Yau Ma Tei
Yau Ma Tei is an area in the Yau Tsim Mong District in the south of the Kowloon Peninsula in Hong Kong. Yau Ma Tei is a phonetic transliteration of the name 油麻地 in Cantonese, it can be spelt as Yaumatei, Yau Ma Ti, Yaumati or Yau-ma-Tee. Yau means "oil", Ma can either refer to "sesame" or "jute", Tei means "field" or "open ground". Hence, Yau Ma Tei can be interpreted to mean either "oil-sesame field" or "oil and jute ground"; this dual-interpretation is the reason why there are two explanations for the origin of the place name. Dundas Street marks the north border of Yau Ma Tei with Mong Kok and Austin Road its south border with Tsim Sha Tsui. To its west is Victoria Harbour and its east the hilly region of Ho Man Tin. Southern Yau Ma Tei was traditionally known as Kwun Chung, but came to be called Jordan after the completion of Jordan MTR station at its heart. Yau Ma Tei was a village in Kowloon, it was mentioned that a Chinese burial ground was assigned at a mile northeast of a village of Yau-ma-Tee at 2 December 1871.
The name Yau Ma Tei is not thought to pre-date British rule. However, Kwun Chung is mentioned in many historic documents. Kwun Chung was a river valley with cultivation. On the hill south near the coast was Kwun Chung Fort built by Chinese official Lin Tse-hsu to defend against the British. During the Battle of Kwun Chung in 1839, the fort — together with Tsim Sha Tsui Fort — kept the British from Kowloon; the fort with the hill was demolished for development during early British rule of Kowloon. Before the ceding of Kowloon to the British in 1860, Yau Ma Tei was a beach and a bay gathering many Tanka fishermen, its water remains a harbour for fishermen after several times of reclamation by the Hong Kong Government. The Yau Ma Tei Typhoon Shelter became an exotic water area where restaurants on boats offered dishes of indigenous seafood. These'typhoon shelter dishes' remain famous to this day and are offered on land; the typhoon shelter not only hosted fishermen, but was a port in Hong Kong. Numerous piers were built along its shore.
Ferry Point in the southern part of Yau Ma Tei was a transportation hub where many commuters took ferries to and from Hong Kong Island. The service was offered by Yaumati Ferry. Inland, the reclamation became the residential area for the ever-increasing Chinese population, with retail shops on the street level. Shanghai Street was the main street before being replaced by Nathan Road. Along Waterloo Road is the century-old Fruit Market; the Kwong Wah Hospital was the first hospital on the Kowloon peninsula, established in 1911. YMCA headquarters and its hostel in Hong Kong are located on the road. Kwong Wah Hospital, run by charity Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, is the first major hospital in the area. There was a small pox hospital at the hill northeast of Kwong Wah Hospital. Founded by Hong Kong Government, Queen Elizabeth Hospital is another major hospital in the area. Yaumatei Maternal & Child Health Centre is under Department of Health; the district is an area of mixed residential and retail. During day time, the Yau Ma Tei wet market and fruit market are the markets to visit, buying souvenirs like dried noodles and some fruits.
Every night there is a market selling many different kinds of products including clothes, decorations, VCD and toys in Temple Street, a street in the area where the famous Tin Hau Temple was built in 1876. The Temple is at Public Square Street; the square, known as Yung Shue Tau, was a night market. Jade Market and Jade Street, China’s most revered green stone is in abundance here, with around 400 registered stall owners ready to pitch jade amulets, ornaments and trinkets; the Hong Kong International Hobby and Toy Museum, located at No. 330 Shanghai Street, showcases models and pop culture memorabilia from around the world. Exhibits include toy vehicles, action figures, cartoon characters, science fiction collectibles, model rockets, Japanese anime, classic toys. Tung Wah Group of Hospitals Museum in Kwong Wah Hospital details the history of Tung Wah Group of Hospitals and its relation with Hong Kong people, is located in Yau Ma Tei. Tin Hau Temple Old Yau Ma Tei Police Station Yau Ma Tei Fruit Market Yaumati Theatre Engineer's Office of the Former Pumping Station Old South Kowloon District Court Kowloon Union Church Yau Ma Tei Public Library In the 1980s, the Government handed over the redevelopment project of Lee Tat Street and Cheung Shui Street in Yau Mei Tei to the Hong Kong Housing Society.
This became Prosperous Garden, an "Urban Improvement Scheme" estate in Public Square Street Phase 1, including Block 1, 2 and 5, was completed in the site in 1991. Block 1 and 2 were for sale, its Phase 2, including Block 3 and 4, was for sale. Hoi Fu Court is a mixed Home Ownership Scheme court and public estate built on reclaimed land of the old Yau Ma Tei Typhoon Shelter, it is the only public housing estate built by Hong Kong Housing Authority in the District. It comprises 6 blocks completed in 1999 and 2004. Charming Garden is an 18-block estate built under the Home Ownership Scheme and Private Sector Participation Scheme; the Wah Yan College, Kowloon is a boys' school. True Light Girls' College, a girls' EMI school, is adjacent to Wah Yan College; the Methodist College is located in 50 Gascoigne Road in Yau Ma Tei. It's an EMI school for both girls. There are a
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which has an emergency department to treat urgent health problems ranging from fire and accident victims to a sudden illness. A district hospital is the major health care facility in its region, with a large number of beds for intensive care and additional beds for patients who need long-term care. Specialized hospitals include trauma centers, rehabilitation hospitals, children's hospitals, seniors' hospitals, hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric treatment and certain disease categories. Specialized hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared to general hospitals. Hospitals are classified as general, specialty, or government depending on the sources of income received. A teaching hospital combines assistance to people with teaching to medical nurses; the medical facility smaller than a hospital is called a clinic.
Hospitals have a range of departments and specialist units such as cardiology. Some hospitals have outpatient departments and some have chronic treatment units. Common support units include a pharmacy and radiology. Hospitals are funded by the public sector, health organisations, health insurance companies, or charities, including direct charitable donations. Hospitals were founded and funded by religious orders, or by charitable individuals and leaders. Hospitals are staffed by professional physicians, surgeons and allied health practitioners, whereas in the past, this work was performed by the members of founding religious orders or by volunteers. However, there are various Catholic religious orders, such as the Alexians and the Bon Secours Sisters that still focus on hospital ministry in the late 1990s, as well as several other Christian denominations, including the Methodists and Lutherans, which run hospitals. In accordance with the original meaning of the word, hospitals were "places of hospitality", this meaning is still preserved in the names of some institutions such as the Royal Hospital Chelsea, established in 1681 as a retirement and nursing home for veteran soldiers.
During the Middle Ages, hospitals served different functions from modern institutions. Middle Ages hospitals were hostels for pilgrims, or hospital schools; the word "hospital" comes from the Latin hospes, signifying a foreigner, hence a guest. Another noun derived from this, hospitium came to signify hospitality, the relation between guest and shelterer, hospitality and hospitable reception. By metonymy the Latin word came to mean a guest-chamber, guest's lodging, an inn. Hospes is thus the root for the English words host hospitality, hospice and hotel; the latter modern word derives from Latin via the ancient French romance word hostel, which developed a silent s, which letter was removed from the word, the loss of, signified by a circumflex in the modern French word hôtel. The German word'Spital' shares similar roots; the grammar of the word differs depending on the dialect. In the United States, hospital requires an article; some patients go to a hospital just for diagnosis, treatment, or therapy and leave without staying overnight.
Hospitals are distinguished from other types of medical facilities by their ability to admit and care for inpatients whilst the others, which are smaller, are described as clinics. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital known as an acute-care hospital; these facilities handle many kinds of disease and injury, have an emergency department or trauma center to deal with immediate and urgent threats to health. Larger cities may have several hospitals of facilities; some hospitals in the United States and Canada, have their own ambulance service. A district hospital is the major health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care, critical care, long-term care. In California, "district hospital" refers to a class of healthcare facility created shortly after World War II to address a shortage of hospital beds in many local communities. Today, district hospitals are the sole public hospitals in 19 of California's counties, are the sole locally-accessible hospital within nine additional counties in which one or more other hospitals are present at substantial distance from a local community.
Twenty-eight of California's rural hospitals and 20 of its critical-access hospitals are district hospitals. They are formed by local municipalities, have boards that are individually elected by their local communities, exist to serve local needs, they are a important provider of healthcare to uninsured patients and patients with Medi-Cal. In 2012, district hospitals provided $54 million in uncompensated care in California. Types of specialised hospitals incl
A health system sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations. There is a wide variety of health systems around the world, with as many histories and organizational structures as there are nations. Implicitly, nations must design and develop health systems in accordance with their needs and resources, although common elements in all health systems are primary healthcare and public health measures. In some countries, health system planning is distributed among market participants. In others, there is a concerted effort among governments, trade unions, religious organizations, or other co-ordinated bodies to deliver planned health care services targeted to the populations they serve. However, health care planning has been described as evolutionary rather than revolutionary; the World Health Organization, the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system, is promoting a goal of universal health care: to ensure that all people obtain the health services they need without suffering financial hardship when paying for them.
According to WHO, healthcare systems' goals are good health for the citizens, responsiveness to the expectations of the population, fair means of funding operations. Progress towards them depends on how systems carry out four vital functions: provision of health care services, resource generation and stewardship. Other dimensions for the evaluation of health systems include quality, efficiency and equity, they have been described in the United States as "the five C's": Cost, Consistency and Chronic Illness. Continuity of health care is a major goal. Health system has been defined with a reductionist perspective, for example reducing it to healthcare system. In many publications, for example, both expressions are used interchangeably; some authors have developed arguments to expand the concept of health systems, indicating additional dimensions that should be considered: Health systems should not be expressed in terms of their components only, but of their interrelationships. The World Health Organization defines health systems as follows: A health system consists of all organizations and actions whose primary intent is to promote, restore or maintain health.
This includes efforts to influence determinants of health as well as more direct health-improving activities. A health system is therefore more than the pyramid of publicly owned facilities that deliver personal health services, it includes, for example, a mother caring for a sick child at home. It includes inter-sectoral action by health staff, for example, encouraging the ministry of education to promote female education, a well known determinant of better health. Healthcare providers are individuals providing healthcare services. Individuals including health professionals and allied health professions can be self-employed or working as an employee in a hospital, clinic, or other health care institution, whether government operated, private for-profit, or private not-for-profit, they may work outside of direct patient care such as in a government health department or other agency, medical laboratory, or health training institution. Examples of health workers are doctors, midwives, paramedics, medical laboratory technologists, psychologists, chiropractors, community health workers, traditional medicine practitioners, others.
There are five primary methods of funding health systems: general taxation to the state, county or municipality national health insurance voluntary or private health insurance out-of-pocket payments donations to charitiesMost countries' systems feature a mix of all five models. One study based on data from the OECD concluded that all types of health care finance "are compatible with" an efficient health system; the study found no relationship between financing and cost control. The term health insurance is used to describe a form of insurance that pays for medical expenses, it is sometimes used more broadly to include insurance covering disability or long-term nursing or custodial care needs. It may be provided from private insurance companies, it may be purchased by individual consumers. In each case premiums or taxes protect the insured from unexpected health care expenses. By estimating the overall cost of health care expenses, a routine finance structure can be developed, ensuring that money is available to pay for the health care benefits specified in the insurance agreement.
The benefit is administered by a government agency, a non-profit health fund or a
Hong Kong the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The entire territory was transferred to China in 1997; as a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China and its people identify more as Hongkongers rather than Chinese. A sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality; the territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, has the sixth-longest life expectancy in the world. Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates; the name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780 referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng; the name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export. Sir John Davis offered an alternative origin; the simplified name Hong Kong was used by 1810 written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government adopted the two-word name; some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation; the Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom after the Qin collapse, recaptured by China after the Han conquest.
During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was located in modern-day Kowloon City before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty; the earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Portuguese merchants established a trading post called in Hong Kong waters, began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were reestablished by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies; the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant. To counter the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade; the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, forcing a British military response and triggering the First Opium War; the Qing ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries did not ratify the agreement. After over a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. Administrative infrastructure was built up by early 1842, but piracy and hostile Qing policies towards Hong Kong prevented the government from attracting merchants.
The Taiping Rebellion, when many wealthy Chinese fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colon
Ma Ying-jeou is a Taiwanese politician who served as President of the Republic of China from 2008 to 2016. His previous political roles include Justice Mayor of Taipei, he was the Chairman of the Kuomintang between 2005–2007 and 2009–2014. Ma first won the presidency by 58.45% of the popular vote in the presidential election of 2008, was re-elected in 2012 with 51.6% of the vote. He was sworn into office as president on 20 May 2008, sworn in as the Chairman of the Kuomintang on 17 October 2009. Ma's term as president saw a significant increase of economic improvement in Taiwan and warm social connection with Mainland China, he became the first ROC Head of State to meet with a Communist Party General Secretary when he met Xi Jinping in Singapore in November 2015. Ma and his parents originate from Hunan Province in the Republic of China, but their ancestral home was in Fufeng, Shaanxi Province, his ancestors had migrated from Shaanxi to Jiangxi and finally to Hunan. He is a descendant of the Three Kingdoms era general Ma Chao, from Fufeng, Shaanxi.
Researchers had purportedly visited the old residence of Ma's father, Ma Ho-ling, in Kaiyun Town, Hengshan County, where they discovered a genealogy book stating that Ma descended from Ma Chao. His mother was Chin Hou-hsiu. Ma was raised Catholic, he was born in Kwong Wah Hospital in Kowloon, Hong Kong on 13 July 1950. His parents were in Hong Kong on the way from Hunan Province of Communist China to Nationalist-held Taiwan after the Chinese Civil War. In a family of five children, Ma was the only son. Ma earned his LL. B. degree from National Taiwan University in 1972. He served his compulsory military duty in the ROC Marine Corps and Navy from 1972 to 1974, obtaining the rank of lieutenant commander, he pursued advanced studies in the United States, first earning an LL. M. degree from New York University Law School in 1976 and an S. J. D. degree from Harvard Law School in 1981. An edited version of his thesis on the Senkaku Islands dispute was published in 1984. After receiving his master's, Ma worked as an associate for a Wall Street law firm in New York City and as a legal consultant for a major bank in Massachusetts in the US before completing his doctorate.
In 1981, Ma started working for President Chiang Ching-kuo. Ma is married to Christine Chow, the couple has two daughters. Lesley was born in 1981 in New York City, she completed her undergraduate studies in life sciences at Harvard University and her graduate studies at New York University. Ma's younger daughter is Ma Si-Rui, born in Taiwan and completed her masters at London School of Economics and is pursuing her doctorate at Nanyang Technological University. Ma and his wife sponsor children of low-income families in El Salvador through World Vision. On an official trip to Central America in June 2009, Mrs. Ma was able to meet with one of her sponsored children, an 11-year-old boy in San Salvador. Ma is the uncle of Gene Yu, an American, former US Army Special Forces captain and the author of the Yellow Green Beret: Stories of an Asian-American Stumbling Around U. S. Army Special Forces series of books. Yu was instrumental in negotiating and working to free Taiwanese citizen Chang An-wei from Abu Sayyaf militants with Filipino special forces and private security contractors in 2013.
On 11 December 2008, Democratic Progressive Party legislator Chai Trong-rong called a press conference and produced a document that alleges Ma's birthplace to be contrary to what is reported. On this document, the birth certificate for one of Ma's daughters, Ma fills out "Shengchin" as his own birthplace, contradictory to his reported birthplace of "Hong Kong". Chai noted that First Lady Christine Chow's birthplace was listed as "Nanking, China", though she is listed as being born in Hong Kong. Chai claimed that since Ma was born after 1949 and in Shenzhen, he is a citizen of the People's Republic of China. Presidential Spokesperson Wang Yu-chi responded to Chai's charges by reaffirming that all information from the President's Office regarding the President's birth is accurate. Wang informed that Ma, on his 11 December visit to Hong Kong, was able to obtain records of his birth at Kowloon's Kwong-Wah Hospital and Ma keeps the original of his birth certificate issued by the Registrar General of Hong Kong, thereby confirming once again his birth in the former British colony instead of mainland China.
Copies of Ma's birth certificate have been shown to the public. Wang dispelled rumors that Ma had received affirmative action in his applications to Jianguo High School and the National Taiwan University with an "overseas Chinese" status. Ma Ying-jeou started working for President Chiang Ching-kuo as Deputy Director of the First Bureau of the Presidential Office and the President's English interpreter. Ma was promoted to the chair of the Research and Evaluation Commission under the Executive Yuan at the age of 38, becoming the youngest cabinet member in the ROC government. Ma was deputy secretary-general of the KMT from 1984 to 1988 serving for a period as deputy of the Mainland Affairs Council, a cabinet-level body in charge of cross-strait relations. President Lee Teng-hui appointed him ROC Justice Minister in 1993. Ma was relieved of his post in 1996, his supporters claim that firing was caused by his efforts at fighting corruption among politicians and the police. He remained a supporter of the Kuomintang, rather than supporting the New Party fo
A helipad is a landing area or platform for helicopters and powered lift aircraft. While helicopters and powered lift aircraft are able to operate on a variety of flat surfaces, a fabricated helipad provides a marked hard surface away from obstacles where such aircraft can land safely. Larger helipads, intended for use by helicopters and other vertical take-off and landing aircraft, may be called vertiports. An example is Vertiport Chicago, which opened in 2015. Helipads may be located at a heliport or airport where fuel, air traffic control and service facilities for aircraft are available. Most helipads are located remote from populated areas due to sounds, winds and cost constraints, some skyscrapers maintain a helipad on their roofs in order to accommodate air taxi services; some basic helipads are built on highrise buildings for evacuation in case of a major fire outbreak. Major police departments may use a dedicated helipad at heliports as a base for police helicopters. Large ships and oil platforms have a helipad on board for emergency use.
In such a case, the term "helideck" or "helodeck" has been used in the meaning of a helipad on board. Helipads are common features at hospitals where they serve to facilitate medical evacuation or air ambulance transfers of patients to trauma centers or to accept patients from remote areas without local hospitals or facilities capable of providing the level of emergency medicine required. In urban environments, these heliports are located on the roof of the hospital. Rooftop helipads sometimes display a large two-digit number, representing the weight limit of the pad. In addition, a second number may be present. Location identifiers are but not always, issued for helipads, they may be issued by the appropriate aviation authority. Authorized agencies include the Federal Aviation Administration in the United States, Transport Canada in Canada, the International Civil Aviation Organization, the International Air Transport Association; some helipads may have location identifiers from multiple sources, these identifiers may be of different format and name.
Helipads are constructed out of concrete and are marked with a circle and/or a letter "H", so as to be visible from the air. However, they are not always constructed out of concrete. Rig mats may be used to build helipads. Landing pads may be constructed in extreme conditions such as on ice; the world's highest helipad, built by India, is located on the Siachen Glacier at a height of 21,000 feet above sea level. The world's largest heliport is in Morgan City and has a total of 46 helipads, used to support offshore oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. A portable helipad is a helipad structure with a rugged frame that can be used to land helicopters in any areas with slopes of up to 30 degrees, such as hillsides and boggy areas. Portable helipads can be transported by helicopter or powered-lift to place them where a VTOL needs to land, as long as there are no insurmountable obstructions nearby. Helicopter deck Helicopter landing officer Heliport de Voogt, A. J. 2007. Helidrome Architecture. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers.
ICAO 1995. Heliport manual. Montreal, Canada: ICAO Publications