jewish father to his sons.
If there were no living sons and no descendants of any living sons, daughters inherit. In Numbers 27:1-4, the daughters of Zelophehad of the tribe of Manasseh come to Moses and ask for their father's inheritance, as they have no brothers; the order of inheritance is set out in Numbers 27:7-11: a man's sons inherit first, daughters if no sons, brothers if he has no children, so on. In Numbers 36, some of the heads of the families of the tribe of Manasseh come to Moses and point out that, if a daughter inherits and marries a man not from her paternal tribe, her land will pass from her birth-tribe's inheritance into her marriage-tribe's. So a further rule is laid down: if a daughter inherits land, she must marry someone within her father's tribe; the tractate Baba Bathra, written during late Antiquity in Babylon, deals extensively with issues of property ownership and inheritance according to Jewish Law. Other works of Rabbinical Law, such as the Hilkhot naḥalot: mi-sefer Mishneh Torah leha-Rambam, the Sefer ha-yerushot: ʻim yeter ha-mikhtavim be-divre ha-halakhah be-ʻAravit uve-ʻIvrit uve-Aramit deal with inheritance issues.
The first abbreviated to Mishneh Torah, was written by Maimonides and was important in Jewish tradition. All these sources agree that the firstborn son is entitled to a double portion of his father's estate: Deuteronomy 21:17; this means that, for example, if a father left five sons, the firstborn receives a third of the estate and each of the other four receives a sixth. If he left nine sons, the firstborn receives each of the other eight receive a tenth. If the eldest surviving son is not the firstborn son, he is not entitled to the double portion. Philo of Alexandria and Josephus comment on the Jewish laws of inheritance, praising them above other law codes of their time, they agreed that the firstborn son must receive a double portion of his father's estate. The New Testament does not mention anything about inheritance rights: the only story mentioning inheritance is that of the Prodigal Son, but that involved the father voluntarily passing his estate to his two sons prior to his death; the topic is not discussed among doctrinal statements of various denominations or sects, leaving that to be a matter of secular concern.
The Quran introduced a number of different rights and restrictions on matters of inheritance, including general improvements to the treatment of women and family life compared to the pre-Islamic societies that existed in the Arabian Peninsula at the time. Furthermore, the Quran introduced additional heirs that were not entitled to inheritance in pre-Islamic times, mentioning nine relatives of which six were female and three wer
A trading post, trading station, or trading house was a place or establishment where the trading of goods took place. The preferred travel route to a trading post or between trading posts, was known as a trade route. Trading posts were places for people to meet and exchange the news of the world or the news from their home country in a time when not newspapers existed. European colonialism traces its roots to ancient Carthage. A trading settlement of Phoenician colonists, Carthage grew into a vast economic and political power throughout the Mediterranean, accumulating wealth and influence through its economic prowess. Numerous cities of importance once started their history as trading posts: Venice, New York City, Singapore, Hong Kong, Rotterdam, Kansas City, etc; the annexation of trading posts along ancient trade routes took place in the 16th and 17th century by European powers like the Dutch and English. It began with the capture of Ceuta by the Portuguese in 1415, they went on to establish further enclaves as they explored the coasts of Africa, Arabia and South East Asia in search of the source of the lucrative spice trade.
Trading posts were very common in the early settlements of Canada and the United States for the trade of such things as fur. They were used in many camps across the United States as places to buy snacks and souvenirs; the Hudson's Bay Company set up trading posts around Hudson Bay during the fur trade. Goods were traded for beaver pelts amongst the Native Americans. In the United States in the early 19th century, trading posts used by Native Americans were licensed by the federal government and called "factories". Tribes were to concede substantial territory to the United States in order to access the "factories" as happened at Fort Clark in the Treaty of Fort Clark in which the Osage Nation conceded most of Missouri in order to access the trading post. In the context of Scouting, trading post refers to a camp store where snacks, craft materials and general merchandise are sold. A "trading post" can be referred to as the place where securities listed on the New York Stock Exchange are traded.
In recent years, many people have developed their own trading posts such as the Front Range Trading Post in Lobsterfest Springs, CO. Trades include handmade and hand grown/raised items, baked goods and more. Cash is not accepted, only bartering is allowed. Trading Post Outreach program has been established since 1995, where founder Linette Crelly began to host "trading swaps" where parents of children could gather to "swap or exchange" clothing, infant items, toys; this idea blossomed and by 2004 had grown to become a 4,000 sq. ft. community care center in Springville, New York. Fur trade Factory Trading Post