Duke of Swabia
The Dukes of Swabia were the rulers of the Duchy of Swabia during the Middle Ages. Swabia was one of the five stem duchies of the medieval German kingdom, its dukes were thus among the most powerful magnates of Germany; the most notable family to rule Swabia was the Hohenstaufen family, who held it, with a brief interruption, from 1079 until 1268. For much of this period, the Hohenstaufen were Holy Roman Emperors. With the death of Conradin, the last Hohenstaufen duke, the duchy itself disintegrated, although King Rudolf I attempted to revive it for his Habsburg family in the late-13th century. For Alamannic rulers prior to 900, see Alemanni#List_of_Alemannic_rulers. Burchard I Hunfriding, mentioned as marchio in 903 and dux in 909 Erchanger Ahalolfing, dominant count in Alemannia after the execution of Burchard I, declared duke in 915, exiled September 916, executed January 917. Burchard II, recognized Henry the Fowler as king of Germany in 919 and was recognized by Henry as Duke of Swabia in return.
Hermann I Liudolf Burchard III Otto I Conrad I Hermann II Hermann III Ernest I Ernest II Hermann IV Henry I, King of the Romans from 1039 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1046 Otto II Otto III Rudolf I Berthold I Berthold II Rudolf John In the 13th century, the Duchy of Swabia disintegrated into numerous smaller states. Some of the more important immediate successor states were: During the following century, several of these states were acquired by the County of Württemberg or the Duchy of Austria, as marked above. In 1803 Bavarian Swabia was annexed by Bavaria and shortly afterwards became part of the Kingdom of Bavaria. Duchess of Swabia
Sursee is a municipality in the district of Sursee in the canton of Lucerne, Switzerland. Sursee is located at the northern end of Lake Sempach, not far from where the Sure river exits the lake, hence the name "Sursee"; the shores of Lake Sempach have been inhabited since the Neolithic. Sursee municipality is home to the Halbinsel prehistoric pile-dwelling settlement, part of the Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps UNESCO World Heritage Site. Halbinsel was settled a number of times during the Bronze Age. At Zellmoos in the Halbinsel site, the bottom layer is from the Cortaillod culture while there are several Late Bronze Age layers above it. There are three Late Bronze Age layers at Gammainseli; the Zellmoos sites were discovered in 1806 and excavated in 1902, 1941, 1991 and 2005. The Bronze Age sites featured several houses with clay floors. A number of ceramic, bone and flint items were found in the excavation; the Gammainseli site has been known since the 19th century, was explored by divers in 2005, who found Late Bronze Age potsherds, animal bones and a few bronze items.
Some neolithic flints were found, but no trace of a settlement has been discovered. In the Roman era, there was a vicus just to the west of the town. In the 8th century, a wooden church was built around which the village developed; the wooden church was replaced by stonework in c. 800, again rebuilt in c. 1000. An Alamannic cemetery and the remains of another early medieval church were excavated to the north-east of the town; the first mention as Surse dates to 1036, as Ulrich I of Lenzburg gave the village to Beromünster abbey. The village grew into a small town in the 13th century, granted city rights by the Dukes of Austria in 1299. Sursee was conquered by Lucerne in 1415, managed to retain its city rights under the new lordship. In the 19th century, the furnace-factory Ofenfabrik Sursee grew to be the largest employer. By 1950, Sursee was affected by uncontrolled growth and today faces the problems of many agglomeration cities, but during the 1990s, authorities tried to guide the growth in a more controlled, higher quality direction.
In 2003, the Wakker Prize was awarded to Sursee for the development and preservation of its architectural heritage. Sursee was awarded the prize for their efforts to control and direct the uncontrolled expansion while avoiding turning the historic old city into a museum or an empty show piece. Sursee has an area of 5.9 km2. Of this area, 30.7% is used for agricultural purposes, while 21.8% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 46.8% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. In the 1997 land survey, 21.88% of the total land area was forested. Of the agricultural land, 28.72% is used for farming or pastures, while 2.05% is used for orchards or vine crops. Of the settled areas, 17.95% is covered with buildings, 9.23% is industrial, 0.51% is classed as special developments, 3.76% is parks or greenbelts and 15.21% is transportation infrastructure. Sursee has a population of 9,900; as of 2007, 16.9% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 6.7%.
Most of the population speaks German, with Albanian being second most common and Serbo-Croatian being third. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the CVP which received 30.8% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the FDP, the SVP and the SPS; the age distribution in Sursee is. 2,712 people or 31.2% are 20–39 years old, 2,862 people or 32.9% are 40–64 years old. The senior population distribution is 1,014 people or 11.7% are 65–79 years old, 304 or 3.5% are 80–89 years old and 43 people or 0.5% of the population are 90+ years old. In Sursee about 68.3% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. As of 2000 there are 3,288 households, of which 1,135 households contain only a single individual. 267 or about 8.1% are large households, with at least five members. As of 2000 there were 1,063 inhabited buildings in the municipality, of which 788 were built only as housing, 275 were mixed use buildings. There were 418 single family homes, 120 double family homes, 250 multi-family homes in the municipality.
Most homes were either three story structures. There were only 33 single story buildings and 150 four or more story buildings. Sursee has an unemployment rate of 2.37%. As of 2005, there were 104 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 10 businesses involved in this sector. 1990 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 110 businesses in this sector. 7404 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 534 businesses in this sector. As of 2000 55.5% of the population of the municipality were employed in some capacity. At the same time, females made up 46.4% of the workforce. In the 2000 census the religious membership of Sursee was. There are 2 individuals who are Jewish. There are 381 individuals who are Muslim. Of the rest. Sursee is twinned with: www.sursee.ch www.sursee-tourismus.ch
Abbey of Saint Gall
The Abbey of Saint Gall is a dissolved abbey in a Roman Catholic religious complex in the city of St. Gallen in Switzerland; the Carolingian-era monastery has existed since 719 and became an independent principality between 9th and 13th centuries, was for many centuries one of the chief Benedictine abbeys in Europe. It was founded by Saint Othmar on the spot; the library at the Abbey is one of the richest medieval libraries in the world. The city of St. Gallen originated as an adjoining settlement of the abbey. Following the secularization of the abbey around 1800 the former Abbey church became a Cathedral in 1848. Since 1983 the whole remaining abbey precinct has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Around 613 Gallus, according to tradition an Irish monk and disciple and companion of Saint Columbanus, established a hermitage on the site that would become the monastery, he lived in his cell until his death in 646. in Arbon. The people kept looking for protection at Gallus' cell in time of danger.
Following Gallus' death, Charles Martel appointed Otmar as custodian of St Gall's relics. Several different dates are given for the foundation of the monastery, including 719, 720, 747 and the middle of the 8th century. During the reign of Pepin the Short, in the 8th century, Othmar founded the Carolingian style Abbey of St Gall, where arts and sciences flourished; the abbey grew many Alemannic noblemen became monks. At the end of abbot Otmar's reign, the Professbuch mentions 53 names. Two monks of the Abbey of St Gall, Magnus von Füssen and Theodor, founded the monasteries in Kempten and Füssen in the Allgäu. With the increase in the number of monks the abbey grew stronger economically. Much land in Thurgau, Zürichgau and in the rest of Alemannia as far as the Neckar was transferred to the abbey due to Stiftungen. Under abbot Waldo of Reichenau copying of manuscripts was undertaken and a famous library was gathered. Numerous Anglo-Saxon and Irish monks came to copy manuscripts. At Charlemagne's request Pope Adrian I sent distinguished chanters from Rome, who propagated the use of the Gregorian chant.
In 744, the Alemannic nobleman Beata sells several properties to the abbey in order to finance his journey to Rome. In the subsequent century, St Gall came into conflict with the nearby Bishopric of Constance which had acquired jurisdiction over the Abbey of Reichenau on Lake Constance, it was not until Emperor Louis the Pious confirmed in 813 the imperial immediacy of the abbey, that this conflict ceased. The abbey became an Imperial Abbey. King Louis the German confirmed in 833 the immunity of the abbey and allowed the monks the free choice of their abbot. In 854 the Abbey of St Gall reached its full autonomy by King Louis the German releasing the abbey from the obligation to pay tithes to the Bishop of Constance. From this time until the 10th century, the abbey flourished, it was home to several famous scholars, including Notker of Liège, Notker the Stammerer, Notker Labeo and Hartker. During the 9th century a new, larger church was built and the library was expanded. Manuscripts on a wide variety of topics were purchased by the abbey and copies were made.
Over 400 manuscripts from this time are still in the library today. Between 924 and 933 the Magyars threatened the abbey and the books had to be removed to Reichenau for safety. Not all the books were returned. On 26 April 937 a fire broke out and destroyed much of the abbey and the adjoining settlement, though the library was undamaged. About 954 they started to protect the monastery and buildings by a surrounding wall. Around 971/974 abbot Notker finalized the walling and the adjoining settlements started to become the town of St Gall. In 1006, the abbey was the northernmost place; the death of abbot Ulrich on 9 December 1076 terminated the cultural silver age of the monastery. In 1207, abbot Ulrich von Sax becomes a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire by King Philip of Swabia; the abbey became a Princely Abbey. As the abbey became more involved in local politics, it entered a period of decline; the city of St. Gallen proper progressively freed itself from the rule of the abbot, acquiring Imperial immediacy, by the late 15th century was recognized as a Free imperial city.
By about 1353 the guilds, headed by the cloth-weavers guild, gained control of the civic government. In 1415 the city bought its liberty from the German king King Sigismund. During the 14th century Humanists were allowed to carry off some of the rare texts from the abbey library. In the late 14th and early 15th centuries, the farmers of the abbot's personal estates began seeking independence. In 1401, the first of the Appenzell Wars broke out, following the Appenzell victory at Stoss in 1405 they became allies of the Swiss Confederation in 1411. During the Appenzell Wars, the town of St. Gallen sided with Appenzell against the abbey. So when Appenzell allied with the Swiss, the town of St. Gallen followed just a few months later; the abbot became an ally of several members of the Swiss Confederation in 1451. While Appenzell and St. Gallen became full members of the Swiss Confederation in 1454. In 1457 the town of St. Gallen became free from the abbot. In 1468 the abbot, Ulrich Rösch, bought the County of Toggenburg from the representatives of its counts, after the family died out in 1436.
In 1487 he
Laupen is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district and its district capital, situated in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. Laupen is first mentioned in 1130-33 as Loupa. In 1173 it was mentioned, as Loyes, it was the site of the Battle of Laupen in 1339. The Battle of Laupen was a decisive victory for Bern and its Swiss Confederation allies against the town of Fribourg. Laupen was one of a string of battles presaging the definite decline of High Medieval heavy cavalry in the face of improving infantry tactics during the following century and led to Bern joining the Swiss Confederation in 1353; the oldest traces of settlements in Laupen is some Bronze Age sword blades which were found in a gravel pit and two grave mounds at Holzmatt-Laupenholz. Roman era coins and vessels were found north of Laupen town and at Zollgässli, while traces of a Roman road have been found at Laupenmühle; the remains of the supposed "Roman" Saane bridge 120 m downstream of the confluence of the Sense and Saane rivers Sarine have been dendrochronologically dated to the period around 1400.
Laupen Castle was built in the 10th-13th centuries as part of a line of imperial castles along the Sense and Saane rivers. The castle was built with a keep, main tower, ring wall on a sandstone spur above the Sense river. Under the Second Kingdom of Burgundy, the castle was a residence of the kings, it passed to the Dukes of Zähringen under whom it became the residence of a count. After the extinction of the Zähringen family it was acquired by the Counts of Kyburg in 1253; the Kyburg main line died out in 1263 and the castle and surrounding lands became the center of a power struggle between the Habsburgs and the Counts of Savoy. The victorious Habsburgs appointed a castellan for Laupen Castle in 1269; the castellan was replaced by an imperial governor after 1300. In 1310 Emperor Henry VII pledged the castle and lands as collateral for a loan. In 1324, Bern acquired lands; when the Emperor was unable to repay the loan, Laupen became the first bailiwick of Bern. After Laupen became part of the Canton of Bern, the castle was the Bernese administrative headquarters.
The castle stairway was expanded in 1580-99. The administrative offices in the castle were expanded in 1648-50 and it was renovated in 1983-88. During the 15th and 16th centuries, the bailiwick of Laupen expanded several times as Bern acquired more lands along the Sarine and Sense rivers; until 1798 the castle was the official residence of bailiff of Laupen. The bailiwick of Laupen was reorganized into the Laupen District in 1803, which became part of the Bern-Mittelland District in 2010; the town of Laupen was surrounded by its own city walls in the 13th Century. In 1275 King Rudolf I of Habsburg granted a town charter based on the charter of Bern. While the city was allied with Bern by 1301, it came under full Bernese control in 1324; the city authorities. Under the Ancien Régime, the 15-20 member council was appointed, by secret ballot, from members of the guilds. Laupen had a town seal in 1294 and a town flag in 1539; the town built a town hall around 1522 and a hospital in 1545. Until the 15th Century Laupen was an important stage on the east-west road between Bern and Fribourg.
As the Sarine and Sense rivers could only be forded at the low water, Bern built a bridge across the Sarine in 1324. The bridge was destroyed in floods and after the construction of the Sense bridges at Gümmenen by Bern in 1450 and at Neuenegg by Fribourg in 1467, it was not rebuilt; the small bridge over the Sense at the town gate only served local traffic. Without convenient trade routes, the town remained stagnant; the poverty of the population and the resulting low construction activity helped to leave the old town untouched. This consists of two full rows of houses dating from the 16th and 17th centuries and a church around a triangular market plaza. After the partial demolition of the fortifications only parts of the curtain wall and the Freiburgtor, from the 15th century, remained. In 1784 Laupen had 42 town houses. In the last quarter of the 19th century the railroad and new roads led to an economic upswing. Today, service establishments and manufacturing are the major employers. In 1997, the district government was reorganized and some district administration offices moved to other municipalities.
Laupen has an area of 4.13 km2. Of this area, 1.59 km2 or 38.6% is used for agricultural purposes, while 1.23 km2 or 29.9% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 1.05 km2 or 25.5 % is settled, 0.21 km2 or 5.1 % is either lakes. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 2.9% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 13.8% and transportation infrastructure made up 4.6%. Power and water infrastructure as well as other special developed areas made up 1.7% of the area while parks, green belts and sports fields made up 2.4%. Out of the forested land, 26.7% of the total land area is forested and 3.2% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 30.6% is used for growing crops and 7.8% is pastures. All the water in the municipality is flowing water, it is located on the right bank of the Sense River near. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Argent. Laupen has a population (as of Dec
The pope known as the supreme pontiff, is the Bishop of Rome and ex officio leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy; the current pope is Francis, elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI. While his office is called the papacy, the episcopal see and ecclesiastical jurisdiction is called the Holy See, it is the Holy See, the sovereign entity of international law headquartered in the distinctively independent Vatican City State, established by the Lateran Treaty in 1929 between Italy and the Holy See to ensure its temporal and spiritual independence. The primacy of the Bishop of Rome is derived from his role as the apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom primacy was conferred by Jesus, giving him the Keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built; the apostolic see of Rome was founded by Saint Peter and Saint Paul in 1st century, according to Catholic tradition.
The papacy is one of the most enduring institutions in the world and has had a prominent part in world history. In ancient times the popes helped spread Christianity, intervened to find resolutions in various doctrinal disputes. In the Middle Ages, they played a role of secular importance in Western Europe acting as arbitrators between Christian monarchs. In addition to the expansion of the Christian faith and doctrine, the popes are involved in ecumenism and interfaith dialogue, charitable work, the defense of human rights. In some periods of history, the papacy, which had no temporal powers, accrued wide secular powers rivaling those of temporal rulers. However, in recent centuries the temporal authority of the papacy has declined and the office is now exclusively focused on religious matters. By contrast, papal claims of spiritual authority have been firmly expressed over time, culminating in 1870 with the proclamation of the dogma of papal infallibility for rare occasions when the pope speaks ex cathedra—literally "from the chair"—to issue a formal definition of faith or morals.
Still, the Pope is considered one of the world's most powerful people because of his extensive diplomatic and spiritual influence on 1.3 billion Catholics and beyond, as well as the official representative of the Catholic Church being the largest non-government provider of education and health care in the world, with a vast international network of charities. The word pope derives from Greek πάππας meaning "father". In the early centuries of Christianity, this title was applied in the east, to all bishops and other senior clergy, became reserved in the west to the Bishop of Rome, a reservation made official only in the 11th century; the earliest record of the use of this title was in regard to the by deceased Patriarch of Alexandria, Pope Heraclas of Alexandria. The earliest recorded use of the title "pope" in English dates to the mid-10th century, when it was used in reference to the 7th century Roman Pope Vitalian in an Old English translation of Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum.
The Catholic Church teaches that the pastoral office, the office of shepherding the Church, held by the apostles, as a group or "college" with Saint Peter as their head, is now held by their successors, the bishops, with the bishop of Rome as their head. Thus, is derived another title by which the pope is known, that of "Supreme Pontiff"; the Catholic Church teaches that Jesus appointed Peter as leader of the Church, the Catholic Church's dogmatic constitution Lumen gentium makes a clear distinction between apostles and bishops, presenting the latter as the successors of the former, with the pope as successor of Peter, in that he is head of the bishops as Peter was head of the apostles. Some historians argue against the notion that Peter was the first bishop of Rome, noting that the episcopal see in Rome can be traced back no earlier than the 3rd century; the writings of the Church Father Irenaeus who wrote around AD 180 reflect a belief that Peter "founded and organized" the Church at Rome.
Moreover, Irenaeus was not the first to write of Peter's presence in the early Roman Church. Clement of Rome wrote in a letter to the Corinthians, c. 96, about the persecution of Christians in Rome as the "struggles in our time" and presented to the Corinthians its heroes, "first, the greatest and most just columns", the "good apostles" Peter and Paul. St. Ignatius of Antioch wrote shortly after Clement and in his letter from the city of Smyrna to the Romans he said he would not command them as Peter and Paul did. Given this and other evidence, such as Emperor Constantine's erection of the "Old St. Peter's Basilica" on the location of St. Peter's tomb, as held and given to him by Rome's Christian community, many scholars agree that Peter was martyred in Rome under Nero, although some scholars argue that he may have been martyred in Palestine. First-century Christian communities would have had a group of presbyter-bishops functioning as leaders of their local churches. Episcopacies were established in metropolitan areas.
Antioch may have developed such a structure before Rome. In Rome, there were many who claimed to be the rightful bishop, though again Irenaeus stressed the validity of one line of bishops from the time of St. Peter up to his contemporary Pope Victor I and listed them; some writers claim that the emergence of a single bishop in Rome did not occur until the middle of the 2nd century. In their view, Linus and Clement were prominent presbyter-bishops
The Italo-Normans, or Siculo-Normans when referring to Sicily and Southern Italy, are the Italian-born descendants of the first Norman conquerors to travel to southern Italy in the first half of the eleventh century. While maintaining much of their distinctly Norman piety and customs of war, they were shaped by the diversity of southern Italy, by the cultures and customs of the Greeks and Arabs in Sicily. Normans first arrived in Italy as pilgrims on their way to or returning from either Rome or Jerusalem, or from visiting the shrine at Monte Gargano, during the late tenth and early eleventh centuries. In 1017, the Lombard lords in Apulia recruited their assistance against the dwindling power of the Byzantine Catapanate of Italy, they soon established vassal states of their own and began to expand their conquests until they were encroaching on the Lombard principalities of Benevento and Capua, Saracen-controlled territories, as well as Greek, territory under papal allegiance. Their conquest of Sicily, which began in 1061, was completed by 1091.
Italo-Normans were the primary Norman mercenaries in the employ of the Byzantine emperors, many found service in Rome under the pope. Some went to Spain to join the Reconquista, in 1096 the Normans of Bohemond of Taranto joined the First Crusade and set up the principality of Antioch in the Levant. In 1130 under Roger II, they created the Kingdom of Sicily, encompassing the whole of their conquests on the peninsula and the island. Between 1135 and 1155 Roger II created an Italo-Norman Kingdom of Africa in coastal Tunisia and Tripolitania, he intended to unite this African kingdom with his Kingdom of Sicily, but his untimely death in 1154 put an end to these plans. When founded in 1130, this Italo-Norman kingdom united the whole of Southern Italy under the same rule for the first time since the fall of the Roman Empire; the Norman dynasty established by Roger II continued with William I, William II. After the latter's death without heirs in 1189, following the brief reign of his illegitimate cousin Tancred of Lecce, the German Emperor Henry VI of Swabia conquered the kingdom in 1194, defeating William III of Sicily and ending the Italo-Norman dynasty.
Hauteville family Drengot family Filangieri Paulo family Pellegrino -baroni di San Demetrio Parisi or Parisio -conti di Aderno Loud, Graham A. The Age of Robert Guiscard: Southern Italy and the Norman Conquest Essex: Longman 2000. Norman conquest of southern Italy Anglo-Norman, the Normans in England Cambro-Norman, the Normans in Wales Hiberno-Norman, the Normans in Ireland Scoto-Norman, the Normans in Scotland
The Hohenstaufen known as Staufer, were a dynasty of German kings during the Middle Ages. Before ascending to the kingship, they were Dukes of Swabia from 1079; as kings of Germany, they had a claim to Italy and the Holy Roman Empire. Three members of the dynasty—Frederick I, Henry VI and Frederick II —were crowned emperor. Besides Germany, they ruled the Kingdom of Sicily and the Kingdom of Jerusalem The dynasty is named after a castle, which in turn is named after a mountain; the names used by scholars today, are conventional and somewhat anachronistic. The name Hohenstaufen was first used in the 14th century to distinguish the "high" conical hill named Staufen in the Swabian Jura, in the district of Göppingen, from the village of the same name in the valley below; the new name was only applied to the hill castle of Staufen by historians in the 19th century, to distinguish it from other castles of the same name. The name of the dynasty followed, but in recent decades the trend in German historiography has been to prefer the name Staufer, closer to contemporary usage.
The name "Staufen" itself derives from Stauf, meaning "chalice". This term was applied to conical hills in Swabia in the Middle Ages, it is a contemporary term for both the hill and the castle, although its spelling in the Latin documents of the time varies considerably: Sthouf, Stophen, Estufin etc. The castle was built or at least acquired by Duke Frederick I of Swabia in the latter half of the 11th century. Members of the family used the toponymic surname de Stauf or variants thereof. Only in the 13th century does the name come to be applied to the family as a whole. Around 1215 a chronicler referred to the "emperors of Stauf". In 1247, the Emperor Frederick II himself referred to his family as the domus Stoffensis, but this was an isolated instance. Otto of Freising associated the Staufer with the town of Waiblingen and around 1230 Burchard of Ursberg referred to the Staufer as of the "royal lineage of the Waiblingens"; the exact connection between the family and Waiblingen is not clear, but as a name for the family it became popular.
The pro-imperial Ghibelline faction of the Italian civic rivalries of the 13th and 14th centuries took its name from Waiblingen. In Italian historiography, the Staufer are known as the Svevi; the noble family first appeared in the late 10th century in the Swabian Riesgau region around the former Carolingian court of Nördlingen. A local count Frederick is mentioned as progenitor in a pedigree drawn up by Abbot Wibald of Stavelot at the behest of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1153, he held the office of a Swabian count palatine. Their son Frederick I was appointed Duke of Swabia at Hohenstaufen Castle by the Salian king Henry IV of Germany in 1079. At the same time, Duke Frederick I was engaged to the king's seventeen-year-old daughter, Agnes. Nothing is known about Frederick's life before this event, but he proved to be an imperial ally throughout Henry's struggles against other Swabian lords, namely Rudolf of Rheinfelden, Frederick's predecessor, the Zähringen and Welf lords. Frederick's brother Otto was elevated to the Strasbourg bishopric in 1082.
Upon Frederick's death, he was succeeded by his son, Duke Frederick II, in 1105. Frederick II remained a close ally of the Salians, he and his younger brother Conrad were named the king's representatives in Germany when the king was in Italy. Around 1120, Frederick II married Judith of Bavaria from the rival House of Welf; when the last male member of the Salian dynasty, Emperor Henry V, died without heirs in 1125, a controversy arose about the succession. Duke Frederick II and Conrad, the two current male Staufers, by their mother Agnes, were grandsons of late Emperor Henry IV and nephews of Henry V. Frederick attempted to succeed to the throne of the Holy Roman Emperor through a customary election, but lost to the Saxon duke Lothair of Supplinburg. A civil war between Frederick's dynasty and Lothair's ended with Frederick's submission in 1134. After Lothair's death in 1137, Frederick's brother Conrad was elected King as Conrad III; because the Welf duke Henry the Proud, son-in-law and heir of Lothair and the most powerful prince in Germany, passed over in the election, refused to acknowledge the new king, Conrad III deprived him of all his territories, giving the Duchy of Saxony to Albert the Bear and that of Bavaria to Leopold IV, Margrave of Austria.
In 1147, Conrad heard Bernard of Clairvaux preach the Second Crusade at Speyer, he agreed to join King Louis VII of France in a great expedition to the Holy Land which failed. Conrad's brother Duke Frederick II died in 1147, was succeeded in Swabia by his son, Duke Frederick III; when King Conrad III died without adult heir in 1152, Frederick succeeded him, taking both German royal and Imperial titles. Frederick I, known as Frederick Barbarossa because of his red beard, struggled throughout his reign to restore the power and prestige of the German monarchy against the dukes, whose power had grown both before and after the Investiture Controversy under his Salian predecessors; as royal access to the resources of the church in Germany was much reduced, Frederick was forced to go to Italy to find the finances needed to restore the king's power in Germany. He was soon crowned emperor in Italy; the Papacy and the prosperous city-stat